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486 Author, Vol. 14 Issue 01 (October 1903)<a href="/items/browse?advanced%5B0%5D%5Belement_id%5D=49&advanced%5B0%5D%5Btype%5D=is+exactly&advanced%5B0%5D%5Bterms%5D=%3Cem%3EThe+Author%3C%2Fem%3E%2C+Vol.+14+Issue+01+%28October+1903%29"><em>The Author</em>, Vol. 14 Issue 01 (October 1903)</a><a href="/items/browse?advanced%5B0%5D%5Belement_id%5D=51&advanced%5B0%5D%5Btype%5D=is+exactly&advanced%5B0%5D%5Bterms%5D=Publication">Publication</a>1903-10-01-The-Author-14-1<a href="/items/browse?advanced%5B0%5D%5Belement_id%5D=76&advanced%5B0%5D%5Btype%5D=is+exactly&advanced%5B0%5D%5Bterms%5D=1903-10-01">1903-10-01</a><a href="/items/browse?advanced%5B0%5D%5Belement_id%5D=89&advanced%5B0%5D%5Btype%5D=is+exactly&advanced%5B0%5D%5Bterms%5D=14">14</a>11–2819031001The Huthor.<br /> <br /> (The Organ of the Incorporated Society of Authors. Monthly.)<br /> <br /> FOUNDED BY SIR WALTER BESANT.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Vou. XTV.—No. 1.<br /> <br /> THE TELEPHONE.<br /> <br /> +<br /> <br /> THE Telephone connection has now been estab-<br /> lished, and the Society’s number is—<br /> <br /> 374 VICTORIA.<br /> —————_+—&gt;—+_____<br /> NOTICES.<br /> <br /> +<br /> <br /> OR the opinions expressed in papers that are<br /> K signed or initialled the authors alone are<br /> responsible. None of the papers or para-<br /> graphs must be taken as expressing the opinion<br /> of the Committee unless such is especially stated<br /> to be the case.<br /> <br /> THE Editor begs to inform members of the<br /> Authors’ Society and other readers of The Author<br /> that the cases which are from time to time quoted<br /> in The Author are cases that have come before the<br /> notice or to the knowledge of the Secretary of the<br /> Society, and that those members of the Society<br /> who desire to have the names of the publishers<br /> <br /> - concerned can obtain them on application.<br /> <br /> —_*+——+—_<br /> <br /> List of Members.<br /> <br /> THE List of Members of the Society of Authors,<br /> published October, 1902, at the price of 6d., and<br /> the elections from October, 1902 to J uly, 1903, as<br /> a supplemental list, at the price of 2d. can now be<br /> obtained at the offices of the Society.<br /> <br /> It will be sold to members or associates of the<br /> Society only.<br /> <br /> —_t——+—__<br /> <br /> The Pension Fund of the Society.<br /> <br /> THE investments of the Pension Fund at<br /> present standing in the names of the Trustees are<br /> as follows. :<br /> <br /> This is a statement of the actual stock ; the<br /> <br /> Vou, XIV.<br /> <br /> OcTOBER Ist, 1903.<br /> <br /> [PRIcE SIXPENCE.<br /> <br /> money value can be easily worked out at the current<br /> price of the market :—<br /> <br /> DOMME oie services £1000 0 0<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> iiocal Loans 3... 500 0 0<br /> <br /> Victorian Government 3 % Consoli-<br /> dated Inscribed Stock ............... 291 19 11<br /> War lvan 2.3 201-953<br /> Total, 2 36 £15993. 9. 2<br /> <br /> Subscriptions.<br /> 1903.<br /> <br /> Jan. 1, Pickthall, Marmaduke<br /> <br /> » Deane, Rev. A.C. .<br /> Jan. 4, Anonymous :<br /> <br /> + Heath, Miss Helena<br /> <br /> » Russell, G. H. ;<br /> Jan. 16, White, Mrs. Caroline<br /> <br /> » Bedford, Miss Jessie<br /> Jan. 19, Shiers-Mason, Mrs.<br /> Jan. 20, Cobbett, Miss Alice :<br /> Jan. 30, Minniken, Miss Bertha M. M.<br /> Jan. 31, Whishaw, Fred : :<br /> <br /> PRS eeHrocesoosorseoogonoocse<br /> od hh<br /> SOOWMMAH OOOO<br /> PEFFRSOSCSOSOSSSSSSOSCSCOSCCSCS<br /> <br /> Feb. 3, Reynolds, Mrs. Fred 5<br /> Feb. 1iy7lincoln, ©, ‘ 5<br /> Feb. 16, Hardy, J. Herbert . : 5<br /> » Haggard, Major Arthur . 5<br /> Feb. 23, Finnemore, John . 5<br /> Mar. 2, Moor, Mrs. St. C. . 0<br /> Mar. 5, Dutton, Mrs. Carrie 15:<br /> Api. 10, Bird, CP... : : ‘ 10<br /> Apl. 10, Campbell, Miss Montgomery . 5<br /> May Lees, R. J... : : : 1<br /> S Wright, J. Fondi 5<br /> Donations.<br /> Jan. 3, Wheelright, Miss E. 010 6<br /> 3 Middlemass. Miss Jean » 010 0<br /> Jan. 6, Avebury, The Right Hon.<br /> The Lord . : : 37) 0-0<br /> » Gribble, Francis : 010 0<br /> Jan. 13, Boddington, Miss Helen . 010 6<br /> Jan. 17, White, Mrs. Wollaston Let 0<br /> » Miller, Miss E. T. . 0 5.0<br /> Jan. 19, Kemp, Miss Geraldine 010 6<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> £ s. a.<br /> Jan. 20, Sheldon, Mrs. French 0 5 0<br /> Jan. 29, Roe, Mrs. Harcourt 010 0<br /> Feb. 9, Sherwood, Mrs. : 010 6<br /> Feb. 16, Hocking, The Rey. Silas 11.0<br /> Feb. 18, Boulding, J. W. 010 6<br /> 5, Ord, Hubert H. - 010 9<br /> Feb. 20, Price, Miss Eleanor 010 0<br /> » Carlile, Rev. aC. 010 O<br /> Feb. 24, Dixon, Mrs. 5 0 0<br /> Feb. 26, Speakman, Mrs. - 010 0<br /> Mar. 5, Parker, Mrs. N ella 010 0<br /> Mar. 16, Hallward, N.L. . J 1.0<br /> Mar. 20, Henry, Miss Alice . 0 5 0<br /> » Mathieson, Miss Annie . . 010 0<br /> <br /> ;, Browne, &#039;T. A. (“ Rolfe Boldre-<br /> wood”) . : : _ tL 20<br /> Mar. 23, Ward, Mrs. Humphry _. 10 0 0<br /> Apl. 2, Hutton, The Rev. W. H. 2 0 0<br /> Apl. 14, Tournier, Theodore 0 5 0<br /> May King, Paul H. : : 2 010 0<br /> Wynne, Charles Whitworth .10 0 0<br /> » 21, Orred J. Randal 148<br /> June 12, Colles, W. Morris . -10 0 0<br /> » Bateman, Stringer . . 010 6<br /> » Anon 0 5 0<br /> <br /> The following members have also made subscrip-<br /> tions or donations :—<br /> <br /> Meredith, George, President of the Society.<br /> <br /> Thompson, Sir Henry, Bart., F.R.C.S,<br /> <br /> Rashdall, The Rev. H.<br /> <br /> Guthrie, Anstey.<br /> <br /> Robertson, C. B.<br /> <br /> Dowsett, C. F.<br /> <br /> There are in addition other subscribers who do<br /> not desire that, either their names or the amount<br /> they are subscribing should be printed.<br /> <br /> —_—_—_+——_+______<br /> <br /> FROM THE COMMITTEE.<br /> <br /> —_——_—_—_ ++<br /> <br /> HE last meeting of the Committee before<br /> the vacation was held at 39, Old Queen<br /> Street, Storey’s Gate, 8.W., on Wednesday,<br /> <br /> July 8th. Twelve members and associates were<br /> elected, Their names and addresses are set forth<br /> below.<br /> <br /> Other matters connected with the business of<br /> the Society during the vacation, and with the<br /> Besant Memorial were settled.<br /> <br /> Tn addition it was decided to take up a case on<br /> behalf of one of the members against a prominent<br /> publisher who had failed to meet his account.<br /> This case has since been settled—the publisher<br /> has paid up in full.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> Cases.<br /> <br /> Tye last issue of the cases taken up by the<br /> Society on behalf of its members was published<br /> in the June number. That took the list for the<br /> present year down to the middle of May. The<br /> present record therefore covers the four months,<br /> June, July, August, and September. Thirty cases<br /> have been taken up. Of these, thirteen have been<br /> for the return of MSS. ; nine for the payment of<br /> money due; two for money and accounts ; four<br /> for accounts only; and the remaining two for<br /> matters connected with literary property and<br /> copyright.<br /> <br /> Tn ten cases, owing to the prompt attention of<br /> the editors to the secretary&#039;s request, the MSS.<br /> were at once returned and forwarded to the<br /> authors. In the other three cases the editors were<br /> unable to find the MSS. As there was no evidence<br /> forthcoming of neglect, or in fact that the MSS.<br /> had actually reached the office, the cases could not<br /> be taken further. Of the cases for money, five<br /> have been successful. The remaining four are<br /> still open, but there is every prospect that they<br /> will terminate satisfactorily. In one case however,<br /> it is probable that the editor will become bankrupt.<br /> Of the claims for account two have been terminated,<br /> the accounts having been rendered ; and two are<br /> still open. The two cases of money and accounts,<br /> owing to the fact that no satisfactory answer could<br /> be obtained, were placed in the hands of the<br /> Society’s solicitors. One case is still pending in<br /> the Courts. In the other case (against a well<br /> known publisher), the amount was paid with costs.<br /> The other two cases referred to as dealing with<br /> literary property have terminated satisfactorily.<br /> <br /> —<br /> <br /> July Elections.<br /> <br /> Ady, Mrs. Henry (Julta Ockham, Ripley, Surrey.<br /> Cartwright<br /> <br /> Corby, Miss E. Esker, Killucan, West-<br /> <br /> meath.<br /> Freed, Thomas, A. H. . Box 76, Nelson, New<br /> Zealand.<br /> Hodgson, Mrs. Wil- By-the-Sea, Exmouth.<br /> loughby<br /> Keene, Mrs. . Quetta, Balmenstan,<br /> India.<br /> <br /> 25, St. Thomas Street,<br /> Grosvenor Square, W.<br /> <br /> Grosvenor House, Gros-<br /> yenor Square, South-<br /> ampton.<br /> <br /> Ardblair Castle, Blair-<br /> gowrie, N.B.<br /> <br /> Korbay, Francis -<br /> Mocatta, Mrs. Mary A.<br /> <br /> Oliphant, Capt. P. L. K.<br /> Blair (Philip Laurence<br /> Oliphant)<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> ee ee<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR. 3<br /> <br /> Rogers, Mrs. Fanny . Cape Town, South<br /> Africa.<br /> Russell, Fox : oo Garden Court,<br /> Temple, E.C.<br /> Shepheard-Walwyn, Dalwhinnie, Kenley,<br /> H. W., F.Z.8., F.E.S, Surrey.<br /> Vacaresco, Madame . 17, Rue de P Arcade,<br /> Paris ; Vacaresis,<br /> Roumania.<br /> Oo?<br /> <br /> OUR BOOK AND PLAY TALK.<br /> <br /> +<br /> <br /> POPULAR edition of Sir Lewis Morris’s<br /> “Epic of Hades,” at 1s. 6d. nett, is<br /> announced by Messrs. Kegan Paul &amp; Co,<br /> <br /> for October 1st. Though twenty-seven years have<br /> elapsed since the publication of this poem, which<br /> has gone, we believe, through forty-five editions,<br /> this is the first edition to appeal to the masses, who<br /> it is hoped will appreciate the great reduction in<br /> price now made.<br /> <br /> Sir Lewis Morris has decided to include the<br /> story of “ Niobe,” which has hitherto been published<br /> separately, in the present issue, the entire text of<br /> which he has finally corrected. The poem in<br /> question has a new introduction in verse specially<br /> written by the poet.<br /> <br /> A new and augmented edition of Dr. Richard<br /> Garnett’s, ‘The Twilight of the Gods,” has been<br /> issued by Mr. John Lane. The dedication reads :<br /> ‘To Horace Howard Furness and George Brandes.<br /> Dabo duobus testibus meis.? The first edition of<br /> these tales was published in 1888. It contained<br /> sixteen stories, to which twelve are added in the<br /> present impression.<br /> <br /> This volume is the most personally illuminating,<br /> the most characteristic Dr. Garnett has given us .<br /> and that is to say it is well worth reading, and<br /> worth buying for our “ best books” collection.<br /> <br /> The Syndicate of the Cambridge University<br /> Press propose to publish in the course of the<br /> autumn a comprehensive work on the “ History of<br /> Classical Scholarship,” which has been prepared by<br /> the Public Orator, Dr. Sandys. It extends from<br /> about 600 B.c. to the end of the Middle Ages, and<br /> Consists of more than thirty chapters distributed<br /> over six books, dealing with the «“ History of<br /> Scholarship in the Athenian and the Alexandrian<br /> ages ; ”“ The Roman age of Latin and Greek Litera-<br /> ture” ; “ The Byzantine Age” ; and “ The Middle<br /> Ages in the West of Europe.” The text, which fills<br /> six hundred and fifty crown octavo pages (exclusive<br /> of the index), will be accompanied by chronological<br /> <br /> tables, facsimiles from Greek and Latin manuscripts<br /> and other illustrations,<br /> <br /> Colonel Haggard’s new book, “ Sidelights on the<br /> Court of France,” will be issned immediately by<br /> Messrs. Hutchinson, the period treated of being<br /> that from the reign of Francis I. to the death of<br /> Louis XIII., and of course including Henry of<br /> Navarre. Prominence ig given to such characters<br /> as Diana of Poitiers, Marguerite de Valois,<br /> Richelieu and Mazarin. The book is very fully<br /> illustrated.<br /> <br /> Professor Skeat has this year re-issued his text<br /> of “ Havelock the Dane” ; it was formerly printed<br /> for the Early English Text Society, and ‘has ever<br /> since been the standard edition. ‘It is now issued<br /> by the Clarendon Press in a revised and augmented,<br /> but cheaper form, with a preface that contains all<br /> the important criticisms of the poem up to the<br /> present date.<br /> <br /> Professor Skeat is also greatly interested in<br /> looking over the sheets of the « English Dialect<br /> Dictionary ” and making a few suggestions by way<br /> of addition. This important work, edited by Pro-<br /> fessor Wright, of Oxford, is making satisfactory<br /> progress. It is now in type nearly to the end of<br /> the letter Y. Professor Skeat takes special interest<br /> in it, as he was the founder, first secretary, and<br /> finally the director of the English Dialect Society,<br /> which in the course of twenty-four years (1873—<br /> 1896) collected and printed some eighty volumes,<br /> thus providing sufficient material to make a founda-<br /> tion for Professor Wright’s further labours,<br /> <br /> A good deal of Professor Skeat’s time is taken<br /> up with attempts to discover or verify the etymolo-<br /> gies of difficult English words, with the view of<br /> rendering some small assistance to the editor of<br /> the “ New English Dictionary.” A few of the latest<br /> results have lately been printed for the Philological<br /> Society of London, but have not yet been issued,<br /> <br /> Dr. Alexander Rattray’s new work, “Divine<br /> Hygiene, or the Sanitary Science of the Sacred<br /> Scriptures” (Nisbet &amp; Co., two vols.) is well<br /> through the printer’s hands, and may be expected<br /> soon. Besides the main theme, the object is the<br /> advocacy of the Holy Bible as the great educational<br /> handbook for humanity ; our pioneer informant in<br /> many subjects ; sole teacher in others ; and its<br /> science and philosophy, though humanly speaking<br /> ancient, not antiquated as often represented, but<br /> advanced. Though professionally treated it is<br /> popularly written, strictly Evangelical, practically<br /> exhaustive, and a vindication of Christianity.<br /> <br /> Mr. Ferrar Fenton, F.R.A.S., is about to issue<br /> a translation of the “ Psalms, Solomon, and<br /> Sacred Writers,” in the original metres, but in<br /> modern English ; and also his “Complete Bible”<br /> <br /> <br /> 4<br /> <br /> in modern English. The publishers are Messrs.<br /> S. W. Partridge &amp; Co., of Paternoster Row,<br /> London, E.C. Their Majesties, King Edward<br /> and the German Emperor have intimated that they<br /> will be pleased to accept presentation copies.<br /> <br /> Mr, Justice Condé Williams, of the Supreme<br /> Court of Mauritius, who read _a paper some time<br /> ago at the Royal Colonial Institute on “ The<br /> Future of our Sugar Producing Colonies,” is about<br /> to publish an autobiography under the title of<br /> “From Journalist to Judge.”<br /> <br /> Judge Williams was editor of the Birmingham<br /> Daily Gazette in succession to Dr. Sebastian Evans,<br /> and was for a short period a member of the staff<br /> of the Zimes in Paris. His judicial experiences<br /> extend to South Africa, the West Indies and<br /> Mauritius.<br /> <br /> From Journalist to Judge” will be published<br /> by Mr. G. A. Morton, of 42, George Street, Edin-<br /> burgh.<br /> <br /> “Romantic Tales from the Punjab” (Con-<br /> stable), is the second and final instalment of a<br /> body of Indian stories collected by the Rev.<br /> Charles Swynnerton, on the North-West frontier of<br /> India, of which “Indian Night’s Entertainment ”<br /> (Stock), published ten years ago, was the first.<br /> Tt consists of the more important legends, and is<br /> adorned with over one hundred illustrations by<br /> native hands.<br /> <br /> The longest and most important legend is that<br /> of Raja Rasalu, consisting of twelve separate<br /> stories, each complete in itself, as spoken and<br /> sung by one or other of the three Punjabi bards,<br /> Sharaf and Jama of the Rawal Pindi District, and<br /> Sher of the Hazara District—with the exception of<br /> the first and last stories of the twelve, which,<br /> though mainly attributable to Sharaf, contain a<br /> few details from other story-tellers.<br /> <br /> The rest of the legends in the book, as “ Hir and<br /> Ranjha,” are also of great importance and most<br /> interesting ; while as well there are several short<br /> stories, a careful introduction, and an appendix<br /> containing many notes, and a selection of Punjabi<br /> verses in original from “ Hir and Ranjha,” with<br /> literal translations, and notes philological and<br /> explanatory.<br /> <br /> Professor G. F. Savage-Armstrong, author of<br /> “Stories of Wicklow” and “Ballads of Down,”<br /> is completing a novel which deals with Irish life<br /> in the nineteenth century. He is also writing<br /> miscellaneous poems for publication in volume<br /> form.<br /> <br /> Miss Rosa Nouchette Carey’s new novel “A<br /> Passage Perilous” (Macmillan) has made an<br /> excellent start, the sales of the first edition before<br /> publication being most satisfactory.<br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> Miss Evelyn Sharp’s latest story, to be pub-<br /> lished immediately by Messrs. Macmillan, is called<br /> “The Children Who Ran Away.” It is meant to<br /> appeal to children about the same age as those who<br /> liked “The Youngest Girl in the School.” This<br /> latter popular story, by the way, is probably going<br /> to be translated into Italian. Miss Sharp’s “ ‘Three<br /> Story Readers,” published last spring, are doing<br /> well. They consist of very easy stories (original,<br /> of course), for children who only just know how to<br /> read, and the stories are just stories, and not<br /> directly instructive in any way: nothing about<br /> them suggests the lesson book.<br /> <br /> Hope Rea, author of “Tuscan Artists,” “* Dona-<br /> tello,” etc., has just completed for Messrs. George<br /> Bell &amp; Son, the “ Rembrandt” for their miniature<br /> series of the Painters. Hope Rea has arranged to<br /> spend the coming winter in Italy for the purpose<br /> of farther study and research connected with<br /> Italian art, and to supplement the material already<br /> acquired for a larger work on medieval and early<br /> Renaissance Art, which this writer has had on<br /> hand for some time.<br /> <br /> The Clarendon Press is publishing “ Selected<br /> Drawings from old Masters in the University<br /> Galleries, and in the Library at Christ Church,<br /> Oxford.” Part I. contains twenty drawings<br /> exactly reproduced in collotype. They are chosen<br /> and described by Mr. Sidney Colvin, Keeper of<br /> Prints and Drawings in the British Museum.<br /> <br /> Messrs. Macmillan &amp; Co. have decided to make<br /> their edition of “Thackeray’s Works” absolutely<br /> exhaustive. They have secured the services of the<br /> well-known Thackeray expert, Mr. Lewis Melville,<br /> author of the “Life of William Makepeace<br /> Thackeray,” etc. With his assistance they pro-<br /> pose to include in this edition a great number of<br /> scattered pieces from Thackeray’s pen, and illus-<br /> trations from his pencil, which have not hitherto<br /> been contained in any collected edition, and many<br /> of which have never been reprinted.<br /> <br /> Mr. Melville is also collating the volumes with<br /> the original editions, and providing bibliographical<br /> introductions and occasional footnotes.<br /> <br /> Mrs. Stepney Rawson’s new noyel will be pub-<br /> lished by Messrs. Hutchinson. It is a romance of<br /> the Romney Marsh and of Rye Town. The action<br /> takes place about 1820, and deals with the warfare<br /> of the landowners and the harbour folk of the<br /> Marsh at Rye, and also with the shipbuilding<br /> industry there, which has since dwindled. There<br /> is a strong love interest, and the story principally<br /> hangs on the personality of a young designer of<br /> boats and ships, who is apprenticed to the chief<br /> shipbuilder of the town.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR. 5<br /> <br /> Mrs. Rawson, who is peculiarly sensitive to the<br /> atmosphere of Place, has devoted herself to this<br /> little corner of Sussex which she finds packed with<br /> delightful traditions. She has written a number of<br /> stories of new and old Rye; these she hopes to<br /> publish in volume form later on.<br /> <br /> Mr. Hume Nisbet has been travelling for the past<br /> two years, and has been collecting material for<br /> future work. His next romance “The Trust<br /> Trappers ” will be published by Mr. J ohn Long in<br /> the spring of 1904. It deals with millionaires and<br /> corner syndicates. Besides being engaged upon an<br /> Australian romance, Mr. Nisbet is writing his auto-<br /> biography as author, artist and traveller. The<br /> author of “ A Colonial Tramp” has gone through<br /> many adventures by land and sea. This auto-<br /> biography will be profusely illustrated by himself.<br /> <br /> A new edition of “ The Care of Infants” by Dr.<br /> Sophia Jex-Blake will be published immediately by<br /> Mr. George Morton, of Edinburgh, as the first<br /> edition of 5,000 copies has been out of print for<br /> some little time.<br /> <br /> Mr. Bram Stoker’s new novel “The Jewel of<br /> Seven Stars” will be published this month by Mr.<br /> Heinemann. It is something in the vein of<br /> “ Dracula,” and part of it deals with the mysteries<br /> of ancient Egypt.<br /> <br /> Mr. Arthur A. Sykes’s collection of humorous<br /> and satirical pieces from Punch will be published<br /> this month by Messrs. Bradbury and Agnew, under<br /> the title of “Mr. Punch’s Museum, and Other<br /> Matters.” Mr. Sykes has previously brought out<br /> two volumes of reprints from the same source—<br /> “A Book of Words,” and “ Without Permission.”<br /> The book will also contain “ Life’s Little Pro-<br /> blems,” a semi-burlesque series which appeared in<br /> Pearson&#039;s Magazine a short while ago.<br /> <br /> Miss Edith ©. Kenyon is publishing a book<br /> through the Religious Tract Society entitled “A<br /> Queen of Nine Days, by her Gentlewoman Margaret<br /> Brown.” The central figure is Lady Jane Grey,<br /> and the story is told by a young lady who enters<br /> her service and remains faithful to her.<br /> <br /> Rita’s next novel “The Jesters,” will appear in<br /> the early autumn. Messrs. Hutchinson &amp; Oo. will<br /> publish it. Rita purposes spending the winter in<br /> South Cornwall to complete further work on which<br /> she is engaged.<br /> <br /> Miss O’Conor Eccles has recently published<br /> through Falion &amp; Co., of Dublin, a “ Reading Book<br /> on Domestic Economy for the Use of Irish Schools,”<br /> which is to be adopted by the Board of Education.<br /> It takes the form of a little story, and contains<br /> such simple, practical instructions as a good<br /> mother of the working-class would give her young<br /> daughter. :<br /> <br /> The Department of Agriculture has presented a<br /> copy to every village library in Ireland. The<br /> Technical Schools of France and Belgium have<br /> long had delightful illustrated primers dealing with<br /> Household Management, Hygiene, Gardening,<br /> Dairy Work, and rural life generally, treated on<br /> similar lines ; but, so far as we know, the volume<br /> referred to is the first of the kind introduced into<br /> schools in the United Kingdom.<br /> <br /> Mr. J. Beattie-Crozier’s “Civilisation and Pro-<br /> gress’ has been translated into Japanese by a<br /> Member of Parliament of Japan.<br /> <br /> We understand from Mr. Leonard Williams that<br /> he has been elected a corresponding member of the<br /> Royal Spanish Academy.<br /> <br /> ‘Fishing in Wales,” by Walter M. Gallichan<br /> (Geoffrey Mortimer) which was published a<br /> few months ago, is to be re-issued in a new edition,<br /> with a map and index. This author is writing a<br /> handbook on “ Angling” for Messrs. Pearson’s<br /> Popular Series; and he is publishing a volume on<br /> “Seville” in the Medieval Towns Series during<br /> the autumn.<br /> <br /> Early this month Mr. G. A. Morton will publish<br /> a book by Mr. Robert Aitken entitled “ Windfalls,”<br /> the contents being “Some Stray Leaves Gathered<br /> by a Rolling Stone.”<br /> <br /> Mr. Frankfort Moore’s new novel, “ Shipmates<br /> in Sunshine” (Hutchinson), is an open-air story,<br /> the action taking place on board ship and in the<br /> West Indies.<br /> <br /> Mr. Cutcliffe Hyne’s “‘McTodd” is a volume<br /> of stories published the other day by Messrs.<br /> Macmillan. McTodd is a ship’s engineer, Scotch,<br /> drunken, pugnacious, uncertificated, but a good<br /> mechanician. He relates his various adventures<br /> in the far north, on whaling trips, on shipboard,<br /> or in towns that reek of fish-curing. Need we<br /> say that McTodd has a conscience—of a kind !<br /> <br /> Miss Jetta S. Wolff has just published “Les<br /> Francais d’Autrefois,” Vol. I.—a short history of<br /> France, intended for learners of the language<br /> (Edwin Arnold). Miss Wolff has also lately<br /> written a series of object lessons in practical<br /> French, with a companion yolume containing<br /> translations and notes, ‘intended as a hand-book<br /> for teachers (Blackie &amp; Son). These, and a new<br /> collection of her little stories from the “ Lives<br /> of Saiuts and Mariyrs” (Mowbray), will appear<br /> shortly.<br /> <br /> Madame Mijatovich has been busy with the<br /> preparation of a second edition of her work, “The<br /> History of Modern Servia,” which was published a<br /> good aany years ago. She has now brought the<br /> history up to the accession of King Peter.<br /> Madame Mijatovitch is translating the Servian<br /> <br /> <br /> 6<br /> <br /> popular ballads on “ Kralyevitch Marko” (the<br /> King’s son Marko), who is the national hero of the<br /> Servians.<br /> <br /> «The Padre,” by Rose Harrison, author of<br /> “Esther Alington,” honorary secretary of the<br /> Children’s Protection League, will be ready in<br /> October. This is a story “ dedicated to all who<br /> live and work and love the Brotherhood.” _ Price<br /> 35. 6d. Itis being published by Richard J. James,<br /> 3 &amp; 4, London House Yard, E.C.<br /> <br /> It is authoritatively announced that six years ago<br /> the late Pope Leo XIII. charged Count Soderini<br /> with the task of writing a history of his pontificate.<br /> While leaving the Count entire freedom of judg-<br /> ment, the Pope placed numberless documents<br /> hitherto wholly secret at the writer’s disposal, and<br /> also dictated much material in explanation of his<br /> acts. Mr. F. Marion Crawford is acting in col-<br /> Jaboration with Count Soderini in the preparation<br /> of the Anglo-American edition, which will be<br /> published in London and New York by Messrs.<br /> Macmillan &amp; Co. The work will appear in all<br /> countries in 1904.<br /> <br /> Mrs. Humphry Ward has signed a contract<br /> with Messrs. Harper for her new story, which will<br /> begin to appear in Harper’s Magazine in June<br /> next, The original play written by Mrs. Ward,<br /> in collaboration with Mr. Louis Parker, is to be<br /> produced during the winter season in New York,<br /> with Miss Eleanor Robson in the leading part.<br /> “ Bleanor” is also to be produced in New York<br /> during November, and Mrs. Ward is now revising<br /> the play.<br /> <br /> Anthony Hope has finished a story, which will<br /> be published by Messrs. Hutchinson next year,<br /> entitled “ Double Harness.” Anthony Hope’s new<br /> comedy, “ Captain Dieppe,” founded on a story of<br /> his, and written in collaboration with Mr. Harrison<br /> G. Rhodes, is to be produced in America this<br /> autumn.<br /> <br /> Mr. Cosmo Hamilton has just published, through<br /> Messrs. Hurst and Blackett, a book called “‘ Cupid in<br /> Many Moods.” Isbister &amp; Co. is bringing out, at<br /> an early date, a novelised version of the play<br /> produced last September at the Comedy Theatre,<br /> “The Wisdom of Folly”; and a serious effort of<br /> Mr. Hamilton’s, “We of Adam’s Clay,” occupies a<br /> large portion of this month’s Smart Set, afterwards<br /> to make its appearance in book form simultaneously<br /> here and in America.<br /> <br /> Mr. Cosmo Hamilton’s dramatic version of<br /> Kipling’s “Story of the Gadsby’s” is the next<br /> production at the Haymarket. At present this<br /> busy author is hard at work on some commissions<br /> for plays. In two plays Mr. Hamilton is col-<br /> <br /> laborating with his wife, Miss Beryl Faber, the<br /> actress.<br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> Mr. H. V. Esmond’s new comedy, “ Billy’s<br /> Little Love Affair,” is going well at The Criterion<br /> Theatre. It is preceded by Miss Rosina Filippi’s<br /> charming playlet, “The Mirror.”<br /> <br /> On Thursday evening, September 10th, 1903,<br /> Mr. Beerbohm Tree produced at His Majesty’s<br /> Theatre Shakespeare’s historical play,“ Richard IT.”<br /> It is a brilliant revival in every sense of the word.<br /> Mr. Tree has specially acknowledged his indebted-<br /> ness to Mr. Percy Anderson, who has designed and<br /> supervised the costumes; and to Mr. G. Ambrose<br /> Lee, of the Heralds’ College, who has directed the<br /> heraldry and ceremonial.<br /> <br /> We understand that some pupils of the Brussels,<br /> Antwerp and Bruges high schools are coming over<br /> to see this revival of “ Richard II.” The play has<br /> been selected as a subject for examination this<br /> year by the Belgian educational authorities.<br /> <br /> a<br /> <br /> PARIS NOTES.<br /> <br /> ee<br /> <br /> bee winter season seems likely to be one of<br /> great activity in the literary world, while<br /> the length of the theatrical programmes is<br /> alarming. So many new plays are announced that<br /> dramatic critics will certainly not have much rest.<br /> <br /> The recent death of M. Gustave Larroumet is<br /> a great loss to the world of letters. For some<br /> years M. Larroumet lectured on French literature<br /> at the Sorbonne. He wrote in the Revue Bleue,,<br /> the Revue des Deux-Mondes, the Revue de Paris,<br /> and the Temps. His work on the life and theatre<br /> of Moliére is a most complete criticism, but the<br /> book which was perhaps his greatest success was<br /> the one he consecrated to Marivaux.<br /> <br /> The death of another literary critic is just<br /> announced, a man whose name is perhaps nob<br /> widely known, but who was one of the interesting<br /> personalities of the Sainte-Beuve literary circle.<br /> M. Jules Levallois, who has just passed away, was<br /> Sainte-Beuve’s secretary. He worked, not only at<br /> the ‘‘ Lundis,” but also at the invaluable book on<br /> Port-Royal. In his day, M. Levallois was a great.<br /> authority on current literature. In the paper<br /> founded by Adolphe Guéroult he wrote the<br /> “ Variétés littéraires,” and his book reviews were<br /> considered as highly as Sarcey’s dramatic criti-<br /> cisms, Jules Levallois had almost outlived the<br /> group of literary friends he knew in the days of<br /> Sainte-Beuve, the de Goncourt brothers, Barbey<br /> d’Aurévilly, Alphonse Daudet, Hector Malot,<br /> Flaubert, About, and others. He retained his keen<br /> intelligence to the last, and_was as bright and<br /> active as a young man. He was a voracious<br /> <br /> reader, and only a few months ago he expressed<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR. 7<br /> <br /> his thankfulness that his eyesight was so good,<br /> He was then collecting a provision of books in the<br /> library of a mutual friend, and regretting that in<br /> our times people had given up reading, He<br /> belonged essentially to the old school, to the days<br /> when men had time to meet together and “ talk<br /> literature,” and his conversation was worth listen-<br /> ing to. One felt in his presence something of the<br /> atmosphere of the men of intellect with whom he<br /> had associated, for his memories and reminiscences<br /> were a part of himself, and gave a great charm to<br /> all that he said.<br /> <br /> A most interesting book has recently been pub-<br /> lished entitled “ Idées Sociales et Faits Sociaux.”<br /> It contains several lectures which were given last<br /> winter at the house of the Baroness Piérard.<br /> <br /> “ Le Socialisme et son Evolution” is the title<br /> of the lecture by M. Souchon, who tells us that the<br /> idea of socialism is as old as humanity. He traces<br /> it back to the Grecians and Romans, and shows<br /> the various stages through which it has passed.<br /> <br /> “ L’Organisation Professionnelle” is the practical<br /> side of the question, and this is a very thoughtful<br /> article. The most interesting chapter in the book<br /> is the one by M. Riviere, “Vingt Ans de Vie<br /> Sociale.” This is not so much an exposition of<br /> theories as a statement of experiences. M. Riviére<br /> is a practical man, who for the last twenty years<br /> has been watching the results of his own experi-<br /> ments, and who has discovered for the wheels of<br /> his machinery an excellent receipt for oil;<br /> “ Beaucoup de patience, non moins de fermeté, pas<br /> mal de respect pour la liberté de louvrier, avec<br /> addition de justice généreuse, affectueuse méme.”<br /> <br /> A volume of short stories and sketches by<br /> M. Georges Clemenceau, entitled “Aux Embus-<br /> cades de la Vie,” is well worth reading.<br /> <br /> There are in all some fifty stories arranged in<br /> three divisions: “Dans la Foi,” “Dans l’Ordre<br /> Etabli,” and “Dans l’Amour.”<br /> <br /> The subjects are all delicately handled, the<br /> stories themselves light, but there is much to read<br /> between the lines. In “Le Fétiche de Mokou-<br /> bamba,” we have a poor negro who is converted<br /> and reconverted times without number to the<br /> various beliefs and religions of the people who<br /> take an interest in him.<br /> <br /> Then there is a story of a German pastor who<br /> is unfortunate enough to wake up to the idea that<br /> there is no devil. His wife is horrified and thinks<br /> it her duty to leave him, and the members of his<br /> congregation decide that he must be an atheist.<br /> <br /> There is a most amusing story, too, of a poacher,<br /> which serves to show up the absurdity of certain<br /> laws. Another excellent study is “Justin<br /> Cagnard,” a type of the man who works mechanic-<br /> ally. He is described as a “ produit de l’accu-<br /> mulation quotidienne du labeur ancestral obstiné<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> dans le méme sillon. Il était le rouage d’une<br /> machine dont l’impulsion venait uniquement de la<br /> Vitesse acquise des anciens. II n’était ni intelligent,<br /> puisqu’il ne concevait rien au deli de son métier,<br /> ni béte puisque’il suivait avec suects la routine<br /> des affaires... .” The whole volume is full of<br /> the thoughts and reflections of a keen observer of<br /> human nature,<br /> <br /> “Chez les Rois” is another book of short<br /> stories by Adolphe Aderer. The first of thege<br /> stories is, however, not fiction. It is entitled<br /> “ Meyerling,” and is supposed to be a true account<br /> of the celebrated tragedy of the Archduke Rudolf,<br /> The other sketches in the book are more or less<br /> improbable. ‘<br /> <br /> In “Sébastien Trume,” the new novel by M.<br /> Sauvage, we are introduced to a number of indivi-<br /> duals who are all in search of Utopia. Among<br /> them we havea man devoted to the occult sciences,<br /> a priest, a professor who is also a philosopher, an<br /> anarchist and a young man who listens to the<br /> theories and ideas of all the others, and can come<br /> to no conclusion about life and_ its meaning.<br /> When he is in despair, he is fortunate enough to<br /> fall in love with a young girl, who proves to him<br /> that in spite of all worries and difficulties life is<br /> well worth living.<br /> <br /> “Les Gens de Tiest,” by George Vires, is a book<br /> without any strong plot, and is only interesting<br /> as a study of life and customs in a quaint little<br /> Belgian town.<br /> <br /> “ Les Oiseaux s’envolent et les Fleurs tombent ”<br /> is the poetical title of the novel recently published<br /> by M. Elémir Bourges, one of the members of the<br /> Goncourt Academy, We are told that M. Bourges<br /> Spends about ten years in writing a book, and<br /> certainly these five hundred pages must have<br /> required a great amount of time. The scene is<br /> laid in Russia about the year 1845, and the whole<br /> story is full of action. It is distinctly melo-<br /> dramatic, treating of jealousy, the abduction of a<br /> child, and of a boy who is a Grand Duke, but grows<br /> up to manhood, believing himself to be a very ordi-<br /> nary individual. He is discovered asa Communist<br /> after the war of 1870, and destined by his parents<br /> to marry a princess, who proves to be the very<br /> girl with whom he has already fallen in love. The<br /> whole book is full of startling incidents, inter-<br /> spersed with a certain amount of philosophy.<br /> <br /> M. de Réenier’s novel « Mariage de Minuit,” is<br /> disappointing. One expects, perhaps, too much<br /> from a poet, and the tone of this book is distinctly<br /> common-place. It is just the story of a young<br /> orphan girl left without any means of support.<br /> A coasin takes compassion on her and offers her<br /> a home. This cousin is a widow and a woman<br /> of the world, Her reputation is not spotless,<br /> and the young girl’s,position is therefore extremely<br /> <br /> <br /> 8<br /> <br /> difficult. The characters are well drawn, but most<br /> of them are 80 uninteresting and vulgar that one<br /> regrets making their acquaintance. On the whole,<br /> there does not seem to be any raison d’ étre for a<br /> book of this kind.<br /> <br /> M. André Hallays has recently published a<br /> book entitled “A travers la France.” It is com-<br /> posed of notes taken during a ramble through<br /> Normandy, Touraine, Burgundy, and Provence.<br /> It is full of historical anecdotes and legends<br /> belonging to the places visited, so that it is an<br /> invaluable guide to anyone making a study of<br /> provincial France. :<br /> <br /> “Une Vie d’ambassadrice au siecle dernier,” by<br /> M. Ernest Davdet, is the biography of the Princess<br /> de Lieven, the celebrated woman who was so well<br /> known in French, Russian and English political<br /> circles from 1825 to 1857. The book is as<br /> interesting aS any novel, giving as it does so<br /> many anecdotes about the men and women of that<br /> epoch.<br /> <br /> Seyeral new writers are coming to the front, and<br /> among them M. Charles Recolin. “ Le Chemin<br /> du Roi,” by this author is a decided success. It<br /> is a story in which all the characters live. ‘Fhe<br /> theme is by no means new but it is worked out<br /> well. Andrette Jouanollou comes of a family<br /> which for more than four hundred years has lived<br /> in the Pyrenees. Her father is an artist whose<br /> two great interests in life are his daughter and his<br /> pottery. Andrette has been educated well, and<br /> has great talent as a poetess. A young farmer iS<br /> in love with her, but she ig romantic and dreads<br /> the thought of a prosaic existence. Just at this<br /> critical time a Parisian comes to the little village.<br /> He edits a review, and is in search of information<br /> concerning certain legends. The schoolmaster<br /> introduces him to Andrette, and the sequel is that<br /> the village girl, with her fresh, romantic ideas,<br /> marries the blasé Parisian. The story reminds<br /> one of the “ Princess. of Thule,” but the French<br /> story is more subtle and the analysis of character<br /> more delicately treated.<br /> <br /> Among other new novels recently published are<br /> “Te Rival de Don Juan,” by M. Louis Bertrand ;<br /> “Tes Paradis,” by Auguste Germain ; “La Com-<br /> tesse Panier,’” by M. de Comminges 5 “ Marilisse,”<br /> by M. Marcelin ; ‘Mademoiselle de Fougeres,”<br /> by Ernest Daudet ; “ Un Menage dernier eri,” by<br /> Gyp 3 * Flamen,” by Mme. Caro.<br /> <br /> Mile. Hélene Vacaresco has ]<br /> yolume of poems entitled “ Lueurs et<br /> among which are some gems.<br /> <br /> In the action brought by M. Léon de Rosny,<br /> the Orientalist, against MM. Boex, to restrain<br /> them from using the name of J. H. Rosny in<br /> signing their literary work, the plaintiff was non-<br /> suited, The Court held that as the brothers<br /> <br /> ust published a<br /> Flammes,”<br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> Rosny had used that pen-name for seventeen years<br /> without any protest from M. Léon de Rosny, and<br /> that as their publications were of an entirely<br /> different nature from his, there could be no con-<br /> fusion caused by the brothers Rosny continuing<br /> to sign the name they had adopted.<br /> <br /> A literary convention has been concluded<br /> between France and Montenegro for a period of<br /> ten years. The two governments undertake to<br /> prevent any illicit reproduction of artistic and<br /> literary works on their respective territories.<br /> <br /> M. ‘Liebler has made arrangements with M.<br /> Henry Bataille for the production of this author’s<br /> new five-act play, “ Mademoiselle de la Valliere,” in<br /> se York. he piece is to be put on in London<br /> also.<br /> <br /> The principal play at the Sarah<br /> Theatre this winter will be “ La Sorciére,” by<br /> M. Sardou. The scene is laid in Toledo during<br /> the troubled times of the struggles with the<br /> Moors. The first night is announced for the end<br /> of November.<br /> <br /> M. Bour, who ran the International Theatre in<br /> Paris last year, has now taken over the Trianon<br /> Theatre and made arrangements for producing<br /> some extremely interesting new plays. He opens<br /> with one by M. Paul Loyson, the son of Pere<br /> Hyacinthe.<br /> <br /> M. Porel has a very long programme for us this<br /> season, and Madame Réjane has some important<br /> creations. Among the new pieces are “ Antoinette<br /> Sabrier,” by Romain Coolus ; “La Meilleure Part,”<br /> by MM. Pierre de Coulevain and Pierre Decourcelle ;<br /> “Tes Menottes,” by MM. Simon and Xanrof.<br /> <br /> ‘he Odeon Theatre opens with “ Resurrection,”<br /> and is soon to produce the French version of<br /> «The Second Mrs. Tanqueray,” and later on<br /> «“ Plorise Bonheur,” by M. Brisson.<br /> <br /> Auys HaLLarD.<br /> <br /> Bernhardt<br /> <br /> —__—__-—&gt; +<br /> <br /> LITERARY, DRAMATIC, AND MUSICAL<br /> PROPERTY.<br /> <br /> ——<br /> Dumas Translations.<br /> <br /> N announcement has appeared in many of the<br /> literary papers that Messrs. Methuen &amp; Co.<br /> have commenced the publication of a new<br /> <br /> English translation of the novels of Dumas, under<br /> the editorship of Mr. A. R. Allinson. The notice<br /> states that Mr. Allinson’s competence is un-<br /> questioned and that he is assisted by a group of<br /> able scholars, and ends with these words, “It is a<br /> bold scheme, and we hope Messrs. Methuen will<br /> have an immense success with it.”<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> aeons<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> “matter: out of the 18th section<br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR. 9<br /> <br /> We should hope so too, did not a letter lie before<br /> us, written by the editor, inviting the co-operation<br /> of one not unknown as a writer and translator, on<br /> the following terms—a remuneration of 2s. per<br /> thousand words, printer’s estimate of length to<br /> be taken as final, and the translation to be issued<br /> in the name of the editor (Mr. Allinson) as being<br /> generally responsible for the whole series,<br /> <br /> If we work out the sum more completely, we<br /> find that a novel of 200,000 words would bring<br /> the translator £20.<br /> <br /> We do not know whether this “bold” offer<br /> emanates from the firm of Messrs. Methuen or<br /> from Mr. Allinson. But will it be accepted ? We<br /> trust not.<br /> <br /> For if the “able scholar” is writing for a liveli-<br /> hood, he will hardly attain it at this price. If<br /> for pleasure, it is not fair that he should undersell<br /> his fellow members of the profession of letters in<br /> the labour market.<br /> <br /> It is to be observed that the translator will not<br /> even gain the merit of his work which Mr.<br /> Allinson proposes to appropriate.<br /> <br /> ———+—_<br /> <br /> The Serial Use,<br /> <br /> Tux following point merits the attention of<br /> members of the Society :—An author wrote an<br /> article for an American magazine called Outing, a<br /> periodical holding a strong position in the United<br /> States, and copyrighted on both sides of the<br /> Atlantic. The member, so far as he was concerned,<br /> had no intention whatever of transferring to the<br /> magazine a larger portion of his property than the<br /> right to produce in serial form in that paper. The<br /> article was published in due course. Imagine his<br /> astonishment, however, when, at a later date, it re-<br /> appeared in an English magazine. He put his<br /> objection before the Editor of Outing and com-<br /> plained of the use thut had been made of his MS.<br /> The Editor pointed out to him that although<br /> perhaps he had not intended to convey the whole<br /> serial use, yet he had altered the receipt that<br /> had been forwarded to him in his own hand-<br /> writing from “ All rights to your MS.” to “The<br /> right of serial use, of your MS.” without in any<br /> way limiting the serial use. The member then<br /> referred the matter to the Secretary of the Society<br /> in order to obtain a decision as to his exact legal<br /> position, and was informed that, under the circum-<br /> stances of the case, the Editor of Outing was acting<br /> entirely within his rights.<br /> <br /> The point to which the attention of members<br /> must be called is (1) to be careful when they<br /> enter into contracts with editors of magazines<br /> as to the rights which they sell ; (2) to take the<br /> of the Act by<br /> <br /> making an express contract ; and (3) to limit the<br /> express contract to serial use in one issue of the<br /> magazine.<br /> <br /> Tt was not long ago that Mr. Longman, at the<br /> meeting of the Publishers’ Association, complained<br /> of this sale without limitation of serial rights, and<br /> the serious loss that might result to a publisher<br /> who purchased the copyright without knowledge<br /> of this contract. The point was dealt with in<br /> detail in The Author.<br /> <br /> ot<br /> <br /> Nethersole +. Bell.<br /> <br /> Ty the above-named case, an action was brought<br /> by Miss Olea Nethersole for infringement of her<br /> rights ina play called Sapho,” which was written<br /> by Clyde Fitch, the well known American<br /> dramatist, and taken from Monsieur Daudet’s<br /> novel. The defendants also produced a play called<br /> “Sapho,” and put forward in their defence that<br /> their play was written in Australia in 1899, before<br /> the date of Mr. Fitch’s play, and was an adaptation<br /> from an English translation of the novel.<br /> <br /> The first point to be decided in this, as indeed in<br /> every question of infringement of copyright, is how<br /> far one play corresponds with or appears to have been<br /> taken from the other. This point must be settled<br /> on general principles, and for this reason the<br /> matter was referred to a theatrical expert, Mr.<br /> Seymour Hicks. The second question to be<br /> decided is whether the evidence shows that both<br /> plays were taken from an original source, or<br /> whether one play or, at any rate, great parts of it<br /> were taken from the other. Mr. Seymour Hicks’<br /> report has not been set forth in any of the papers,<br /> but it would appear that he had no doubt in his<br /> mind that the play of the defendants contained<br /> great portions of the action of Mr, Fitch’s play.<br /> The second question then had to be determined.<br /> Whether it was possible that the defendants could<br /> have written their play from a common origin, or<br /> whether there was any deliberate adaptation from<br /> the other work. Mr. Justice Farwell, in summing<br /> up, came to the conclusion that he was unable to<br /> accept the explanation of the defendants that<br /> nothing was taken from Mr. Fitch’s play. He<br /> found it impossible to think that so many similari-<br /> ties were merely coincidences, and he gave jude-<br /> ment for the plaintiff with costs,<br /> <br /> Every verdict in a case of this kind adds some<br /> fresh argument, and some further evidence as to<br /> the manner and method by which a case of infringe-<br /> ment should be determined. Therefore the judgment<br /> should be studied, As, however, an infringement<br /> of copyright is not essentially a matter of law, but<br /> of fact, the ultimate verdict must in most cases be<br /> doubtful.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> 10<br /> <br /> Springfield *. Thame.<br /> <br /> THs was a case of infringement of copyright of<br /> a different kind from that set forth in Nethersole v.<br /> Bell. The plaintiff wrote an article on a piece of<br /> news, describing an escape from drowning of Dr.<br /> MacHardy, Professor of Ophthalmology at King’s<br /> College Hospital.<br /> <br /> The article was produced, subject to considerable<br /> editorial alteration, in the Daily Mail, and also<br /> appeared in the W estminster Gazette and in the<br /> Daily Chronicle. The Evening Standard reprinted<br /> the article with very slight alteration from the<br /> Daily Mail version, and the plaintiff demanded<br /> full payment, but was refused on the ground that<br /> the article had not come direct from him. The<br /> defendants, however, offered the sum of 2s. 6d.,<br /> which was not accepted.<br /> <br /> It is an exceedingly difficult matter to give a<br /> fair exposition of a case of this kind, unless it is<br /> possible to quote the original paragraph as written<br /> by the plaintiff, the paragraph in the Daily Mail,<br /> and the paragraph that appeared in the Avening<br /> Standard, but the Judge, Mr. Justice Joyce,<br /> evidently came to the conclusion that the editor of<br /> the Daily Mail had so altered the paragraph that<br /> although he had taken the piece of news from the<br /> plaintiff he had virtually made the paragraph his<br /> own by the alteration. But the plaintiff had been<br /> paid for the use the editor of the Daily Mail had<br /> made of his work. The cutting from the Evening<br /> Standard was merely a statement of a piece of<br /> news, though his Lordship seemed to think that if<br /> the Daily Mail had inserted the plaintiff&#039;s “copy”<br /> verbatim et literatim, and the Evening Standard had<br /> then printed the paragraph, they would have been<br /> liable. The Judge therefore came to the conclusion<br /> that the plaintiff’s action must fail.<br /> <br /> The Referee, the following week, making fun of<br /> the eccentricities of Copyright Law, wrote as<br /> follows :—<br /> <br /> “Now that an English Judge has decided that a sub-<br /> editor altering a word or two in a paragraph becomes the<br /> author, the Incorporated Society of Authors is going to get<br /> rid of its committee of original writers and fill up the<br /> vacancies with sub-editors.<br /> <br /> “THE NEw CoPYRIGHT.<br /> “The greatest author on the earth<br /> Sent in a par. of passing worth,<br /> <br /> J, changing ‘sailor’ into ‘tar,’<br /> Became the author of the par.”<br /> <br /> ———————__+——_+_____<br /> <br /> CIVIL LIST PENSIONS.<br /> <br /> —<br /> <br /> HE following is the list of pensions for 1902<br /> to March, 1908. This statement always<br /> draws the attention of members of the<br /> <br /> literary profession, as one of the first objects of<br /> the Act is to reward those who, “ by their useful<br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> discoveries in science and attainments in literature<br /> and the arts have merited the gracious considera-<br /> <br /> tion of their sovereign and the gratitude of their<br /> country.”<br /> <br /> It is instructive to follow the extent to which<br /> these purposes have been fulfilled :—<br /> <br /> 1902.— May 8.<br /> Miss Rhoda Broughton, in consideration of her merits £<br /> as a writer of fiction ... me a wae ae 18<br /> Mrs. Adelaide Fanny Eyre, in consideration of the<br /> services of her late husband, Mr. Edward John Eyre,<br /> the Australian Explorer and Governor of Jamaica 100<br /> William Raymond Fitzgerald, George Francis Fitz-<br /> gerald, and John Jellett Fitzgerald ... ane ... 100<br /> During the minority of any one of them, and in<br /> recognition of the services rendered to Science<br /> and Education by their late father, Professor<br /> George Francis Fitzgerald, F.R.S.: in trust to<br /> their mother, Mrs. Harriet Fitzgerald.<br /> Mr. Worthington George Smith, in consideration of<br /> his services to Archeology and Botanical illustra-<br /> tion, and of his inadequate means of support<br /> <br /> ore<br /> <br /> September 12.<br /> <br /> Mrs. Zaré Elizabeth Blacker, in recognition of the<br /> services of her late husband, Dr. A. Barry Blacker,<br /> M.D., who lost his life through his devotion to<br /> medical research ae oe ae ees 120<br /> <br /> October 21.<br /> <br /> Mr. Justin McCarthy, in recognition of his services<br /> to literature... or ae Be x -- 250<br /> <br /> Mrs. Margaret Duncan Adamson, in consideration of<br /> the services rendered to Philosophy by her late<br /> husband, Professor Robert Adamson, and of her<br /> straitened circumstances ges ee ee ie<br /> <br /> Miss Florence Buchanan, in consideration of her<br /> scientific researches and consequent failure of<br /> sight, and of her inadequate means of support .. 50<br /> <br /> December 20<br /> <br /> Miss Beatrice Hatch... aa si ae 23<br /> Miss Ethel Hatch ves ees cae ae se e:<br /> Miss Evelyn Hatch ee cae aoe a cus<br /> In consideration of the services of their father, the<br /> late Rev. Edwin Hatch, in connection with<br /> Ecclesiastical History, and of their straitened<br /> circumstances, such pensious to be additional<br /> <br /> to their existing pensions.<br /> <br /> 1903.—March 25.<br /> Mr. James Sully, in recognition of his services to<br /> Psychology --- es ee oon Sos oe<br /> Mr. Alexander Carmichael and Mrs. Mary Frances<br /> Carmichael, jointly and to the survivor of them,<br /> in recognition of Mr. Carmichael’s services to the<br /> study of Gaelic Folk Lore and Literature ... io oe<br /> Miss Mary Elizabeth Maxwell Simpson, in considera-<br /> tion of the eminence as a chemist of her late father,<br /> Professor Maxwell Simpson, and of her straitened<br /> circumstances ... Oe ves a8 ove ee<br /> Miss Bertha Meriton Gardiner, in consideration of the<br /> eminence of her late husband, Mr. 8. R. Gardiner,<br /> asa historian .. ets see i ase on<br /> Mrs. Jane Earle, in consideration of the services of<br /> her late husband, Professor John Earle, to English<br /> Literature and Philology AS aes sk DO.<br /> <br /> 105<br /> <br /> 40<br /> <br /> 78<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Tol «ee ee<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR. 11<br /> <br /> A MUSIC PUBLISHERS’ PROFITS.<br /> <br /> te<br /> <br /> WRITER in The Vocalist, a paper whose<br /> opinion no doubt thrills the musical world,<br /> has thought fit to criticise an article that<br /> <br /> appeared in the January, 1903, number of The<br /> <br /> Author.<br /> <br /> This article to which readers are particularly<br /> referred was entitled “ A Musical Agreement,” and<br /> set forth one ef those antediluvian documents<br /> which the musical publisher is still in the habit of<br /> imposing on the author of music. The comments<br /> accompanying were drastic, but well deserved.<br /> The end of the article set out a few figures of the<br /> cost of musical publication and of the musical<br /> publisher’s profits.<br /> <br /> The writer in The Vocalist, like a skilful advo-<br /> cate, ignores the terms of the agreement and the<br /> caustic remarks—perhaps he catches a scintillation<br /> of truth—and proceeds to expose to his own satis-<br /> faction the falsity of the figures. In his trite<br /> criticism he sneers at the writer—‘a little know-<br /> ledge may prove a dangerous thing.” He then<br /> proceeds to show not only how impossible it is for<br /> a music publisher to make a fortune, but how for<br /> an absolute certainty he is bound to become bank-<br /> rupt. The retort is obvious, “if a little knowledge<br /> is a dangerous thing,” “too much learning hath<br /> <br /> made him mad.”<br /> Please note his figures, the following is an<br /> extract from his luminous statement—<br /> <br /> “When a song is published, the first thing to be done is<br /> to place it on the market, which may be done in three<br /> different ways, according to the intention of the publisher,<br /> whose common experience is that although the first is a<br /> sine quad non, the two others are essential to commercial<br /> success.<br /> <br /> “(1) By empowering a traveller to tour the country with<br /> a copy of the song in question amongst his samples,<br /> soliciting orders for ‘the latest novelties,” from the retail<br /> trade, i.e., the music seller.<br /> <br /> (2) By engaging popular singers to warble the strains<br /> of ‘the latest novelty’ at their public engagements, before<br /> their highly expectant audiences.<br /> <br /> ** (3) By advertising this latter fact in the columns of a<br /> daily newspaper, which is usually done on the front page<br /> of The Duily Telegraph.<br /> <br /> “Now these three things are usually made to work<br /> together,<br /> <br /> “We must therefore calculate, although somewhat<br /> toughly, the cost of carrying out these operations.<br /> <br /> “Cost of No. 1.—A traveller&#039;s expenses cannot work out<br /> at much less than £6 per week; his remuneration is<br /> probably from £1 to £3 a week fixed wages, plus a 10 per<br /> cent. commission ; but whatever his system of remuneration,<br /> it must surely amount to not less than £4 a week, judging<br /> by the superior class of man that must necessarily be<br /> engaged in this work. This works out at £10 a week, or<br /> allowing for a period during which the weekly expenditure<br /> is withheld while on holiday, £400 a year cost to the<br /> publisher, Now, assuming that the traveller has ten<br /> novelties constantly going, and calculating that one half<br /> <br /> of his usefulness is to push novelties, it means £200 is<br /> spent in ‘pushing’ say twenty novelties a year ; in other<br /> words the proportionate share of each song towards this<br /> expense is £10 a year,<br /> <br /> “Obviously this is but a rough calculation, but it is<br /> based on the facts as known by practical experience,<br /> <br /> “The cost under heading No. 2 is by no means easy to<br /> apportion, for although a publisher knows quite well that<br /> a good hearing is absolutely necessary to secure orders from<br /> his customers, the singers also know quite as well that their<br /> services have such a distinct market value that they are<br /> able to command high prices ‘for taking up ’ new songs,<br /> It is quite true that some singers sing songs simply because<br /> they suit the voice, or because the songs are artistic and<br /> appeal to their better feelings, but such cases are compara-<br /> tively rare, and the majority of singers still sing royalty<br /> songs for royalties’ sake. Far be it from me to say that if<br /> a singer has assisted to earn money for the publisher and<br /> the royalty owner, he or she is not fairly entitled to some<br /> of the spoil. But the risk to the publisher under existing<br /> <br /> _ conditions is, nevertheless, considerable, for it is well known<br /> <br /> how useless it is to try any one or two singers for one or<br /> two dozens (this has become the trade term for professional<br /> assistance)—if it be done at all it should be done thoroughly,<br /> and a gross of programmes is perhaps the very fewest that<br /> can be of any material service, Now, supposing the price<br /> per programme be taken at an average of seven shillings,<br /> this means casting about £50 as bread upon the waters,<br /> hoping to find it after very many days of patient watchine<br /> and waiting. .<br /> <br /> “So far the cost of making each song known to the<br /> public is £60.<br /> <br /> “ Cost under heading No. 3.—We now come to what may<br /> at first sight seem to be the least necessary, and the least<br /> profitable expense in connection with farming songs, ie.,<br /> advertising the fact of its being sung by a certain singer at<br /> a certain place on a certain day in a certain paper. Whether<br /> this be profitable or no, I am not prepared to express my<br /> candid opinion ; it is sufficient that custom has made it<br /> almost absolutely necessary. Now, the cost of advertising<br /> In Lhe Daily Telegraph (the recognised medium) is about<br /> 5s. for the insertion of each song ; six insertions a week,<br /> therefore, amount to £1 10s. (no reduction on taking a<br /> quantity), or for—say three months, £18.<br /> <br /> “It will thus be seen that in addition to the initial cost<br /> of printing 2,000 copies of a song (which, bear in mind, the<br /> writer of the article in The Author generously puts at £15)<br /> other expenses amounted to £78, It is not for one moment<br /> suggested that a publisher expends as much on exploiting<br /> each of all the songs he publishes, but on an average it may<br /> be taken as a reasonable estimate of the expense he incurs<br /> in the case of songs that he reasonably hopes to sell.”<br /> <br /> It will be seen this man of knowledge takes £78<br /> as a not unreasonable figure for advertising one<br /> song. His words are “on an average,” ete,<br /> <br /> The case must not be overstated, say then<br /> £60.<br /> <br /> He accepts the cost of production, quoted in<br /> The Author of January—£15 for 2,000 copies—<br /> with a sneer. “ Many publishers,” he says in the<br /> early part of this article, “ would be only too pleased<br /> to publish a song on these terms.”<br /> <br /> We will accept the same figure,<br /> <br /> So far, then, in our efforts to save the publisher<br /> from bankruptcy, let the cost of production be<br /> limited to £75: £15 printing, etc., for 2,000<br /> copies, £60 for advertising and marketing.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> 12<br /> <br /> He then continues :<br /> <br /> ** “We leave for the present the question of rent, salaries,<br /> And other incidental expenses of maintaining the up-keep<br /> of an office, which are part and parcel of the machinery of<br /> publishing a song, for each song clearly has to bear its share<br /> of these expenses, which, it is needless to say, are heavy.<br /> So far we have dealt only with the expense of what is known<br /> as “placing a song on the market,” and it can easily be seen<br /> that the mere printing of copies is but a trifle compared<br /> with the greater expense of dealing with the copies when<br /> printed. Now let us turn to the more important question<br /> of selling them. Happy, indeed, is the man who positively<br /> knows that he will certainly sell 1,500 of the 2,000 copies<br /> he has made, even if two, or, if you will, ten years are<br /> allowed for doing it. Why, the actual experience of pub-<br /> lishers is, that on an average, taking large houses (which<br /> can always command some gort of sale) with the small, only<br /> one song in twenty ever exceeds a sale of 1,000 copies, and<br /> songs which reach a sale of 5,000 in a year are quite excep-<br /> tional, and it is safe to say that out of every fifty songs<br /> published in London, at least forty never see a second<br /> edition, and of the other ten only one or two go into a fifth<br /> edition. So much, then, for the numbers. But what of<br /> prices? The contributor to Zhe Author calculates that the<br /> net return is ls. 2d. per copy.<br /> <br /> This ignorance is tantalizing to the publisher, and provokes<br /> exasperation. Why, the novelty rate is never higher than<br /> one-sixth of the marked price (4s.) which, of course, is only<br /> Sd. each, and very many novelties are sold in the present<br /> days of keen competition at one-eighth, which is only 6d.<br /> each. We will not mention lower rates, although they are<br /> known to most music publishers. This rate, obviously, is<br /> not permanent ; if it were, the publisher could not continue<br /> his business for six months, unless he carried it on as a<br /> hobby, or were actuated by philanthropic motives. No! as<br /> soon as a song shows vitality, and * is asked for” over the<br /> music-seller’s counter, then a ray of hope does indeed enter<br /> the counting-house, for he is able to raise his prices, and<br /> when the music-seller orders what he requires, he has to pay<br /> in the early days of success 10d. per copy ;_ but if the song<br /> has reached a certain height of prosperity, he pays an even<br /> shilling, provided he can order a quantity at a time ; if,<br /> however, he requires only a few, then the contributor to<br /> The Author is actually correct, the publisher really and<br /> truly receives ls. 2d. entire.<br /> <br /> Tn the above I have, perhaps, exposed certain trade<br /> secrets; but there are few people who are nowadays not<br /> more or less acquainted with them. I may be pardoned,<br /> therefore, if I have exposed one of the most fallacious<br /> statements ever uttered in a respectable paper of any status<br /> or standing.<br /> <br /> But I have not exhausted the subject by any means, and,<br /> although I must not presume on the space allotted to me, I<br /> must breathe a sigh over bad debts and long credits which,<br /> in the music trade, are without parallel elsewhere. These<br /> have to be provided for, however, and, even in the case of<br /> most cautious publishers they are a very serious item.”<br /> <br /> He is tantalised and provoked to exasperation.<br /> To ease his mind he blurts out strange trade secrets,<br /> that seemingly pervert all the politico-economical<br /> doctrines of supply and demand. For in this<br /> remarkable trade a large demand with infinite<br /> capacity for supply—reproduction is simple and<br /> expansive-—makes the product dearer, not cheaper.<br /> <br /> But his figures are no doubt correct.<br /> <br /> Again, to give his figures every advantage, in<br /> order if possible to save him from the ruin, which,<br /> according to the statement, must be the unenviable<br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> end of “all those rash enough to produce songs,<br /> let it be supposed that the average price of each<br /> song is 10d., and that 1,500 out of the 2,000 are<br /> sold (an absurd estimate, according to his<br /> figures). He would then realise 15,000 pence,<br /> or 1,250 shillings, or £62 10s. On each song,<br /> therefore, he loses £75 — £62 10s. = £12 10s.<br /> Therefore, on the 40 songs out of the 50 he loses<br /> <br /> 40 x 124= 40 % 25 = LOO&quot; = £500.<br /> <br /> It is evident that the bankruptcy court must<br /> claim its victim. For if the publisher’s actual<br /> figures are taken, his loss must at the lowest<br /> computation be half as large again.<br /> <br /> It cannot be that, to save himself from this pre-<br /> ordained destruction, he sucks the blood of the<br /> composer.<br /> <br /> Perhaps other members of this generous class<br /> of philanthropic tradesmen who, so it is rumoured,<br /> make their contracts by word of mouth across their<br /> dining tables over the nuts and wine, may repudiate<br /> with indignation such a statement.<br /> <br /> But what does the musical composer say ?<br /> <br /> i<br /> <br /> MAGAZINE CONTENTS.<br /> <br /> ear<br /> BLACKWOOD’S MAGAZINE<br /> <br /> ONTAINS a graphic description by Mr. Reginald<br /> C Wyon of what he has seen in Macedonia, and other<br /> articles in the number are :<br /> <br /> The Homes and Haunts of Edward Fitzgerald. By his<br /> grand-niece, Mary Bleanor Fitzgerald Kerrich.<br /> <br /> ‘An Irish Salmon River. By Sir Herbert Maxwell.<br /> <br /> The Man Who Knew. A short story by Perceval<br /> Gibbon.<br /> <br /> Personalia : Political, Social, and Various. By Sigma.<br /> <br /> Translations from Leopardi. By Sir Theodore Martin,<br /> K.C.B.<br /> <br /> Scolopaxiana : How to Walk for and Shoot Snipe.<br /> <br /> Marco Polo. By Charles Whibley.<br /> <br /> Lord Salisbury ; Humiliation ; Musings Without Method.<br /> <br /> ‘A Malay Deer Drive. By George Maxwell.<br /> <br /> The Fiscal Crisis.<br /> <br /> Tur CORNHILL MAGAZINE.<br /> <br /> Barlasch of the Guard (Chapters xxviiii—xxx.). By<br /> Henry Seton Merriman (concluded).<br /> <br /> In Guipuzcoa, II, By Mrs. Woods.<br /> <br /> The Old Colonial System and Preferential Trade. By<br /> Sidney Low, L.C.C.<br /> <br /> “Rachel.” By Hugh Clifford, C.M.G.<br /> <br /> Some Recent Speculations on the Constitution of Matter.<br /> By W. A. Shenstone, F.R.S.<br /> <br /> The Pleasures of Fishing. By Stephen Gwynn.<br /> <br /> “ Sportie.” By Miss Constance B. Maud.<br /> <br /> ‘A Visit to “ Le Procts Humbert.”<br /> <br /> Doggerel Ditties. By Dogberry.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> BRON AISI<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Sos<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR. 13<br /> <br /> A Pastoral.<br /> Poetic Justice.<br /> The Lapse of the Professor.<br /> <br /> By the Rev. H. G. D. Latham.<br /> By W. Basil Worsfold.<br /> By Arthur H. Henderson.<br /> <br /> FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW.<br /> <br /> Mr. Balfour’s Economic Creed.<br /> Lord Salisbury. By Sidney Low.<br /> The Evolution of French Contemporary Literature. By<br /> Octave Uzanne.<br /> The Fiscal Problem—<br /> () Article by Professor W. T. Hewins.<br /> (2) Sir Robert Peel and Mr. Chamberlain.<br /> Spender.<br /> (3) Will a Preference Tariff oppress the Poor ? By<br /> David Christie Murray<br /> War Commission Report. By Major Arthur Griffiths,<br /> The Macedonian Question. By H. N. Brailsford.<br /> Legend and Marie Bashkirtseff, By Prince Kara-<br /> georgvich.<br /> French Friendship and Naval Economy. By Archibald<br /> 8. Hurd.<br /> Children’s Prayers and Prayer Manuals.<br /> H. Cooper.<br /> What Ireland Really Needs. By Sampson Morgan.<br /> A Maker of Empire. S. F. Bullock.<br /> The Questioners. By Herbert Trench.<br /> Theophano: The Crusade of the Tenth<br /> Frederic Harrison.<br /> Correspondence—<br /> (1) The Coming Ireland.<br /> (2) Mankind in the Making,<br /> <br /> By Harold<br /> <br /> By Edward<br /> <br /> Century.<br /> <br /> By Lady Bathurst.<br /> By Sir Wm. Bennett,<br /> <br /> LONGMAN’S MAGAZINE,<br /> <br /> Nature’s Comedian (Chapters vii., viii), By W. 5<br /> Norris,<br /> <br /> Wagers. By D. H. Wilson.<br /> <br /> Last Year. By A.C. S.<br /> <br /> A Michaelmas Move. By Chas. Fielding Marsh.<br /> <br /> Loafing-time. By Fred. Whishaw.<br /> <br /> Jellyby’s Plot.<br /> <br /> Egyptian Irrigation Works,<br /> A.M. Inst.C.E,<br /> <br /> Scholarship Howlers. By G. Stanley Ellis,<br /> <br /> At the Sign of the Ship. By Andrew Lang.<br /> <br /> By Lawrence Gibbs,<br /> <br /> MACMILLAN’S MAGAZINE,<br /> <br /> John Maxwell’s Marriage (Chapters xxix.—xxxii,), By<br /> Stephen Gwynn.<br /> <br /> Wreckage of Empire. By Hugh Clifford, C.M.G.<br /> <br /> The Sayings of Sir Oracle.<br /> <br /> Borough Councils and Rising Rates,<br /> Emmel, Ph.D.<br /> <br /> Hope.<br /> <br /> The Amusements of the People.<br /> <br /> Some Opinions of a Pedagogue.<br /> <br /> A Toiler’s Romance.<br /> <br /> The Irregulars of the N avy. By W. J. Fletcher,<br /> <br /> By Aloys N,<br /> <br /> By J. G. Leigh.<br /> By 8. T, Irwin.<br /> <br /> THE PALL MALL MAGAZINE,<br /> <br /> Phil May ; the Manand the Artist (with his last sketches<br /> in pen and pencil and coloured plates).<br /> <br /> The Brighton Road and the Motor Car. By C. G. Harper,<br /> (Illustrated by the Author.)<br /> <br /> The Discoverers of Radium. (With Portraits.)<br /> <br /> Hotels and Hotel Life in New York. (Ilustrated.)<br /> <br /> Literary Geography : the Lake Country. By William<br /> Sharp.<br /> <br /> Stories by Maurice Hewlett, John Oliver Hobbes, Sir<br /> F. C. Burnand, U, L. Sil berrad, and other well-known<br /> writers.<br /> <br /> .<br /> THE WorwD’s Work.<br /> <br /> Gladstone in his Last Days. Unpublished Sketch by A,<br /> S. Forrest. (Coloured frontispiece.)<br /> <br /> The March of Events: An Editorial Comment. (With<br /> full-page portraits of Mr. Gladstone (never before pub-<br /> lished), Mr. John Morley, M.P., Mr. Herbert Gladstone,<br /> M.P. (from special sittings), and the Hon. Whe Dp,<br /> Smith, M.P.),<br /> <br /> Mr. Balfour&#039;s Economics.<br /> <br /> German Agriculture under<br /> Dawson.<br /> <br /> Mr. Morley’s Life of Gladstone.<br /> C<br /> <br /> By Alfred Emmott, M.P.<br /> Protection, 3y W. H.<br /> <br /> By Augustine Birrell,<br /> K<br /> Why the Navy Costs so Much,<br /> The Day’s Work at W. H. Smith &amp; Son’s,<br /> <br /> Sculpture by Machinery. (Illustrated.)<br /> <br /> The Poor Man’s Cow. By Home Counties, (Illustrated.)<br /> <br /> The Trade Union Congress.<br /> <br /> A Teetotal Island. By Charles T. Bateman,<br /> <br /> What Theatres Cost. By Fitzroy Gardner.<br /> <br /> Russia in Manchuria. By Alfred Stead. (Illustrated.)<br /> <br /> The Art of Swimming. By Montague A. Holbein,<br /> Cllustrated.)<br /> <br /> The Social Life of the Soldier,<br /> (IUustrated.)<br /> <br /> The Royal Commission and the War Office.<br /> <br /> Ocean Sanatoria. By Eustace Miles.<br /> <br /> The National Physical Laboratory.<br /> Carpenter, Ph.D.<br /> <br /> Gymnastics for Girls. Clustrated.)<br /> <br /> The Coming of the Motor Cab. (Illustrated.)<br /> <br /> The Books of the Month, (With portraits of Mr. James<br /> Lane Allen, Ellen Thorneycroft Fowler (Mas. Felkin), Dr,<br /> William Barry, Mr. Bernard Shaw.)<br /> <br /> The World of Women’s Work.<br /> <br /> Among the World’s Workers,<br /> <br /> By Archibald 8. Hurd,<br /> (ustrated.)<br /> <br /> 3y Horace Wyndham.<br /> <br /> By W. C. H.<br /> <br /> QUARTERLY REVIEW.<br /> <br /> The forthcoming number will contain the following<br /> articles among others :—<br /> <br /> Sophocles and the Greek Genius,<br /> <br /> The Religion of Napoleon I. By J. Holland Rose.<br /> <br /> The Novels of Mr, Henry James.<br /> <br /> Our Orchards and Fruit-Gardens, By W. E. Bear.<br /> <br /> The Time-Spirit in German Literature. By Walter<br /> Sichel.<br /> <br /> Leo XIII. and his Successor.<br /> Richard Bagot.<br /> <br /> Impressions of South Africa, 1901 and 1903.<br /> <br /> The Journal of Montaigne.<br /> <br /> Macedonia and the Powers.<br /> <br /> The War Commission and Army Reform,<br /> Wilkinson.<br /> <br /> Lord Salisbury.<br /> <br /> Protective Retaliation,<br /> <br /> Mr. Morley’s Life of Mr, Gladstone,<br /> <br /> ——1—~@—-<br /> TRADE NOTES.<br /> <br /> eee<br /> Land and Water (1902), Ltd.<br /> <br /> N | OTICE has been given that a petition for the<br /> winding up of the above company was<br /> on the 7th ult. presented to the Court by<br /> <br /> Spalding and Hodge, Ltd., of Drury Lane, London,<br /> creditors of the company, and that the said peti-<br /> tion will be heard betore Mr, Justice Buckley, at<br /> the Royal Courts of Justice, on the 27th inst.<br /> <br /> (Second Article.) By<br /> <br /> By Spencer<br /> <br /> <br /> 14 THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> WARNINGS TO THE PRODUCERS<br /> OF BOOKS.<br /> <br /> —— + —<br /> <br /> ERE are a few standing rules to be observed in an<br /> agreement. There are four methods of dealing<br /> <br /> with literary property :—<br /> I. Selling it Outright.<br /> <br /> This is sometimes satisfactory, if a proper price can be<br /> obtained, But the transaction should be managed by a<br /> competent agent, or with the advice of the Secretary of<br /> the Society.<br /> <br /> Il. A Profit-Sharing Agreement (a bad form of<br /> agreement).<br /> <br /> Tn this case the following rules should be attended to :<br /> <br /> (1.) Not to sign any agreement in which the cost of pro-<br /> duction forms a part without the strictest investigation,<br /> <br /> (2.) Not to give the publisher the power of putting the<br /> profits into his own pocket by charging for advertisements<br /> in his own organs, or by charging exchange advertise-<br /> ments. Therefore keep control of the advertisements.<br /> <br /> (3.) Not to allow a special charge for ‘office expenses,”<br /> unless the same allowance is made to the author.<br /> <br /> (4.) Not to give up American, Colonial, or Continental<br /> rights.<br /> <br /> “(.) Not to give up serial or translation rights.<br /> <br /> (6.) Not to bind yourself for future work to any publisher.<br /> As well bind yourself for the future to any one solicitor or<br /> <br /> doctor !<br /> <br /> Ill. The Royalty System.<br /> <br /> This is perhaps, with certain limitations, the best form<br /> of agreement. It is above all things necessary to know<br /> what the proposed royalty means to both sides. It is now<br /> possible for an author to ascertain approximately the<br /> truth. From time to time very important figures connected<br /> with royalties are published in Zhe Author.<br /> <br /> IY. A Commission Agreement.<br /> <br /> The main points are :—<br /> <br /> (1.) Be careful to obtain a fair cost of production,<br /> (2.) Keep control of the advertisements.<br /> <br /> (3.) Keep control of the sale price of the book.<br /> <br /> General.<br /> <br /> All other forms of agreement are combinations of the four<br /> above mentioned.<br /> <br /> Such combinations are generally disastrous to the author.<br /> <br /> Never sign any agreement without competent advice from<br /> the Secretary of the Society.<br /> <br /> Stamp all agreements with the Inland Revenue stamp.<br /> <br /> Avoid agreements by letter if possible.<br /> <br /> The main points which the Society has always demanded<br /> from the outset are :—<br /> <br /> 1.) That both sides shall know what an agreement<br /> means.<br /> <br /> (2.) The inspection of those account books which belong<br /> to the author. We are advised that this is a right, in the<br /> nature of a common law right, which cannot be denied or<br /> withheld.<br /> <br /> (3.) Always avoid a transfer of copyright.<br /> <br /> ——__+—&gt;_+__&quot;__<br /> <br /> WARNINGS TO DRAMATIC AUTHORS.<br /> <br /> Saar<br /> EVER sign an agreement without submitting it to the<br /> Secretary of the Society of Authors or some com-<br /> _ petent legal authority.<br /> 2. It is well to be extremely careful in negotiating for<br /> the production of a play with anyone except an established<br /> manager.<br /> <br /> 8. There are three forms of dramatic contract for plays<br /> in three or more acts :—<br /> <br /> (a.) Sale outright of the performing right. This<br /> is unsatisfactory. An author who enters into<br /> such a contract should stipulate in the contract<br /> for production of the piece by a certain date<br /> and for proper publication of his name on the<br /> play-bills,<br /> <br /> (b.) Sale of performing right or of a licence to<br /> perform on the basis of percentages on<br /> gross receipts. Percentages vary between 5<br /> and 15 per cent. An author should obtain a<br /> percentage on the sliding scale of gross receipts<br /> in preference to the American system, Should<br /> obtain a sum in advance of percentages. A fixed<br /> date on or before which the play should be<br /> performed.<br /> <br /> (c.) Sale of performing right or of a licence to<br /> perform on the basis of royalties (‘.¢., fixed<br /> nightly fees). This method should be always<br /> avoided except in cases where the fees are<br /> likely to be small or difficult to collect. The<br /> other safeguards set out under heading (0.) apply<br /> also in this case.<br /> <br /> 4, Plays in one act are often sold outright, but it is<br /> better to obtain a small nightly fee if possible, and a sum<br /> paid in advance of such fees in any event. It is extremely<br /> important that the amateur rights of one-act plays should<br /> be reserved.<br /> <br /> 5. Authors should remember that performing rights-can<br /> be limited, and are usually limited, by town, country, and<br /> time. This is most important.<br /> <br /> 6. Authors should not assign performing rights, but<br /> should grant a licence to perform. The legal distinction is<br /> of great importance.<br /> <br /> 7. Authors should remember that performing rights in a<br /> play are distinct from literary copyright. A manager<br /> holding the performing right or licence to perform cannot<br /> print the book of the words.<br /> <br /> 8. Never forget that United States rights may be exceed-<br /> ingly valuable. ‘hey should never be included in English<br /> agreements without the author obtaining a substantial<br /> consideration.<br /> <br /> 9. Agreements for collaboration should be carefully<br /> drawn and executed before collaboration is commenced.<br /> <br /> 10. An author should remember that production of a play<br /> is highly speculative: that he runs a very great risk of<br /> delay and a breakdown in the fulfilment of his contract.<br /> He should therefore guard himself all the more carefully in<br /> the beginning.<br /> <br /> 11. An author must remember that the dramatic market<br /> is exceedingly limited, and that for a novice the first object<br /> is to obtain adequate publication.<br /> <br /> As these warnings must necessarily be incomplete, on<br /> account of the wide range of the subject of dramatic con-<br /> tracts, those authors desirous of further information<br /> are referred to the Secretary of the Society.<br /> <br /> ——+——_—__—_<br /> <br /> WARNINGS TO MUSICAL COMPOSERS.<br /> <br /> —-—~&gt; + —<br /> <br /> ITTLE can be added to the warnings given for the<br /> assistance of producers of books and dramatic<br /> authors. It must, however, be pointed out that, as<br /> <br /> a rule, the musical publisher demands from the musical<br /> composer a transfer of fuller rights and less liberal finan-<br /> cial terms than those obtained for literary and dramatic<br /> property. The musical composer has very often the two<br /> rights to deal with—performing right and copyright. He<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> should be especially careful therefore when entering into<br /> an agreement, and should take into particular consideration<br /> the warnings stated above.<br /> <br /> a<br /> <br /> HOW TO USE THE SOCIETY.<br /> <br /> —_— +<br /> <br /> 1 VERY member has a right toask for and to receive<br /> : advice upon his agreements, his choice of a pub-<br /> lisher, or any dispute arising in the conduct of his<br /> business or the administration of his property. — The<br /> Secretary of the Society is a solicitor, but if there is any<br /> special reason the Secretary will refer the case to the<br /> Solicitors of the Society. Further, the Committee, if they<br /> deem it desirable, will obtain counsel’s opinion, All this<br /> without any cost to the member.<br /> <br /> 2. Remember that questions connected with copyright<br /> and publishers’ agreements do not fall within the experi-<br /> ence of ordinarysolicitors. Therefore, do not scruple to use<br /> <br /> the Society.<br /> <br /> 3. Send to the Office copies of past agreements and past<br /> accounts, with a copy of the book represented. The<br /> Secretary will always be glad to have any agreements, new<br /> or old, for inspection and note. The information thus<br /> obtained may prove invaluable.<br /> <br /> 4, Before signing any agreement whatever, send<br /> the document to the Society for examination.<br /> <br /> 5. Remember always that in belonging to the Society<br /> you are fighting the battles of other writers, even if you<br /> are reaping no benefit to yourself, and that you are<br /> advancing the best interests of your calling in promoting<br /> the independence of the writer, the dramatist, the composer.<br /> <br /> 6. The Committee have now arranged for the reception<br /> of members’ agreements and their preservation in a fire-<br /> proof safe. The agreements will, of course, be regarded as<br /> confidential be read only by the Secretary,<br /> who will keep the key of the safe. The Society now offers:<br /> —(1) To read and advise upon agreements and to give<br /> advice concerning publishers. (2) To stamp agreements<br /> in readiness for a possible action upon them. (3) To keep<br /> agreements. (4) To enforce payments due according to<br /> agreements. Fuller particulars of the Society’s work<br /> can be obtained in the Prospectus.<br /> <br /> 7. No contract should be entered into with a literary<br /> agent without the advice of the Secretary of the Society.<br /> Members are strongly advised not to accept without careful<br /> consideration the contracts with publishers submitted to<br /> them by literary agents, and are recommended to submit<br /> them for interpretation and explanation to the Secretary<br /> of the Society.<br /> <br /> This<br /> <br /> 8. Many agents neglect to stamp agreements.<br /> The<br /> <br /> must be done within fourteen days of first execution,<br /> Secretary will undertake it on behalf of members.<br /> <br /> 9. Some agents endeavour to prevent authors from<br /> referring matters to the Secretary of the Society ; sO<br /> do some publishers. Members can make their own<br /> deductions and act accordingly.<br /> <br /> 10. The subscription to the Society is £1 4s. per<br /> annum., or £10 10s. for life membership.<br /> <br /> 15<br /> THE READING BRANCH.<br /> <br /> ——&gt;—»<br /> <br /> EMBERS will greatly assist the Society in this<br /> N branch of its work by informing young writers<br /> of its existence. Their MSS. can be read and<br /> treated as a composition is treated by a coach. The term<br /> MSS. includes not only works of fiction, but poetry<br /> and dramatic works, and when it is possible, under<br /> special arrangement, technical and scientific works. The<br /> Readers are writers of competence and experience. The<br /> fee is one guinea,<br /> <br /> —————__+—~—<br /> <br /> NOTICES.<br /> —+—~&gt;—+—_<br /> <br /> HE Editor of The Author begs to remind members of<br /> <br /> the Society that, although the paper is sent to them<br /> <br /> free of charge, the cost of producing it would be a<br /> <br /> very heavy charge on the resources of the Society if a great<br /> <br /> many members did not forward to the Secretary the modest<br /> 5s. 6d. subscription for the year.<br /> <br /> Communications for Zhe Author should be addressed to<br /> the Offices of the Society, 39, Old Queen Street, Storey’s<br /> Gate, S.W., and should reach the Editor not later than<br /> the 21st of each month.<br /> <br /> All persons engaged in literary work of any kind,<br /> whether members of the Society or not, are invited to<br /> communicate to the Editor any points connected with their<br /> work which it would be advisable in the general interest to<br /> publish,<br /> <br /> i<br /> <br /> Communications and letters are invited by the<br /> Editor on all subjects connected with literature, but on<br /> no other subjects whatever. Every effort will be made to<br /> return articles which cannot be accepted.<br /> <br /> —1—~ +.<br /> <br /> The Secretary of the Society begs to give notice<br /> that all remittances are acknowledged by return of post,<br /> and he requests members who do not receive an<br /> answer to important communications within two days to<br /> write to him without delay. All remittances should be<br /> crossed Union Bank of London, Chancery Lane, or be sent<br /> by registered letter only.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> AUTHORITIES,<br /> <br /> —+—~&gt;—+<br /> <br /> HERE has been some mention in the papers<br /> , since the last issue of The Author of Russian<br /> copyright, and it has been suggested that<br /> it is possible to obtain protection in that country.<br /> Inquiries we have made do not confirm this state-<br /> ment. Even the Russian author himself cannot<br /> always obtain security, as different laws with regard<br /> to copyright hold in different portions of Russia.<br /> To begin with, the author who publishes in<br /> Russia, in order to obtain any protection must<br /> be a Russian. This is a sine gud non. Even then<br /> he does not always obtain what he wants.<br /> We understand, however, that Russia is taking<br /> <br /> <br /> 16<br /> <br /> steps (this understanding, like the proposal for<br /> copyright legislation in the Empire, has been<br /> prominent for many years) to consolidate all the<br /> local laws with a view to subsequent amendment.<br /> <br /> It is to be hoped that this development will be<br /> realised at no distant date.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> An article will be found in another column<br /> dealing with the commercial aspects of authorship,<br /> and refuting the contention of those who find that<br /> it suits their interests to deny the right of literature<br /> to have a commercial side. It was largely for the<br /> benefit of authors in their endeavour to understand<br /> the commercial possibilities of their work, and to<br /> secure the benefits from it which business-like<br /> methods afford, that the Society of Authors was<br /> founded, and has carried on its work ever since.<br /> <br /> Its members include men and women belonging to -<br /> <br /> all the three classes of writers into which the<br /> article in question divides authors, and the work<br /> which it carries on for individuals benefits authors<br /> as a whole, whether they be its members or not.<br /> From this point of view we would urge all writers<br /> to consider whether they are justified in accepting<br /> the advantages which the Society has gained for<br /> them without seeking to extend and increase those<br /> advantages for themselves and for others by joining<br /> the Society.<br /> <br /> -. We must record, if somewhat behind time, the<br /> marriage of Mr. Anthony Hope Hawkins, our late<br /> chairman, to Miss Elizabeth Sheldon, on the Ist<br /> of July. A number of present and former members<br /> of our committee combined with the President of<br /> the Society in presenting Mr. Anthony Hope<br /> Hawkins on the happy occasion with a silver punch-<br /> bowl and ladle as some token of their friendship<br /> and good wishes and appreciation of the services he<br /> has rendered the Society. The Society of Authors<br /> has never had a chairman who has been more devoted<br /> to its work, or has, by his unfailing courtesy,<br /> tact, and sound judgment, done more to promote<br /> its efficiency and success. All connected with it<br /> will, we are sure, unite in congratulations to Mr.<br /> Hawkins, coupled with the selfish hope that he<br /> may long be able to spare time to assist in its<br /> mavagement, and thus lighten the labour of his<br /> suCcCeSSOrs.<br /> <br /> Mempers of the Society have no doubt seen the<br /> letter which appeared in the papers towards the<br /> end of July, signed by the President and Chairman<br /> of the Committee, referring to the proposed public<br /> memorial to Sir Walter Besant.<br /> <br /> We are glad to have the opportunity to correct a<br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> slight mistake which occurred in that letter. It<br /> stated that the sum of £340 was raised from among<br /> members of the Society only. This is not exactly<br /> true, as on looking through the list, we find two<br /> of the subscribers were not members of the Society.<br /> Messrs. A. P. Watt &amp; Son, of which firm Mr. A.<br /> P. Watt, for many years Sir Walter Besant’s<br /> literary agent and finally his literary executor, is<br /> senior partner, made a subscription of twenty-five<br /> guineas. This amount is included in the sum of<br /> £340.<br /> <br /> Aw offer was made, by a firm whose only excuse<br /> can be that they do not hold the highest position in<br /> the rank of publishers, of £10 for an original novel<br /> of 60,000 words from the pen of a writer not<br /> altogether unknown for his ability, but unfortu-<br /> nately notorious for his chronic impecuniosity.<br /> The offer was, we are glad to say, rejected, If<br /> the work was worth printing at all, it was worth<br /> more than the amount stated.<br /> <br /> THE list of elections from October, 1902, to<br /> July 1903, will be published during the course of<br /> the month, as a supplement to the list of the<br /> Society already published.<br /> <br /> The cost of the Supplementary list will be two-<br /> <br /> pence.<br /> <br /> 1<br /> <br /> OBITUARY.<br /> <br /> ——<br /> <br /> R. WILLIAM WESTALL, the Novelist,<br /> died on Wednesday, the 9th of September,<br /> at the age of sixty-nine.<br /> <br /> He had been a supporter of the Society almost<br /> since its foundation. He joined in 1888.<br /> <br /> He was a writer of many novels, and although<br /> none of them ever became a great popular success,<br /> yet he was a sound craftsman and a careful worker,<br /> and knew well how to write an interesting book of<br /> incident and adventure. It is sad to have to<br /> chronicle the death of the older members.<br /> <br /> WE regret to announce also the death of the<br /> Rev. Prebendary Godfrey Thring, who had been a<br /> member of the society for nearly ten years. As a<br /> hymn writer he was exceedingly well known, some<br /> of his verses being the most popular in Hymns<br /> Ancient and Modern.<br /> <br /> His Church of England Hymn Book is now in<br /> the third edition.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> THE PERIL OF SHAKESPEAREAN<br /> RESEARCH.<br /> <br /> —_1—@—+—_<br /> <br /> OR some years past scarcely a month passes<br /> without receipt of a communication from a<br /> confiding stranger, to the effect that he has<br /> <br /> discovered some piece of information concerning<br /> Shakespeare which has hitherto eluded research.<br /> Very often has a correspondent put himself to the<br /> trouble of forwarding a photograph of the title-<br /> page of a late 16th or early 17th century book, on<br /> which has been scrawled in old-fashioned script<br /> the familiar name of William Shakespeare. At<br /> intervals, which seem to recur with mathematical<br /> regularity, I receive intelligence that a portrait of<br /> the poet, of which nothing is hitherto known, has<br /> come to light in some recondite corner of the<br /> country, and it is usually added that a contem-<br /> porary inscription settles all doubt of authenticity.<br /> <br /> I wish to speak with respect and gratitude of<br /> these confidences. I welcome them, and have no<br /> wish to repress them. But truth does not permit<br /> me to affirm that such as have yet reached me have<br /> done more than enlarge my conception of the scope<br /> of human credulity. I look forward to the day<br /> when the postman shall, through the generosity of<br /> some appreciative reader of my biography of Shake-<br /> speare, deliver at my door an autograph of the<br /> dramatist of which nothing has been heard before,<br /> or a genuine portrait of contemporary date, the<br /> existence of which has never been suspected. But<br /> up to the moment of writing, despite the good<br /> intentions of my correspondents, no experience of<br /> the kind has befallen me.<br /> <br /> There is something pathetic in the frequency<br /> with which correspondents, obviously of un-<br /> blemished character and most generous instinct,<br /> send me almost tearful expressions of regret that I<br /> should have hitherto ignored one particular docu-<br /> ment, which throws (in their eyes) a curious gleam<br /> on the dramatist’s private life. At least six times<br /> a year am I reminded how it is recorded in more<br /> than one obscure 18th century periodical that the<br /> dramatist, George Peele, wrote to his friend Marle<br /> or Marlowe, in an extant letter, of a merry meeting<br /> at a place called the “Globe” (which some take<br /> tobe a tavern). At that surprising assembly there<br /> were present, I am trustfully assured, not merely<br /> Edward Alleyn, the actor, not merely Ben Jonson,<br /> but Shakespeare himself, and together these cele-<br /> brated men are said to have discussed a passage in<br /> the new play of “ Hamlet.” The reported talk is<br /> at the best tame prattle. Yet here, if anywhere, I<br /> am often told, is Shakespeare revealed in uncon-<br /> stramed intercourse with professional associates.<br /> Are such revelations numerous enough, I am asked,<br /> to exeuse a biographer for overlooking this one ?<br /> <br /> 17<br /> <br /> Unfortunately for my informants’ argument, the<br /> letter in question is an 18th century fabrication of<br /> no intrinsic brilliance or wit. It bears on its<br /> dull face’ marks of criminality which could only<br /> escape the notice of the uninformed. It is not<br /> likely to mislead the critical. Nevertheless it has<br /> deceived many of my uncritical correspondents, and<br /> largely for this reason it has constantly found its<br /> way into print without meeting serious confutation.<br /> It may therefore be worth while setting its true<br /> origin and subsequent history on record. Nothing<br /> that I can do is likely in all the circumstances of<br /> the case to prevent an occasional resurrection of<br /> the bodiless and spiritless creation, but at present<br /> the meagre spectre appears to walk in various<br /> quarters unimpeded, and an endeavour to lay it<br /> here may not be without its uses.<br /> <br /> Through the first half of 1763 there was published<br /> a monthly magazine called the Theatrical Review,<br /> or Annals of the Drama, an anonymous miscellany<br /> of dramatic biography and criticism. It ceased<br /> at the end of six months, and the six instalments<br /> were re-issued as “ Volume I.” at the end of June,<br /> 1763; that volume had no successor.* The<br /> Theatrical Review, a colourless contribution to<br /> the journalism of the day, lacked powers of<br /> endurance. All that is worth noting of it now<br /> is that among its contributors was at least one<br /> interesting personality. He was a young man of<br /> good education and independent means, who had<br /> chambers in the Temple, and was enthusiastically<br /> applying himself to a study of Shakespeare and<br /> Elizabethan dramatic literature. His name, George<br /> Steevens, acquired in later years world-wide fame<br /> as that of the most learned of Shakespearean com-<br /> mentators. Of the real value of Steevens’s scholar-<br /> ship no question is admissible, and his reputation<br /> justly grew with his years. Yet Steevens’s temper<br /> was singularly perverse and mischievous. His con-<br /> fidence in his own powers led him to contemn the<br /> powers of other people. He enjoyed nothing so<br /> much as mystifying those who were engaged in the<br /> same pursuits as himself, and his favourite method<br /> of mystification was to announce anonymously<br /> the discovery of documents which owed all their<br /> existence to his own ingenuity. This, he admitted,<br /> was his notion of “fun.” Whenever the whim<br /> seized him, he would in gravest manner reveal to<br /> the Press, or even contrive to bring to the notice of a<br /> learned society, some alleged relic in manuscript or<br /> in stone which he had deliberately manufactured.<br /> His sole aim was to recreate himself with laughter<br /> at the perplexity that such unholy pranks invariably<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> * Other independent publications of similar character<br /> appeared under the identical title in 1758 and 1772. The<br /> latter collected the ephemeral dramatic criticisms of John<br /> Potter, a well-known writer for the stage,<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> 18<br /> <br /> aroused. It is one of these Puck-like tricks that<br /> has spread confusion among my correspondents.<br /> <br /> The Theatrical Review, in its second number,<br /> offered an anonymous biography of the great<br /> actor and theatrical manager of Shakespeare’s<br /> day, Edward Alleyn. This biography was clearly<br /> one of Steevens’s earliest efforts. It is for the most<br /> part an innocent compilation. But it contains<br /> one passage in its author’s characteristic vein of<br /> mischief, which requires close attention in this place.<br /> Midway in the essay the reader was solemnly assured<br /> that a brand-new contemporary reference to Alleyn’s<br /> eminent associate Shakespeare was at his disposal.<br /> The new story “ carries with it ” (he was told) “ all<br /> the air of probability and truth, and has never been<br /> in print before.” “A gentleman of honour and<br /> veracity,” ran the next sentences, which artfully<br /> put the unwary student off his guard, “ in the com-<br /> mission of the peace for Middlesex, has shown us a<br /> letter dated in the year 1600, which he assures us has<br /> been in the possession of his family, by the mother’s<br /> side, for a long series of years, and which bears all<br /> the marks of antiquity.” The superscription was<br /> interpreted to run, “For Master Henrie Marle<br /> livynge at the sygne of the rose by the palace.”<br /> There followed at full length the paper of which<br /> the family of the honourable and veracious gentle-<br /> man “in the commission of the peace for Middlesex ”<br /> had become possessed “ by the mother’s side.” The<br /> words were these :—<br /> <br /> “ FRIENDE MARLE,<br /> <br /> “1 must desyre that my syster hyr watche, and<br /> the cookerie booke you promysed, may be sent by the man.<br /> I never longed for thy company more than last night ; we<br /> were all very merrye at the Globe, when Ned Alleyn did<br /> not scruple to affyrme pleasantely to thy friend Will, that<br /> he had stolen his speech about the qualityes of an actor’s<br /> excellencye, in Hamlet hys tragedye, from conversations<br /> manyfold which had passed between them, and opinyons<br /> given by Allen touchinge the subject. Shakespeare did<br /> not take this talke in good sorte; but Jonson put an end<br /> to the stryfe with wittielie saying, ‘“ This affaire needeth<br /> no contentione; you stole it from Ned, no doubt ; do not<br /> marvel ; have you not seen him act tymes out of number”?<br /> <br /> “Believe me most syncerelie,<br /> “ Harrie<br /> “ Thyne<br /> “G, PEEL.”<br /> <br /> The text of this strangely-spelt, strangely-<br /> worded epistle, with its puny efforts at a jest, was<br /> succeeded by a suggestion that “G. Peel,’ the<br /> alleged signatory, could be none other than George<br /> Peele, the dramatist, who achieved reputation in<br /> Shakespeare’s early days.<br /> <br /> Thus the freakish Steevens baited his hook.<br /> The sport which followed must have exceeded the<br /> impish angler’s expectations. Any one familiar<br /> with the bare outline of Elizabethan literary history<br /> should have perceived that a trap had been set.<br /> The letter was assigned to the year 1600. Shake-<br /> <br /> speare’s play of “ Hamlet,” to the performance of<br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> which it unconcernedly refers, was not produced<br /> before 1602 ; at that date George Peele had lain<br /> full four years in his grave. Peele could never<br /> have passed the portals of the theatre called the<br /> “ Globe’; for it was not built until 1599. No<br /> tavern of the name is known. The surname of<br /> the peisoas to whom the letter was pretended to<br /> have been addressed, is suspicious. ‘ Marle” was<br /> one way of spelling “ Marlowe” at a period when<br /> forms of surnames varied with the caprice of the<br /> writer. The great dramatist, Christopher Marle,<br /> or Marloe, or Marlowe, had died in 1593; but<br /> “Henrie Marle” is counterfeit coinage of no<br /> doubtful stamp. The language and the style of<br /> the letter are obviously undeserving of serious<br /> examination. They are of a far later period than<br /> the Elizabethan age. Safely might the heaviest<br /> odds be laid that in no year of the reign of Queen<br /> Elizabeth ‘did friende Marle promyse G. Peel his<br /> syster that he would send hyr watche and the<br /> cookerie booke by the man,” or that “ Ned Alleyn<br /> made pleasante affirmation to G. Peel of friend Will’s<br /> theft of the speech in ‘Hamlet’ concerning an<br /> actor’s excellencye.”’ From top to toe the imposture<br /> stands confessed. But the general reader of the<br /> eighteenth century was confiding, unsuspicious,<br /> greedy of novel information. The description of<br /> the source of the document seemed to him precise<br /> enough to silence doubt. The Theatrical Review<br /> of 1763 succeeded in launching the fraud on a<br /> quite triumphal progress.<br /> <br /> Again and again, as the century advanced, was<br /> G. Peel’s declaration to “friend Marle” paraded,<br /> without hint of its falsity, to the gaze of purblind<br /> snappers-up of Shakespearean trifles. Seven years<br /> after its first publication, the epistle found admis-<br /> sion in a somewhat altered setting into so reputable<br /> a periodical as the “Annual Register.” Burke<br /> was still connected with that useful publication,<br /> and whatever information the “ Register” shielded,<br /> was reckoned to be of veracity. ‘‘G,. Peel” and<br /> “friende Marle” were there suffered to play their<br /> pranks in the best society in the year 1770.<br /> <br /> In 1777 there appeared an ambitious work of<br /> reference, entitled “‘ Biographia Literaria; or a<br /> Biographical History of Literature,” which gave its<br /> author, John Berkenhout,a free-thinking physician,<br /> his chief claim to remembrance. Steevens was a<br /> friend of his, and helped him in the preparation of<br /> the book. Into his account of Shakespeare, the<br /> credulous Berkenhout introduced quite honestly<br /> the fourteen-year old forgery. The reputed date<br /> of 1600, which the supposititious justice of the peace<br /> had given it in the Theatrical Review, was now<br /> suppressed. Berkenhout confined comment to the<br /> halting reminiscence, ‘‘ Whence I copied this letter<br /> T do not recollect, but I remember that at the time of<br /> transcribing it I had no doubt of its authenticity.”<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> Thrice had the trick been worked effectively in<br /> conspicuous places before Steevens died in 1800.<br /> But the evil that he did lived after him, and within<br /> a year of his death the old banner of imposture was<br /> waved by a living hand more vigorously than before.<br /> A correspondent, who concealed his identity under<br /> the signature of “Grenovicus,” sent Peel’s letter to<br /> the Gentleman’s Magazine in 1801, and it was duly<br /> reprinted in the number for June. ‘“Grenovicus”<br /> had the assurance to claim the letter as his own<br /> discovery. ‘‘To my knowledge,” he wrote, “ it has<br /> never yet appeared in print.” He refrained from<br /> indicating how he had gained access to it, but<br /> congratulated himself and the readers of the<br /> Gentleman’s Magazine on the valiant feast he<br /> provided for them. His act was apparently taken<br /> by the readers of the Gentleman&#039;s Magazine at his<br /> own valuation.<br /> <br /> Not that the discerning critic elsewhere remained<br /> altogether passive. Isaac D’Israeli denounced the<br /> fraud in his “ Curiosities of Literature,” but he and<br /> others did their protesting gently. The fraud<br /> looked to them too shamefaced to merit a vigorous<br /> onslaught. They imagined the misbegotten epistle<br /> must die of its own inanity. In this they mis-<br /> calculated the credulity of the general reader.<br /> “Grenovicus” of the Gentleman&#039;s Magazine had<br /> numerous disciples. Many a time during the<br /> past century has his exploit been repeated, and<br /> “@, Peel” has emerged from the shades of a long-<br /> forgotten book or periodical to disfigure the page<br /> of a modern popular magazine. I have met him<br /> in all his impudence in at least one collection<br /> of Shakespeareana published during the present<br /> century. His occasional re-interment in the future<br /> from the time-honoured jungle of the ‘‘ Annual<br /> Register ” the Gentleman’s Magazine may safely be<br /> prophesied. In those dusky retreats the forged<br /> letter lurks unchallenged, and there will always be<br /> some explorers, who, being strangers to exact know-<br /> ledge, will from time to time suddenly run the<br /> unhallowed thing to earth and bring it forth asa<br /> new and unsuspected truth.<br /> <br /> Perhaps forgery is too big a word to apply to<br /> Steevens’s insolent concoction. Others worked at<br /> later periods on lines similar to his ; but, unlike his<br /> disciples, he did not seek from his misdirected<br /> ingenuity pecuniary gain or even notoriety; for he<br /> never set his name to this invention of “Peel” and<br /> “Marle,” and their insipid chatter about “ Hamlet ”<br /> at the “Globe.” It is difficult to detect humour<br /> in Steevens’s endeavour to delude the unwary.<br /> But the perversity of the human intellect has no<br /> limits. This ungainly example of it is only worth<br /> attention because it has sailed under its false colours<br /> without serious molestation for one hundred and<br /> <br /> forty years.<br /> Sripney Lug.<br /> <br /> 19<br /> <br /> THE COMMERCIAL ASPECTS OF<br /> AUTHORSHIP.<br /> —_+———_<br /> <br /> UTHORS may be classified in various ways,<br /> according to the point of view from which<br /> they are regarded. For the purposes of<br /> <br /> this paper they may be divided roughly into three<br /> classes : (1) Those who live by tlieir work. (2)<br /> Those who supplement by their work incomes<br /> derived from other sources sufficient to enable<br /> them to live without writing. (3) Those who.<br /> write without relying on the profits of their work<br /> to any appreciable extent. There are also men<br /> and women not yet ranking as authors who aspire<br /> to belong to one of these classes. Hach of the<br /> three classes defined above may again be divided<br /> into two sections, the one consisting of those who<br /> pay to their business relations with business men<br /> publishing their writings as close attention as they<br /> can, and the other of those who do not. The object<br /> of an autbor in paying attention to business is<br /> usually to make the full profit which is his due.<br /> This, however, need not be his only motive, for in<br /> some cases a writer is chiefly concerned with<br /> gaining access to the largest possible number of<br /> the public in order to make his opinions known,<br /> or for other reasons, and then the methods by<br /> which his work is circulated, and the considera-<br /> tion and supervision of details connected with this<br /> may be of importance to him. The largest pro-<br /> portion of those who from indifference to pecuniary<br /> considerations or other causes do not make as<br /> large a profit as they are fairly entitled to do,<br /> naturally belong to the third of the classes sug-<br /> gested. There are, however, many of them to be<br /> found in the second, and a smaller proportion in<br /> the first. On the other hand, there are some who<br /> obtain full value for their literary wares, who<br /> might by their position be supposed to be in-<br /> different in the matter. The eminent statesman<br /> who writes on “Fiscal Fatuity” in a heavy<br /> magazine, and the lady of title who publishes an<br /> article in a lighter periodical on “Ought Girls to<br /> Chaperon their Mothers ?” may be looked on by<br /> some of their fellow-contributors as essentially<br /> amateurs, but they are as a rule not only desirous,<br /> but thoroughly able to obtain very good prices.<br /> Their competition may be regarded by some writers<br /> as not quite fair, but it is at least as honourable as<br /> that of those who endeavour to obtain publication<br /> by underselling others to whom payment is a more<br /> necessary consideration than to themselves. It is<br /> to writers who neglect, and possibly despise, the<br /> business side of the author’s calling that this<br /> paper is primarily directed, and particularly to<br /> any who may not avail themselves of the assistance<br /> in such matters which the Society of Authors<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> 20<br /> <br /> supplies. They are principally to be found outside<br /> its ranks; but the circulation of Zhe Author is<br /> not confined to members, nor has the society in<br /> establishing and strengthening the commercial<br /> position of authorship benefited its members<br /> only.<br /> <br /> That authorship should have a commercial<br /> position, or a commercial aspect at all, is treated<br /> by some as undesirable. This view is put forward<br /> both by those who wish to make as much money<br /> as possible by exploiting the author’s work, and<br /> by others who claim that art should be pursued<br /> “for art’s sake,” and see something degrading in<br /> an author bargaining for the best price obtain-<br /> able, as if he were a mere capitalist or artizan, or<br /> any other person seeking a livelihood. ‘ Art for<br /> art’s sake” is an attractive ideal programme con-<br /> densed into proverbial form, but like many charming<br /> ideas it is more frequently recommended to others<br /> than carried into practice by those who preach it.<br /> Even they who claim to pursue “art for art’s<br /> sake? and gain the reputation of actually doing<br /> so, may to some extent be deceiving themselves<br /> and others. “ Art for amusement’s sake” is quite<br /> a different thing, and so is “art for notoriety’s<br /> sake.” Either can be quite harmless to those<br /> immediately concerned, but may to some extent<br /> affect fellow artists injuriously.<br /> <br /> At the last dinner of the Incorporated Society<br /> of Authors, Mr. Rider Haggard made a<br /> speech in which incidentally he proclaimed his<br /> opinion that Milton, when he accepted £10 for<br /> “Paradise Lost,” did so for no other reason<br /> than because it was the best price he could get.<br /> Turning to our own times and mentally reviewing<br /> the names of those held eminent in the artistic<br /> professions, we should find it difficult to discover<br /> many who pursue a different policy. We might,<br /> indeed, among the ablest writers, painters, sculptors<br /> and actors of to-day light upon some who are not<br /> keen men or women of business, and who conse-<br /> quently do not get for their work the bes! price<br /> possible. We should find both among those out-<br /> wardly most successful and those less so, many<br /> doing their best work without regard for the question<br /> whether their best work in an artistic sense would<br /> be most popular or most lucrative, but we should<br /> not find or expect to find them giving away<br /> their productions for less than the market value<br /> vis they had succeeded in establishing for<br /> them.<br /> <br /> It would, therefore, be impossible to say with<br /> truth that in the professions selected above as<br /> entitled to be termed artistic, the best workers<br /> were indifferent to pecuniary *value or would<br /> repudiate the existence of a business side to art.<br /> They would not obtrude it nor should anyone else.<br /> The Author, however, is the organ of a society<br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> which concerns itself principally with the business<br /> aspects of authorship, and these aspects are<br /> necessarily conspicuous in its pages.<br /> <br /> If, however, it is conceded that authorship has its<br /> commercial side, which is not altogether undeserving<br /> of consideration, it may be worth while to ask<br /> whether authors who are indifferent in business<br /> matters can in any case justify their attitude.<br /> They are not to be found in great numbers, per-<br /> haps, in the class of professional writers, but all<br /> must recognise the fact that loose business methods<br /> may substantially diminish the circulation of the<br /> author’s work if it is his ambition to increase the<br /> number of his readers, and that from a pecuniary<br /> point of view they can increase the profits of no<br /> one except the publisher. It has, however, been<br /> pointed out that there are authors to whom their<br /> literary work as such is not essential to their liveli-<br /> hood. A considerable bulk of literature is put upon<br /> the market by these, while some of it is of high<br /> value, both from a pecuniary point of view and<br /> otherwise. Many scientific writers, compilers of<br /> educational books, travellers and biographers, for<br /> example, are to be found among authors who do<br /> not live by their pens, as well as among producers<br /> of fiction, poetry, and lighter literary work. It is<br /> among these that the business possibilities of<br /> authorship are most frequently neglected, and if<br /> they are reminded of them, they have many reasons<br /> to give for their indifference.<br /> <br /> In the first place they may say that the matter<br /> is their concern, and the concern of no one else.<br /> In this they are only partly right. To object<br /> to one person under-selling another savours of<br /> trades unionism and of protective policies, regarded<br /> by some as leading to objectionable interference<br /> with the freedom of contract. There is, however,<br /> an undeniable hardship inflicted upon all in a<br /> weak position (7.e., those who have to work to live<br /> and who are struggling to do so), when others in<br /> a stronger position (i.e., those subject to no such<br /> necessity) under-sell them, or by acquiescing in<br /> lax business ways, make it difficult for any to<br /> insist upon stricter methods. These are the<br /> principal results of easy going ways, where the<br /> relations between the author and the publisher or<br /> editor are concerned. ‘Those, however, who are<br /> under discussion may say on the other hand:<br /> “We pursue a course which suits our objects.<br /> We desire to obtain public notice, for perfectly<br /> honest reasons. We write upon topics which we<br /> <br /> seek to make widely known, and we can best make<br /> <br /> them known by giving the terms asked by those<br /> who can secure a large circulation for us.” To<br /> such as these it may be pointed out that stricter<br /> methods will enable them to secure what they<br /> desire with greater certainty. Price is not the only<br /> important point which is stipulated for‘in a literary<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR. 21<br /> <br /> contract. The conditions under which the work<br /> will be placed upon the market, the manner in<br /> which it will be advertised, and other details also<br /> of importance have to be provided for, and the<br /> contract to publish will not be carried out with<br /> less energy, because the author understands and<br /> expects to be informed of the steps which are taken<br /> to secure the desired result. Even those, there-<br /> fore, to whom the possible money value of literary<br /> work is of no interest cannot afford to neglect the<br /> business side of literature, if they are in earnest<br /> in writing at all. Those who are not in earnest<br /> are recommended to become so, or to leave litera-<br /> ture alone.<br /> <br /> In any case the commercial aspects of author-<br /> ship are worthy of the study of all writers. It has<br /> already been said that such matters need not<br /> be made obtrusive, but it may also be observed<br /> that the more carefully they are attended to, the<br /> less likely they are to be forced into prominence.<br /> It is the author who is loose in his business<br /> arrangements in their early stages who finds<br /> himself later on obliged to make them public in a<br /> court of law, or to forego advantages to which his<br /> indifference is less absolute than he supposed.<br /> <br /> H, A. A.<br /> $$<br /> <br /> GOLLANCZ vy. J. M. DENT &amp; CO.<br /> ————1—<br /> OME of our readers may have noticed in the<br /> daily papers some months ago the report of<br /> a law case of interest to authors under the<br /> above title. It has not previously been mentioned<br /> in The Author because the case decided in the<br /> Courts covered only part of the area of controversy<br /> between the parties. All matters in dispute were<br /> ultimately satisfactorily settled with the assistance<br /> of the Society, and the points of interest to authors<br /> may now be referred to.<br /> <br /> The essential facts are as follows: Mr. Gollancz<br /> was the editor of “The Temple Shakespeare,”<br /> published by Messrs. J. M. Dent &amp; Co.; he also<br /> occupied till 1901 the position of general literary<br /> adviser to that firm, and was editor of the “ Temple<br /> Classics,” etc. The documents embodying the<br /> terms under which the parties were working<br /> together were informal, and the recent actions<br /> arose out of the obscurity of some provisions of<br /> these documents. The moral of the case is the old<br /> caution which can never be urged too strongly on<br /> authors: that their business arrangements should<br /> be clearly and accurately defined, however close,<br /> as in the present instance, may be their relations<br /> with their publishers. When Mr. Gollancz sought<br /> and obtained the help of the Committee in 1901<br /> his relations with his publishers had become very<br /> strained, and, shortly afterwards, Messrs, Dent<br /> <br /> gave him notice to put an end to his engagement as<br /> their literary adviser, and Mr. Gollancz felt obliged<br /> to take action against them. The questions that<br /> arose in this action will be dealt with presently,<br /> <br /> In the following spring (1902) Messrs. Dent<br /> announced the production of a “Temple Shakes-<br /> peare for Schools,” edited, not by Mr. Gollancz, but<br /> by Mr. Oliphant Smeaton and other writers.<br /> Mr. Gollancz deeming this to be an infringement<br /> of his rights, protested, and, failing to obtain<br /> redress, commenced an action for an injunction<br /> and damages in the Chancery Division. By<br /> one of the clauses of the agreement as to “The<br /> Temple Shakespeare,” it had been agreed that, in<br /> the event of a cheaper or other form of edition of<br /> any or either of the plays of Shakespeare being<br /> thought desirable by Messrs. Dent, it should form the<br /> subject of a new agreement with Mr. Gollancz on<br /> proratd terms. A School Edition had been long in<br /> contemplation in pursuance of this agreement, and<br /> before the breach between the parties a definite<br /> arrangement had been come to as to the amount<br /> of royalty to be paid to Mr. Gollancz.<br /> <br /> As Messrs. Dent persisted in bringing out “The<br /> Temple Shakespeare for Schools,” the Chancery<br /> action was proceeded with, and came on for hearing<br /> before Mr. Justice Swinfen-Eady on March 26th<br /> and 27th, 1903. The defence raised by the<br /> publishers was that the clause quoted above only<br /> referred to a cheaper or dearer edition of “The<br /> Temple Shakespeare,” but the judge overruled this<br /> contention, and, adopting Mr. Gollancz’s view of<br /> the meaning of the agreement and of his arrange-<br /> ments with Messrs. Dent, gave judgment in his<br /> favour for damages and costs.<br /> <br /> Mr. Justice Swinfen-Eady in his judgment<br /> remarked that the School Edition, as ultimately<br /> brought out by Messrs. Dent, although not an<br /> infringement of the copyright of “The Temple<br /> Shakespeare” (which, in fact, is vested in the pub-<br /> lishers) was intended to have the benefit of the<br /> reputation of that work. In fact, it was necessary<br /> for Mr. Gollancz (as this remark of the judge<br /> shows) to establish that he had no connection with<br /> the School Edition which bore the name of “The<br /> Temple Shakespeare.”<br /> <br /> Meanwhile, Mr. Gollancz’s action for wrongful<br /> dismissal was awaiting hearing in the King’s<br /> Bench Division (where work is more in arrear<br /> than in the Chancery Division). The main points<br /> in this action, which are of general interest, were<br /> two: first, whether Messrs. Dent had any right<br /> to put an end to Mr. Gollancz’s engagement as<br /> their literary adviser which, on the wording of the<br /> letters that had passed, appeared to be (what Mr.<br /> Gollancz had always understood it to be) a life<br /> contract ; and, secondly, whether “The Temple<br /> Cyclopedic Primers,” a series planned by Mr.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> 22<br /> <br /> Gollanez and published by Messrs. Dent, were<br /> to continue to be treated as “School Books” pro-<br /> cured by Mr. Gollancz for the publishers, so as<br /> to entitle him to a stipulated royalty thereon. In<br /> the result, satisfactory terms of settlement of all<br /> disputes between the parties were arrived at with-<br /> out this case coming on in Court, so that the deci-<br /> sion of the Court was not obtained on these points,<br /> one of which would have been of much general<br /> interest—i.e., the meaning and extent of the<br /> expression “School Books.” By the terms of<br /> settlement, however, the justification of Mr.<br /> Gollancz’s action was fully recognised by the<br /> publishers paying, in addition to all costs, a sub-<br /> stantial sum as compensation, and agreeing to<br /> continue the payment of royalty on the Primers,<br /> as arranged for by Mr. Gollancz.<br /> <br /> SPECIAL INSURANCE SCHEME.<br /> <br /> oo<br /> <br /> i HE Directors of the Legal and General Life<br /> Assurance Society are prepared to grant to<br /> members of the Society of Authors the<br /> <br /> following reduction from the tariff rates of endow-<br /> <br /> ment and whole-life assurance, viz. :<br /> 10 % (ten per cent.) off the first premium paid.<br /> 5 % (five per cent.) off each subsequent premium,<br /> <br /> The distinctive features of the Society are :<br /> <br /> (a) Perfected maximum policies by which life<br /> insurance is provided at the lowest possible cost.<br /> For example:<br /> <br /> Age 30, £1 16s. 0d. per £100 insured.<br /> Age 40, £2 10s. Od. per £100 insured.<br /> Age 50, £3 14s. 4d. per £100 insured.<br /> <br /> (0) With-profit endowment assurance, payable<br /> ‘at any age, or previous death, to which the Society<br /> allots the largest bonus of any Insurance Company,<br /> viz., 88s. per cent. compound.<br /> <br /> Thereby a £100 policy increases as follows :<br /> <br /> Duration 10years. 20 years. 30 years. 40 years.<br /> Amount £120 £144 £172 £206<br /> <br /> Special quotations for old-age pensions may be<br /> had on application to the City office, 158, Leaden-<br /> hall Street, E.C., where any further information<br /> may be obtained.<br /> <br /> The directors will be glad to afford every<br /> facility for the working of the scheme, which<br /> they think will be of advantage to the members<br /> -of the Society of Authors.<br /> <br /> J. P. B. BLAKE,<br /> City Branch.<br /> <br /> 158, Leadenhall Street, E.C.<br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> A GOOD BOOK.<br /> <br /> —— +<br /> <br /> V E are glad to welcome a new—the fifth—<br /> impression of Professor Raleigh’s manual,<br /> “The English Novel.”* Modestly<br /> <br /> described by its author as a little book on a<br /> <br /> great subject, it gives in its two hundred and<br /> <br /> eighty pages a singularly effective sketch of the<br /> history of this branch of literature from Malory to<br /> <br /> Scott, with critical studies of the chief English<br /> <br /> novelists before the appearance of the author of<br /> <br /> “‘ Waverley,” these two purposes being “connected<br /> <br /> by certain general lines of reasoning and specula-<br /> <br /> tion on the nature and development of the novel.”<br /> <br /> The historical sketch is adequate, the criticism<br /> generally penetrating and just, but it is in the<br /> connecting lines that we have found most pleasure.<br /> No book dealing with literary principles can fail<br /> to contain something of interest to authors, and<br /> the great expectations with which we approach any<br /> contribution to the subject by so eminent an<br /> authority as Professor Raleigh are fully realised.<br /> <br /> in so brief a note as this it is impossible to<br /> attempt to criticise this little manual ; we prefer<br /> to praise it in general terms and recommend it to<br /> the attention of literary men. Most books of the<br /> kind lose sight of the historical purpose and tend<br /> to become only critical studies ; Professor Raleigh<br /> contrives in the space at his disposal to keep both<br /> his objects prominently before him. His style is<br /> admirably simple and direct, and one lays aside<br /> the book with a clear knowledge of the steps by<br /> which the novel has risen to what it is, and also<br /> with the memory of many illuminating phrases<br /> emanating from a finely critical mind, and delicately<br /> and humorously couched.<br /> <br /> The pedigree of the English novel, as set forth<br /> here, derives from the novella of the Italians and<br /> the romance of chivalry ; the successive stages are<br /> represented by the “ Gesta Romanorum,” Malory’s<br /> “Morte Darthur,” Lyly’s “ Euphues” (strictly<br /> speaking, the first original prose novel written in<br /> English), the novellet or love pamphlet of Greene<br /> and Nash, “‘ The Character ”’ ; the realistic accounts<br /> of adventure represented by Defoe; the picaresque,<br /> the autobiographic, the Schools of Terror, repre-<br /> sented by Mrs. Radcliffe and Maturin, and of<br /> Theory represented by Godwin, the story of<br /> domestic satire, and lastly the union of the novel<br /> proper with the romance which was effected by<br /> Sir Walter Scott.<br /> <br /> Professor Raleigh avoids the confusion which is<br /> a frequent demerit in genealogies of this kind, and<br /> he chronicles vividly the conflict that was waged<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> *«“The English Novel,’ by Walter Raleigh; fifth<br /> impression, popular edition : London, John Murray, 1903,<br /> 3s. 6d.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> between prose fiction and the drama, ultimately<br /> won for the novel in the eighteenth century, and<br /> the later conflict between verse and prose for “ the<br /> prerogative possession of romantic themes,” when<br /> prose was again the victor.<br /> <br /> We wish we had space to quote some of the<br /> many remarks that have arrested our attention<br /> and appealed to our reason during our perusal of<br /> this book. It is Professor Raleigh’s merit that<br /> they are propounded unostentatiously, and as a<br /> matter of course, but from some points of view<br /> perhaps this merit may be regretted, for many<br /> more popular reputations have been upreared on<br /> less sound foundations. With the last one in the<br /> volume we may conclude, confident that its truth<br /> is sufficient apology for its triteness : “‘ Quod semper<br /> et ubique et ab omnibus is the saving creed of a<br /> <br /> novelist.”<br /> 2<br /> <br /> TWO KINDS OF AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> —_—t—— +<br /> <br /> “PYFNHE Truth about an Author’’* is an anony-<br /> mous satire on the profession of letters,<br /> so skilfully accomplished that it would<br /> <br /> not be hard to take it seriously and to be vastly<br /> <br /> annoyed that it should have been written, in spite<br /> ofitsgenuine humour. It narrates the career of one<br /> who, starting in the Inferno of provincial journalism,<br /> attains at length to a kind of suburban purgatory,<br /> and emerges at last into a peculiar paradise of<br /> poultry, Dalmatian dogs, and little grey mares in<br /> phaetons. Itis, in short, a criticism of the literary<br /> life elaborated from the pages of a ledger, but<br /> unless our critical sense is sadly at fault, it is<br /> written by one who, however greatly he may have<br /> regarded literature merely as a trade, had the wit<br /> to see the irony of his own attitude and that of his<br /> admirers. Heischarmingly candid : ‘“ Ofcourse,”<br /> he says, “when I am working on my own initia-<br /> tive, for the sole advancement of my artistic<br /> reputation, I ignore finance and think of glory<br /> alone. It cannot, however, be too clearly under-<br /> stood, that the professional author . . . is eternally<br /> compromising between glory and something more<br /> edible and warmer at nights....I am _ not<br /> speaking of geniuses with a mania for posterity.”<br /> <br /> It is obvious, indeed, that he is not. He is, or<br /> pretends to be, one of that admirable and daily<br /> increasing class which frankly, with no esthetic<br /> pretensions to the contrary, provides sustenance<br /> for the melodramatic appetite of the English<br /> general reader. He admits that he was never<br /> urged to write except by impulses not usually<br /> esteemed artistic. But he sits down to write his<br /> first novel under the ‘“ sweet influences (sic) of the<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> * “The Truth About an Author” : Constable, 1908.<br /> <br /> 23<br /> <br /> Goncourts, Turgenev, Flaubert, and Maupassant.”<br /> Such a galaxy of names would certainly arouse the<br /> suspicions of the class to which he claims to<br /> belong, yet, after all, it is said that our most<br /> notorious female fictionist battens in secret on<br /> Shakespeare, Milton, and the Bible. For ourselves,<br /> we regard “The Truth about an Author” as an<br /> admirable piece of invective, but those who con-<br /> template literature, as the wise contemplate matri-<br /> mony, simply as a profitable if unpleasant meétier,<br /> will be able to find some valuable information in<br /> the author’s remarks about journalism. At any<br /> rate, the book is a relief after the silly and serious<br /> guides that profess to teach the literary art, and<br /> only succeed in exposing the dreariness of an<br /> existence that the lack or decline of artistic<br /> enthusiasm has reduced to a meticulous drudgery.<br /> <br /> A very different kind of personality is exhibited<br /> in an article called ‘“‘ Letters to a Young Writer,”<br /> published in Cornhill for July, 1903. The author<br /> of the article, at the outset of his literary career,<br /> had the good fortune to meet a mature craftsman,<br /> who lavished the wealth of his experience on<br /> his pupil with a most breezy and unpedantic<br /> generosity. The extracts from his letters are all<br /> too few—some day, we hope, the recipient, in the<br /> interests of youth and literature, may be induced<br /> to give us a larger tale—but they are all admirable,<br /> enthusiastic, great-hearted, and full of a golden<br /> common-sense, a charming and spontaneous humour,<br /> that might well have been dated from Vailima.<br /> He was always ready to read and criticise the work<br /> of his young friend, and his criticisms are invari-<br /> ably delightful and of solid value. Here is one:<br /> <br /> ‘* But how about that ball? There is a long description<br /> of a ball, and in the long description there is nothing new<br /> except when she asks him to dance with her. But by God<br /> you are not justified in describing the band.”<br /> <br /> And another, after some advice about the<br /> financial side of letters :<br /> <br /> ‘J do not care whether you are or are not angry with me<br /> for putting this matter plainly. I do care that you<br /> should not be discouraged by what I have said. You must<br /> not lose your head either in success or disappointment.<br /> Every art requires a long apprenticeship. If youallowthe<br /> commercial attitude of your art to press too heavily upon<br /> you, the art will be injured.”<br /> <br /> And again :<br /> <br /> “ Don’t lay yourself out to be smart.<br /> any demi-god or set.<br /> Don’t write to vex or to please any mere mortals.<br /> just to make yourself cry and laugh and swear.”<br /> <br /> One is tempted to continue re-quoting the<br /> quotations of his disciple, despite the fear of the<br /> Procrustean surgery of editors. ‘The words of this<br /> critic, “‘as keen as he was gentle,” were, to follow<br /> the disciple’s phrase, as humbling as they were<br /> bracing. “What can be said of a man who<br /> <br /> Don’t write against<br /> Don’t write for any demi-god or set.<br /> Write<br /> <br /> <br /> 24<br /> <br /> believed in one before one was a man_ oneself,<br /> before anybody else dreamt of doing so? Nothing ;<br /> for he is dead and gone and cannot hear, nor ever<br /> know. But I like to think of him on those<br /> enchanted seas of his, overhauled by an argosy<br /> laden with his own letters, dashed off and forgotten<br /> when he was here; for he will be the first to appre-<br /> ciate them, spontaneously and impersonally as<br /> of old, and I can almost hear him laugh.” That<br /> is how the disciple’s tribute to his master’s<br /> memory ends, and the words are no mean proof<br /> that all the cheering counsel he received of old was<br /> effective in developing a writer of English, and of<br /> winning a fast and unforgetful friend. Someone,<br /> —is it Nietzche ? has said that it is impossible. to<br /> think of a fine personality without experiencing a<br /> sense of liberation, a certainty that humanity can<br /> never become wholly and rigidly sordid. One<br /> feels, as one reads the extracts from the haphazard<br /> letters of this nameless writer, that he was one of<br /> those who possessed that total lack of bitterness<br /> which is the true wisdom, that frank, unpatronising<br /> kindliness which alone can, in the real sense of the<br /> word, educate ; and that even though the literary<br /> fruit of his life’s work be unenduring, yet his<br /> memorial has not perished with him.<br /> <br /> Sr. Joun Lucas.<br /> oo —__-<br /> <br /> CONCAVE AND CONYEX.<br /> eas<br /> <br /> T fell to my lot a few days ago to read a novel<br /> <br /> for a publisher. As is his practice when<br /> <br /> submitting books to my opinion the publisher<br /> had carefully removed from the copy the name and<br /> address of the author and anything which might<br /> furnish me with a clue to his identity, thus leaving<br /> it to me to pass judgment solely upon the merit of<br /> the work and reserving to himself the power to<br /> take into consideration such other points as<br /> “name” and “public” and the rest. The book<br /> was light comedy ; it had no startling originality<br /> of plot, but such as it possessed was ingeniously<br /> planned and dexterously handled. I gave my<br /> employer an outline of. the story, a general criticism<br /> of its style and treatment, my advice—in this case<br /> to accept the book—and my estimate of the com-<br /> mercial possibilities of the work ; and I concluded<br /> my letter by suggesting that it would be kind to<br /> advise the author to secure his dramatic rights in<br /> the story, and offering to furnish any information<br /> desired about the formalities to be observed in<br /> that connection.<br /> <br /> I have assisted at these formalities on more than<br /> one occasion ; they are extravagantly farcical, and<br /> need not be detailed here ; but however farcical<br /> the author has, upon their completion, secured his<br /> play right in the manner prescribed by law, and<br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> there is an end of the matter, and in all probability<br /> the play is never heard of again.<br /> <br /> It is a common-place that a good novel does not<br /> make a good play, and the reason is obvious ; there<br /> is as great a difference between the literary and<br /> the dramatic presentation of an idea as there is<br /> between the concave and the convex surfaces of an<br /> egg shell ; a novel is one thing, a play something<br /> else ; both are composed of the same material but<br /> they are intended to be regarded from opposite<br /> points of view. That there are authors who write<br /> and communicate to the public both plays and<br /> novels, I am, of course, aware, and J am disposed<br /> to think that the writer whose anonymous manu-<br /> script has suggested these reflections to me, is one<br /> of the most prominent among them. Still, the<br /> ability to treat a subject twice, from the inside<br /> point of view which is the novelist’s business, and<br /> from the outside point of view as the audience see<br /> it which is the dramatist’s business, is not common.<br /> Such authors will, however, support my contention<br /> that the play and the book are two substantive pieces<br /> of work, bearing no closer relationship than that they<br /> deal in their respective fashions with the same<br /> theme, and owing no obligation the one to the other.<br /> <br /> My anonymous acquaintance has written an<br /> amusing story, the material of which might be<br /> used to make a successful trifling comedy, and I,<br /> being a conscientious man, have suggested that he<br /> shall take advantage of the ridiculous methods per-<br /> mitted by our legislature and secure his dramatic<br /> rights. Yet all the time I have a conviction that<br /> his chances of success as a dramatist are in inverse<br /> proportion to his chances of success as a novelist,<br /> and that if the law of probabilities holds good I<br /> am recommending him to commit a sort of suicide.<br /> The lessee of one hall in London told me that the<br /> number of plays produced for copyright purposes<br /> on his stage was more than three hundred a year,<br /> and that he could not recall the name of one which<br /> had been reproduced elsewhere ; at any rate my<br /> friend will join a numerous company.<br /> <br /> But I shall be told that there is always the<br /> possibility of huge profits, and that the author<br /> will be foolish if he does not protect his dramatic<br /> rights by the prescribed method, inasmuch as he<br /> will then be doubly safe when some intelligent<br /> person sees the dramatic potentialities of the novel ;<br /> he will be the owner of the play in which he has<br /> statutory play right, and also able to invoke the<br /> more doubtful assistance of an injunction against<br /> infringement of copyright on the precedent of the<br /> decision in the case of Warne v. Seebohm.<br /> <br /> Quite so; but it seems to me that the whole<br /> thing rests upon an unsound foundation. Rights<br /> <br /> in property presuppose the existence of property ;<br /> in the case in point the existence of any is doubtful.<br /> The plays knocked up for purposes of technical<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> representation have not, and are not even intended<br /> to have, any commercial value ; they are blown<br /> together with the object of meeting certain legal<br /> requirements, and so of anticipating any attempt<br /> by a bond fide dramatist to use for his advantage<br /> any of the produce of the novelist’s brains. If<br /> this safe-guarding of property, created in a manner<br /> not specifically defined, but at all events created<br /> incidentally and not by first intention, is the object<br /> of the law, then I think it might be achieved in<br /> some less contemptible and clumsy fashion; the<br /> English law might be altered to conform with<br /> that obtaining in the United States, by which<br /> p: tential dramatic rights are protected by the pub-<br /> lication of the novel; our present system isunworthy,<br /> and if devised only in the interests of the novelist,<br /> it is also needlessly expensive and troublesome.<br /> <br /> If, moreover, the subject were to be dealt with<br /> logically and consistently, all novelists should be<br /> warned to protect their interests and produce<br /> dramatic versions of all their novels “ for copyright<br /> purposes” ; doubtless some enterprising person<br /> would then appear and devote his attention<br /> exclusively to this business: he need never be<br /> out of work in these days. Until such an agency<br /> is actually opened, things will probably remain in<br /> their present absurd condition, and the validity of<br /> the protection which novelists flatter themselves<br /> they have secured by their technical performances<br /> will not be too closely examined.<br /> <br /> Is it, again, to the best interest that it should be<br /> secured at all? I know it is a heresy, but speaking<br /> as one who aspires to be a novelist and who has<br /> not taken to writing for his health, I confess I can<br /> see another side to the matter. An interesting<br /> volume might be compiled, with some such title<br /> as ‘The Foundations of Fiction,” tracing the<br /> common origin of all novels. It would be a<br /> difficult matter for any novelist to establish a<br /> claim to be the originator of any idea, or even<br /> situation ; and if a dramatist utilised the theme<br /> of my excellent novel and manufactured therewith<br /> his excellent play, I am prepared to hear his counsel<br /> argue that as the producer of a substantive work of<br /> art of commercial value his client is entitled to all<br /> the fruits of his labour. More, if the play were a<br /> great one I can conceive its being a public misfortune<br /> that its communication to the world should be pre-<br /> vented by the existence of my own dramatic version<br /> of the theme concocted “tor copyright purposes,”<br /> and produced in the perfunctory manner which<br /> apparently satisfies the law.<br /> <br /> That the dramatist would make handsome pro-<br /> posals to me for a division of the profits accruing<br /> from his play, and that I should deal handsomely<br /> with him, of course goes without saying. Iam the<br /> most sweetly reasonable member of a sweetly reason-<br /> able fraternity, but the amiability and indifference<br /> <br /> 25<br /> <br /> to sordid considerations which characterise British<br /> novelists is not the subject of this somewhat<br /> heretical note. It is written with the object<br /> of advising novelists to consider seriously the<br /> validity of the protection they fancy they secnre<br /> by this formal dramatisation of their novels, and<br /> of eliciting some expression of opinion as to whether<br /> it is really in their own interests and—what is<br /> perhaps of more importance—in the interests of<br /> the community at large, that it should be done<br /> <br /> at all.<br /> V. BE. M.<br /> <br /> 0 —— © —<br /> <br /> THE WOMEN WRITERS’ CLUB,<br /> MELBOURNE, AUSTRALIA.<br /> <br /> ——~&lt;—+——<br /> <br /> “VT J\ARLY in the year 1902 a movement was set<br /> S Hy on foot to start a society of women writers<br /> <br /> and journalists in Melbourne. The informal<br /> preliminary meetings were held at the rooms of<br /> Miss C. H. Thomson, The Rialto, Collins Street.<br /> The idea gradually took shape, and on May Ist<br /> the new club came into existence. Admission to<br /> membership is confined to women who are or who<br /> have been actively engaged in literary work of<br /> any description. The Society began with every<br /> encouragement from editors, brother journalists,<br /> black and white artists, and the reading public.<br /> Mr. Donald Macdonald, the well-known South<br /> African war correspondent, came forward with an<br /> offer of a lecture on “ War and Peace.” Thanks<br /> to the lecturer and to the assistance given by Miss<br /> M. G. Bruce as honorary secretary, this brought<br /> in a comfortable sum with which to furnish the<br /> club rooms. The membership for the first year<br /> was 45. The Society has its abode in Flinders<br /> Buildings, Flinders Street. Meetings, social and<br /> literary, have been held during the year, the most<br /> noteworthy being when, last June, the club had the<br /> honour of entertaining and admitting as its first<br /> visiting member Miss Catherine H. Spence, of<br /> South Australia, who was a veteran literary woman<br /> long before her name became associated with pro-<br /> portional representation. Besides serving as a<br /> bond of social union the club hopes to be able to<br /> extend a friendly hand to visiting writers, whether<br /> from the neighbouring states or from other lands.<br /> There is a plentiful supply of magazines and the<br /> nucleus of a small library of such works of reference<br /> as will be found useful to professional writers.<br /> The first committee elected included Mrs. Cross<br /> (Ada Cambridge), Mrs. Donald Macdonald, Mrs.<br /> I. Aronson, Mrs. Baverstock, Miss Ethel Castilla,<br /> Miss F. F. Elmes, Mrs. Sadleir Forster, Miss<br /> Henrietta McGowan, Miss C. H. Thomson, Mrs.<br /> Evelyn Gough (hon. treasurer), and Miss Alice<br /> Henry (hon. secretary).<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> 26<br /> A CAPE LETTER.<br /> <br /> —+——+ —<br /> <br /> EGISLATION for the protection of works of<br /> art has at last been introduced into the<br /> Parliament of this Colony. At the present<br /> <br /> time, no artistic copyright whatever is in existence<br /> here, though literary and musical works have been<br /> protected by two Acts, dated respectively 1873 and<br /> 1888. For some years past, the Copyright Section<br /> of the Cape Town Photographic Society —number-<br /> ing among its members several prominent painters<br /> —has been endeavouring to secure the termina-<br /> tion of this discouraging state of affairs; and,<br /> after the war had temporarily paralysed all such<br /> legislation, an effort was made to obtain the<br /> introduction of a bill during last Session. Parlia-<br /> ment, however, was at that time too busy wrangling<br /> over racial questions, and the Bill has had to<br /> stand over until the evening of the present<br /> Session. 1t has now passed its second reading<br /> in the Lower House, and its promoters have<br /> every hope that it will complete its course before<br /> Parliament rises.<br /> <br /> The Bill, as printed, defines a work of art as<br /> “ painting or drawing and the design thereof, or<br /> a photograph and the negative thereof, or an<br /> engraving,” and secures the copyright of such<br /> works for fifty years from date of publication<br /> or of registration, whichever of these events may<br /> first occur. Registration is made essential to<br /> obtaining copyright, but works which have been<br /> registered in the United Kingdom are, without<br /> further legislation, protected for the period speci-<br /> fied in the Imperial Act concerned. The latter<br /> provision, which is of course of great importance<br /> to English proprietors, may, at the Governor’s<br /> discretion, be extended to the other British<br /> Colonies, and to foreign countries similarly favoured<br /> in the Kingdom. Some minor clauses of the Bill<br /> deal with fraudulent signature or disposal, and<br /> with alteration, of artistic products ; and another<br /> prohibits the exhibition of any portrait executed on<br /> commission, if its subject, or the artist’s client,<br /> shall object thereto.<br /> <br /> Mr. G. Crosland Robinson, who is one of the<br /> gentlemen connected with the above matter, has<br /> been elected President of the South African Society<br /> of Artists, in succession to Mr. J. 8. Morland, who<br /> has left the Colony.<br /> <br /> The first annual session of the South African<br /> Association for the Advancement of Science was<br /> held this year, in Cape Town. Many instructive<br /> papers were read, and several interesting excur-<br /> sions organised during the proceedings, a full<br /> report of which is now in the Press. The Colonial<br /> Government has made a grant of money to cover<br /> the costs of this publication.<br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> “Cape Colony for the Settler,” by A. R. E,<br /> Burton, F.R.G.S., issued by the Government,<br /> through Messrs. P, 8. King &amp; Co., London, and<br /> J. CG. Juta &amp; Co., Cape Town, is a handbook of<br /> the physical and industrial conditions of the<br /> Colony, each electoral division of which is<br /> separately treated. This volume, which contains<br /> a number of plates, including eight maps, is<br /> intended for the special purpose indicated in its<br /> title, and does not supersede the late John Noble’s<br /> “ Official Handbook” of the Colony, although,<br /> within its scope, more completely up-to-date.<br /> <br /> “Basutoland: Its Legends and Customs”<br /> (London: Nichois &amp; Co.), is the title of a little<br /> volume by Mrs. Minnie Martin, the wife of a<br /> Government Official in the territory named. The<br /> book contains much interesting information con-<br /> cerning the history and mode of life of the Basuto<br /> people, together with a brief description of the<br /> physical features of their beautiful country, whilst<br /> the final chapters consist of native folk-tales<br /> brimful of quaint superstition.<br /> <br /> “The Union-Castle Atlas of South Africa”<br /> (London, The Union-Castle Mail Steamship Co.,<br /> Ltd. ; Cape Town, J. C. Juta &amp; Co.), is a large<br /> octavo containing twenty-one double-page map-<br /> plates, excellently printed in colours ; in addition<br /> to which there are forty-two pages of letterpress<br /> relating to the geography, climate, resources and<br /> history of the country.<br /> <br /> English publishers have recently issued two<br /> novels by South African writers on South African<br /> subjects. These are “A Burgher Quixote,” by<br /> Mr. Douglas Blackburn, and “ The Story of Eden,”<br /> by Mr. Dolf Wyllarde.<br /> <br /> Little that is worthy of note has been produced<br /> by local publishers since the date of my last letter.<br /> To meet a need caused by the all-affecting war,<br /> Messrs. Juta have published a small treatise by<br /> Mr. W. A. Burn, entitled “Claims against the<br /> Military. The Law as to Requisitioning, and the<br /> Hague Convention on Laws and Customs of<br /> War.” In this, the terms of the Hague Conven-<br /> tion are printed both in the original French, and<br /> in English.<br /> <br /> One of the local productions connected with Mr.<br /> Chamberlain’s visit to South Africa was the first<br /> part of “The Commission and ‘Travels of H.M.S.<br /> Good Hope,” a brochure written by R. Moore, a<br /> member of the warship’s crew. The author’s action,<br /> however, proved to be out of harmony with the Navy<br /> Regulations, and his literary career was suspended<br /> by a sentence of imprisonment. An illustrated<br /> guide-book of the Cape Peninsula and environs,<br /> entitled “Cape Pleasure Resorts,” a few educa-<br /> tional works, and a few volumes of Law Reports<br /> and Parliamentary Debates, complete the list of<br /> book publications. New magazines continue to<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> THER AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> appear in comparatively large numbers. Among<br /> these are the following monthlies:—The South<br /> African Medical Record, Catholic South Africa,<br /> Civil Service Review, the Twentieth Century,—A<br /> Magazine of Commerce, and De Goede Hoop—a non-<br /> political illustrated paper, in the Dutch language.<br /> From Durban, we hear of a new weekly paperentitled<br /> Indian Opinion, published in the English, Gujarati,<br /> ‘Tamil and Hindi languages, in the interests of the<br /> British Indians of Natal.<br /> <br /> The MS. of a “ Life”? of Sir Richard Southey has<br /> just been completed by the Hon. Alexander Wilmot,<br /> author of a number of historical and general works<br /> on South African subjects. The late Sir Richard<br /> Southey was for many years a prominent Colonial<br /> statesman and volunteer officer, seeing much<br /> service in the Kaffir Wars, and holding various<br /> diplomatic posts. His later appointments included<br /> those of Colonial Secretary, and of Governor of<br /> Griqualand West. The book will be published by<br /> Mr. T. M. Miller, of Cape Town.<br /> <br /> A prize of 10/., offered by the Guild of Loyal<br /> Women of South Africa, for a South Africa Patriotic<br /> Poem, has been awarded to Miss Ethel M. Hewitt,<br /> who dates from London. The competitors num-<br /> bered about seventy, and the judging was under-<br /> taken by Lady Gill, wife of the Astronomer Royal,<br /> and Mr. Rudyard Kipling, who was at the time on<br /> one of his visits to the Cape.<br /> <br /> After prolonged negotiations between the parties<br /> concerned, the case of Sass v. Wheeler has been<br /> settled out of Court, the defendants agreeing to pay<br /> over the sum of £75. This case was recorded in<br /> The Author many months ago. Messrs. Wheeler<br /> represented Mr. McKee Rankin and Miss Nance<br /> O&#039;Neill, whose right to perform “Magda” in<br /> South Africa was challenged by Mr. Sass.<br /> <br /> The death has occurred of Mrs. Sarah Heckford,<br /> author of “A Lady Trader in the Transvaal”<br /> (London, 1882), and well-known in the late<br /> Republic by her energy as an educational reformer,<br /> as well as by her literary work. Another lady<br /> associated with literature has lately passed away<br /> in the person of Mrs. Alexander Scott, one of the<br /> historic “settlers of 1820,” and a sister of Thomas<br /> Pringle, the South African poet, for whose verse<br /> she is said to have maintained a great affection to<br /> the end of a long life.<br /> <br /> SypNEY YORKE Forp.<br /> <br /> Cape Town,<br /> August 19, 1903.<br /> <br /> 27<br /> <br /> DR. JOHNSON AND BOOKSELLERS’<br /> PROFITS.<br /> <br /> —————+ —<br /> <br /> HE following extract from a letter of Dr.<br /> Johnson to the Rev. Dr. Wetherell, dated<br /> March 12th, 1776, may be of interest to<br /> <br /> readers. It runs as follows :<br /> <br /> “Tt is, perhaps, not considered through how<br /> many hands a book often passes, before it comes<br /> into those of the reader; or what part of profit<br /> each hand must retain, as a motive for transmitting<br /> it to the next.<br /> <br /> “We will call our primary agent in London,<br /> Mr. Cadell, who receives our books from us, gives<br /> them room in his warehouse, and issues them on<br /> demand; by him they are sold to Mr. Dilly, a<br /> wholesale bookseller, who sends them into the<br /> country; and the last seller is the country seller.<br /> Here are three profits to be paid between the<br /> printer and the reader, or in the style of commerce,<br /> between the manufacturer and the consumer; and<br /> if any of these profits is too penuriously distributed,<br /> the process of commerce is interrupted.<br /> <br /> “We are now come to the practical question,<br /> what is to be done? You will tell me, with<br /> reason, that I have said nothing, till I declare how<br /> much, according to my opinion, of the ultimate<br /> price ought to be distributed through the whole<br /> succession of sale.<br /> <br /> “The deduction, I am afraid, will appear very<br /> great : but let it be considered before it is refused.<br /> We must allow, for profit, between thirty and<br /> thirty-five per cent., between six and seven shillings<br /> in the pound; that is, for every book which costs<br /> the last buyer twenty shillings, we must charge<br /> Mr. Cadell with something less than fourteen.<br /> We must set the copies at fourteen shillings each,<br /> and superadd what is called the quarterly book, or<br /> for every hundred books so charged we must<br /> deliver an hundred and four.<br /> <br /> ‘“‘ The profits will then stand thus :<br /> <br /> “Mr. Cadell, who runs no hazard, and gives no<br /> credit, will be paid for warehouse room and attend-<br /> ance by a shilling profit on each book, and his<br /> chance of the quarterly book.<br /> <br /> “Mr. Dilly, who buys the book for fifteen<br /> shillings, and who will expect the quarterly book<br /> if he takes five and twenty, will send it to his<br /> country customer at sixteen and sixpence, by<br /> which, at the hazard of loss, and the certainty of<br /> long credit, he gains the regular profit of ten per<br /> cent., which is expected in the wholesale trade.<br /> <br /> “The country bookseller, buying at sixteen and<br /> sixpence, and commonly trusting a considerable<br /> time, gains but three and sixpence, and if he trusts<br /> a year, not much more than two and sixpence ;<br /> otherwise than as he may, perhaps, take as long<br /> credit as he gives.<br /> 28 THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> “With less profit than this, and more you see<br /> he cannot have, the country bookseller cannot<br /> live; for his receipts are small, and his debts<br /> sometimes bad. oO<br /> <br /> “Thus, dear sir, I have been incited by Dr.<br /> ’s letter to give you a detail of the circulation<br /> of books, which, perhaps, every man has not had<br /> opportunity of knowing ; and which those who<br /> know it, do not, perhaps, always distinctly con-<br /> sider,<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> “Tam, &amp;e.,<br /> Sam. JOHNSON.”<br /> SS<br /> <br /> CORRESPONDENCE.<br /> <br /> ——<br /> <br /> To the Editor of THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> Srr,—An article appeared in the Daily Mail<br /> for September 15th, signed “ Stanhope Sprigg,”<br /> giving some particulars touching _ publishers’<br /> readers.<br /> <br /> As a publisher’s reader myself, I should like to<br /> point out that the statements contained are<br /> incorrect. I say nothing of the objectionable task<br /> that a publisher’s reader may have of sitting in<br /> judgment on fellow craftsmen, but I should like to<br /> point out that the remuneration is not, as stated,<br /> £1 1s. per MS. The writer in the Daily Mail<br /> seems to consider that £1 1s.a MS. is low. Ihave<br /> much pleasure in informing him, from bitter experi-<br /> ence, that many of the publishers do not pay more<br /> than 10s. 6d. a MS., and some as low a 6s. 8d.<br /> or three for £1.<br /> <br /> Thinking this information may be of interest to<br /> some of your readers,<br /> <br /> I beg to remain, yours faithfully,<br /> isle<br /> <br /> +<br /> <br /> BOOK PURCHASERS AND BOOKSELLERS.<br /> (Reprinted from the Zimes of Sept. 18th.)<br /> <br /> Sir,—The following actual experience may<br /> perhaps help to explain the difficulty in obtaining<br /> the books they want which is a constant experience<br /> in the lives of a large number of readers through-<br /> out the British Empire. A well-known London<br /> firm of booksellers who supply books to the<br /> Colonies seriously protested against our annoying<br /> practice of adding a complete list of our Colonial<br /> Library to our lists of new and forthcoming<br /> volumes which we issue from time to time. The<br /> serious objection to this practice—at least the<br /> objection seriously urged—was that the firm in<br /> question constantly received orders for the volumes<br /> in our Colonial Library, and, “of course,” they did<br /> not have them in stéck. If we could not vouch<br /> for this as an actual fact, surely such an attitude<br /> <br /> would be incredible. The ostensible business of<br /> the firm in question is bookselling.<br /> Yours faithfully,<br /> ARCHIBALD ConstTaBLE &amp; Co. (LIMITED).<br /> 2, Whitehall Gardens, S.W., September 16.<br /> <br /> —<br /> A LITERARY FRAUD.<br /> <br /> Str,—The following paragraph appeared in a well-<br /> known, influential weekly paper. Its authenticity<br /> does not admit of a doubt, and the high position<br /> of the periodical isan assurance that the information<br /> is bond fide.<br /> <br /> ‘“T could give you the names of several men, and<br /> women too, who are féted and flattered and made<br /> lions of on the strength of books not a line of which<br /> they have written, or could write if they would. I<br /> myself have just completed a novel of 120,000<br /> words, which will swell the reputation of a certain<br /> popular lady writer.”’<br /> <br /> Other instances, which I need not particularize,<br /> of similar malpractices have fallen under my own<br /> notice. Of course, the perpetrators of these frauds<br /> are pledged to silence and secrecy. The person<br /> who is writing for a livelihood naturally will not<br /> divulge names ; the celebrity who is fattening on<br /> the hack’s brains laughs in his sleeve at the<br /> uncritical, gullible public, and enjoys ill-gotten<br /> gains. It is altogether a disgraceful and debasing<br /> business ; a detestable crime so difficult to prove<br /> and punish.<br /> <br /> Of course, the rage for names, stimulated by<br /> papers devoted to personalities; the craving to<br /> read something by an author who has perhaps<br /> startled the public with daring revelations of gush<br /> or indiscretion, may account for these spurious<br /> imitations. May be, a series of judicious personal<br /> paragraphs, unveracious interviews, or audacious<br /> logrolling may have lifted a commonplace romancer<br /> into dazzling eminence, so that an extraordinary<br /> demand has sprang up for the gifted writer’s books,<br /> and as time and opportunity have limits, the pro-<br /> ductions must be continued by the hacks engaged<br /> for the purpose. I have quoted the actual words<br /> of one in this article, but there must be hundreds<br /> of others ; unknown scribes, who, unable to launch<br /> their own ventures, are at this moment encouraging<br /> the greed of known authors and publishers.<br /> <br /> Is it not possible for this fraud to be stopped or<br /> checked ? If not, it will continue to flourish and<br /> increase, till the time may come when all lucky<br /> authors who have made hits may live in leisured<br /> ease on immense incomes solely derived by this<br /> specious fraud. Is it not of sufficient importance<br /> to engage the attention of the Society of Authors ?<br /> Is it not a disgrace to literature, a stigma on the<br /> profession, and a trial to all honest, literary effort ?<br /> <br /> IstporE G. ASCHER., The Author
487 Author, Vol. 14 Issue 02 (November 1903)<a href="/items/browse?advanced%5B0%5D%5Belement_id%5D=49&advanced%5B0%5D%5Btype%5D=is+exactly&advanced%5B0%5D%5Bterms%5D=%3Cem%3EThe+Author%3C%2Fem%3E%2C+Vol.+14+Issue+02+%28November+1903%29"><em>The Author</em>, Vol. 14 Issue 02 (November 1903)</a><a href="/items/browse?advanced%5B0%5D%5Belement_id%5D=51&advanced%5B0%5D%5Btype%5D=is+exactly&advanced%5B0%5D%5Bterms%5D=Publication">Publication</a>1903-11-02-The-Author-14-2<a href="/items/browse?advanced%5B0%5D%5Belement_id%5D=76&advanced%5B0%5D%5Btype%5D=is+exactly&advanced%5B0%5D%5Bterms%5D=1903-11-02">1903-11-02</a><a href="/items/browse?advanced%5B0%5D%5Belement_id%5D=89&advanced%5B0%5D%5Btype%5D=is+exactly&advanced%5B0%5D%5Bterms%5D=14">14</a>229–5619031102Che Hutbor.<br /> <br /> (The Organ of the Incorporated Society of Authors.<br /> <br /> FOUNDED BY SIR<br /> <br /> Monthly.)<br /> <br /> WALTER BESANT.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Vou. XIV.—No. 2<br /> <br /> NOVEMBER 2ND, 1903.<br /> <br /> [PRICE SIXPENCE.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> TELEPHONE NUMBER :<br /> 374 VICTORIA.<br /> <br /> TELEGRAPHIC ADDRESS :<br /> AUTORIDAD, LONDON.<br /> <br /> SN at a<br /> <br /> NOTICES.<br /> <br /> ——— +9<br /> <br /> OR the opinions expressed in papers that are<br /> KF signed or initialled the authors alone are<br /> responsible. None of the papers or para-<br /> graphs must be taken as expressing the opinion<br /> of the Committee unless such is especially stated<br /> to be the case.<br /> <br /> Tue Editor begs to inform members of the<br /> Authors’ Society and other readers of 7he Author<br /> that the cases which are from time to time quoted<br /> in The Author are cases that have come before the<br /> notice or to the knowledge of the Secretary of the<br /> Society, and that those members of the Society<br /> who desire to have the names of the publishers<br /> concerned can obtain them on application.<br /> <br /> —<br /> <br /> List of Members.<br /> <br /> Tue List of Members of the Society of Authors,<br /> published October, 1902, at the price of 6d., and<br /> the elections from October, 1902 to July, 1903, as<br /> a supplemental list, at the price of 2d. can now be<br /> obtained at the offices of the Society.<br /> <br /> They will be sold to members or associates of<br /> the Society only.<br /> <br /> Ss<br /> <br /> The Pension Fund of the Society.<br /> <br /> THE investments of the Pension Fund at<br /> present standing in the names of the Trustees are<br /> as follows.<br /> <br /> This is a statement of the actual stock ;<br /> <br /> VoL. XIV.<br /> <br /> the<br /> <br /> money value can be easily worked out at the current<br /> price of the market :—<br /> <br /> Cope Soe hs £1000 0 0<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Tic@al Moats: 2.0... iii 500 0 0<br /> Victorian Government 3 % Consoli-<br /> dated Inscribed Stock ............... 291 19 11<br /> War Doan. 201 9 3<br /> Total 3... ou, 993 Se?<br /> Subscriptions.<br /> 1903. £ sd.<br /> Jan. 1, Pickthall, Marmaduke 010 6<br /> » Deane, Rey. A. C. 010 0<br /> Jan. 4, Anonymous 0 5 0<br /> » Heath, Miss Helena 0 5 0<br /> 5 Russell, G. H. ts 1 50<br /> Jan. 16, White, “Mrs. Caroline 0 5 0<br /> » Bedford, Miss Jessie 0 5 90<br /> Jan. 19, Shiers-Mason, Mrs. 0 5.0<br /> Jan. 20, Cobbett, Miss Alice ; 0p 0<br /> Jan. 30, Minniken, Miss Bertha M.M. 1 0 0<br /> Jan. 31, Whishaw, Fred. . 0. 10 0<br /> Feb. 3, Reynolds, Mrs. Fred 0 5 O<br /> Feb. 11, Lincoln, C. . 0 5 0<br /> Feb. 16, Hardy, J. Herbert . 0 5 O<br /> » Haggard, Major Arthur . 0 5 0<br /> Feb. 23, Finnemore, John 0 5 0<br /> Mar. 2, Moor, Mrs. St. C. . 1 0. 0<br /> Mar. 5, Dutton, Mrs. Carrie 015 6<br /> Apl. 10, Bird, Cp. - 0.10 6<br /> Apl. 10, Campbell, Miss Montgomery . 0 8 0<br /> May Lees, R. J. : Sd 20<br /> 5 Wright, J. Fondi : 0 5 0<br /> Donations.<br /> <br /> Jan. 3, Wheelright, Miss E. 0 10.6<br /> » Middlemass, MissJean . ~ 0-100<br /> <br /> Jan. 6, Avebury, The Right Hon.<br /> The Lord . : as)<br /> » Gribble, Francis 010 0<br /> Jan. 13, Boddington, Miss Helen . 010 6<br /> 30 THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> £ 2. d.<br /> Jan. 17, White, Mrs. Wollaston 110<br /> » Miller, Miss E. T. . 0 5 O<br /> Jan. 19, Kemp, Miss Geraldine 010 6<br /> Jan. 20, Sheldon, Mrs. French 0 5 0<br /> Jan. 29, Roe, Mrs. Harcourt i 010 O<br /> Feb. 9, Sherwood, Mrs. , : 010 6<br /> Feb. 16, Hocking, The Rev. Silas 1170<br /> Feb. 18, Boulding, J. W. . 010 6<br /> s, Ord, Hubert H. 010 O<br /> Feb. 20, Price, Miss Eleanor 010 0<br /> » Carlile, Rev. J.C. . 010 0<br /> Feb. 24, Dixon, Mrs. . 5 0 0<br /> Feb. 26, Speakman, Mrs... 010 0<br /> Mar. 5, Parker, Mrs. Nella 010 0<br /> Mar. 16, Hallward,N.L. . 110<br /> Mar. 20, Henry, Miss Alice . - 0-6 0<br /> » Mathieson, Miss Annie . - 010 0<br /> <br /> » Browne, T. A. (“ Rolfe Boldre-<br /> wood”) ; : _ 1 tb 0<br /> Mar. 23, Ward, Mrs. Humphry . -10 0 0<br /> Apl. 2, Hutton, The Rev. W. H. 2 0 0<br /> Apl. 14, Tournier, Theodore ; 0 5 0<br /> May King, Paul H. . : - 010 0<br /> es Wynne, Charles Whitworth .10 0 0<br /> » 21, Orred J. Randal : Jl 20<br /> June 12, Colles, W. Morris . .10 0 0<br /> » Bateman, Stringer . . 010 6<br /> &gt; Anon . i 0 5 0<br /> » Mallett, Reddie 0 5 0<br /> Oct. 27, Sturgis, Julian . 50 0 0<br /> <br /> The following members have also made subscrip-<br /> tions or donations :—<br /> <br /> Meredith, George, President of the Society.<br /> Thompson, Sir Henry, Bart., F.R.C.S.<br /> Rashdall, The Rey. H.<br /> <br /> Guthrie, Anstey.<br /> <br /> Robertson, C. B.<br /> <br /> Dowsett, C. F.<br /> <br /> There are in addition other subscribers who do<br /> not desire that either their names or the amount<br /> they are subscribing should be printed.<br /> <br /> Se oe es<br /> <br /> FROM THE COMMITTEE.<br /> <br /> —_-—~&gt;—+—_<br /> <br /> AT the first meeting of the Committee held after<br /> the vacation, at 39, Old Queen Street, fifty-two<br /> new members and associates were elected. This<br /> election the Committee consider most satisfactory.<br /> The total number of elections for the current year<br /> amount now to 164. The full list of the month’s<br /> elections is printed below.<br /> <br /> A good many small matters that had been col-<br /> lecting during the vacation came up for considera-<br /> <br /> tion, but no very contentious business. The<br /> settlement of the date for the unveiling of the<br /> memorial to Sir Walter Besant was postponed<br /> until after the return of Mr. Frampton, the<br /> sculptor, from abroad. Due notice will be given<br /> to all members when the details are fixed. It was<br /> decided to invest a further sum of £90 of the Life<br /> Membership Account in the purchase of War Loan.<br /> This raises the Society’s investments to consider-<br /> ably over £800. Should no unforeseen claim be<br /> made on the Society’s resources owing either to<br /> the loss of some action or expenditure on behalf<br /> of some other matter in which the Committee feel<br /> bound to uphold the principles of the Society, the<br /> Reserve Fund ought before the end of next year to<br /> amount to close upon £1,000,<br /> <br /> The Committee decided to undertake the stamp-<br /> ing of songs at the ordinary charge for such work<br /> on behalf of those musical composers who are<br /> members of the Society. This action will no<br /> doubt be of considerable convenience to sony<br /> writers. There were one or two small cases<br /> before the Committee. It is, however, inexpedient<br /> <br /> at the present time to declare the action of the<br /> Committee.<br /> <br /> —-——+<br /> <br /> Cases.<br /> <br /> SINCE the last month’s issue of the cases placed<br /> in the hands of the Secretary sixteen further disputes<br /> taken up on behalf of members have to be recorded.<br /> Hight referred to the return of MSS.; of these five<br /> have been successful; the MSS. having been sent to<br /> the office and returned to the author. The editors<br /> in all cases have shown themselves anxious to assist<br /> the Society’s efforts. In one of the other three<br /> cases diligent search has been made, but no<br /> evidence that the MS. reached the office exists, so<br /> although the editor has done what he could the<br /> author has no legal claim. In one of the other two<br /> a letter written by the Secretary has been returned<br /> through the dead letter office, and it has been found<br /> impossible to trace the person to whom the MSS.<br /> were sent. he final case has only been taken up<br /> during the last few days, and no answer has as yet<br /> been received.<br /> <br /> In two instances the copyright of members has<br /> been infringed.<br /> <br /> An author’s song was republished, together<br /> with music, by Messrs. Chappell &amp; Co., who received<br /> the song with the music from the composer, and<br /> published it in ignorance of the fact that there was<br /> any copyright existing. As soon as their attention<br /> was drawn to the matter, without demur they paid<br /> the sum required by the author, and agreed to<br /> publish his name on all future copies.<br /> <br /> The second case dealt with the infringement of<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> i<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR. 31<br /> <br /> the copyright in a dramatic piece by the publica-<br /> tion of the same in story form, incident for incident,<br /> with nearly all the minor details complete. The<br /> story was issued by a well-known publishing house<br /> as a penny novelette. It would be impolitic to<br /> make any further comment on this case at present,<br /> but we hope to insert a statement in 7’e Author at<br /> a later date.<br /> <br /> On four occasions the Secretary had to ask for<br /> accounts which had not been rendered in accordance<br /> with the clause inthe agreement. These have been<br /> forwarded in due course and satisfactorily settled.<br /> One matter was for money and accounts. This<br /> has been completed by the rendering of the accounts<br /> and the payment of the amount. Another claim of<br /> money for articles published has now been amicably<br /> arranged. Lastly, a case has arisen where an<br /> author paid a sum for work to be finished by a<br /> certain date. The work has not been done in<br /> accordance with the contract, and the Secretary<br /> has the matter in hand to see that the contract is<br /> properly carried out. It is hoped that it will not<br /> be necessary to take legal proceedings.<br /> <br /> Of the cases mentioned in the last issue only<br /> three are still unfinished. One refers to a demand<br /> of a member against a paper in India. Owing to<br /> the difficulties of correspondence, and the length<br /> of time that must elapse between each letter, the<br /> matter is still left open, but the Editor of the paper<br /> in question has replied to the Secretary’s demand,<br /> and no doubt a reasonable settlement will be come to.<br /> <br /> Another case is against the firm of Messrs.<br /> Romeike and Curtice, the well-known press cutting<br /> agents.<br /> <br /> A member of the Society, who lives abroad,<br /> wrote to these agents asking that an album of<br /> cuttings referring to a book he had lately pub-<br /> lished should be forwarded to him, at the same<br /> time enclosing their fee.<br /> <br /> Not having received the album our member<br /> communicated with the Secretary, who wrote to<br /> the firm on his behalf on May 27th Jast, and on<br /> the 8th of June received an answer as follows :—<br /> <br /> “ DEAR S1Rx,—In reply to your letter of the 27th ult.,<br /> re the albums of Mr.L.W. We have ascertained that they<br /> were completed and in error sent to Zanzibar.<br /> <br /> ‘We. are extremely sorry for this, and have communi-<br /> cated with Mr. W. We will at any expense procure<br /> duplicate cuttings, mount them, and despatch next week.<br /> <br /> “ Yours faithfully,<br /> “ ROMEIKE and CURTICE.”<br /> <br /> No explanation was given as to why the album<br /> was sent to Zanzibar when the member resides in<br /> Spain. Nor, in spite of this statement and of<br /> several subsequent letters written to the firm, has<br /> the album as yet been forwarded. As late as<br /> October 21st the Secretary received a letter from<br /> our member saying that it had not come to hand.<br /> <br /> _ The third case is for money due for articles pub-<br /> lished in a well-known weekly ladies’ paper. Here<br /> owing to the fact that the member of the Society<br /> lived abroad, there was some difficulty ; but the<br /> Secretary obtained from the editor, ‘after some<br /> little correspondence, a cheque on account and<br /> a promise that the matter would be finally arranged<br /> when the member returned to England and was<br /> able to send in a formal account.<br /> <br /> os<br /> <br /> October Elections.<br /> “ Airam ” : ; :<br /> Armstrong, T. P. . - 126.<br /> S. W.<br /> <br /> Baden - Powell, Major- 32, Princes Gate, SW.<br /> <br /> General R. 8S. S., O.B.<br /> Barker, H. Granville<br /> Barrett, Frank<br /> <br /> Queen’s Gate,<br /> <br /> Thwaite Rectory, Han-<br /> worth, Norwich.<br /> Beldam, George William. Boston Lodge, Brent-<br /> <br /> ford.<br /> Bell, R. S. Warren . 12, Burleigh Street,<br /> Strand, W.C.<br /> Bishop, John . “ Avington,” Hunger-<br /> ford.<br /> Blake, J. P. Bass ‘“‘Danesdale,” York<br /> Road, Southend,<br /> Essex,<br /> Boulton, Miss Helen M. . Seend, Melksham,<br /> Wilts.<br /> Briscoe, John Potter - 38, Addison Street,<br /> Nottingham.<br /> Burrows, Prof. Montagu. 9, Norham Gardens,<br /> ; Oxford.<br /> <br /> Carnegie, Mrs. Lindsay Kimblethmont, Ar-<br /> (Chameleon) broath, N.B.<br /> <br /> Clark, Arthur S. 109, Park Side, Wood-<br /> ford Green.<br /> <br /> 109, Park Side, Wood-<br /> ford Green.<br /> <br /> Cock, Mrs. Alfred(#. Cock) 2, Tregunter Road,<br /> <br /> The Boltons, S.W.<br /> Keningale Ardat, Southall.<br /> <br /> Clark, Mrs. Janet .<br /> <br /> Cook, Mrs.<br /> <br /> (Mabel Collins)<br /> Curry, Commander E. Naval and Military<br /> Hamilton Club, Piccadilly, W.<br /> <br /> Dale, T. F. New Club, 4, Grafton<br /> Street, W.<br /> <br /> Daly, Charles . 31, Drayton Park, N.<br /> <br /> “ Paul Danby ”<br /> <br /> Dutton, T. D. Springhall, Sawbridge-<br /> worth, Herts.<br /> <br /> Escott, T. H.S. . . 33, Sackville Road,<br /> <br /> Hove, Brighton.<br /> Francis, Miss Rose (Ruby Burnham, Norton,<br /> <br /> Lynn) King’s Lynn.<br /> <br /> <br /> 32<br /> Godard, John George<br /> <br /> Graves, Charles L. .<br /> Harrison, Frederic .<br /> <br /> Hartley, Miss Elizabeth .<br /> <br /> Hawkins-Ambler, G. A. .<br /> Hodgkin, Thomas .<br /> Jennings, J. G.<br /> <br /> oJ. MY . : :<br /> Kendal, John (Dum Dum)<br /> <br /> Laverack, The Rev. F. J.<br /> <br /> Legge, W. Heneage<br /> <br /> —tLuceas, FE. V. .<br /> <br /> Mallett, Reddie<br /> Mark, H. Thiselton<br /> Parsons, E. B.<br /> Pierpoint, A. E.<br /> Romanes, Miss Ethel<br /> <br /> “Prior Salford” . ;<br /> Smith-Dampier, Miss N.<br /> <br /> Stanton, Vincent Henry .<br /> Stephens, Lucy H. G.<br /> <br /> Symons, Arthur<br /> <br /> Taylor, Harold<br /> <br /> Turner, Samuel<br /> <br /> Wharton, Leonard Cyril<br /> (Ignoramus)<br /> <br /> Wilson, Andrew<br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> 7, Radleigh Gardens,<br /> Brixton Hill, S.W.<br /> Athenzeum Club, S.W.<br /> Elm Hill, Hawkhurst,<br /> <br /> Kent.<br /> <br /> 16, Adair House, Oak-<br /> ley Street, Chelsea,<br /> S.W.<br /> <br /> 30, Rodney Street,<br /> Liverpool.<br /> <br /> Barmoor Castle, Beal,<br /> Northumberland.<br /> The Wardenry, War-<br /> <br /> minster, Wilts.<br /> <br /> 2, Eliot Place, Black-<br /> heath, S.E.<br /> <br /> 211, New King’s Road,<br /> Parson’s Green, S.W,<br /> <br /> Raymer, near Lewes,<br /> Sussex.<br /> <br /> Harlyn Bay, near Pad-<br /> stow, N. Cornwall.<br /> Owens College, Man-<br /> <br /> chester.<br /> 41, Guildford Street,<br /> Russell Square, W.C.<br /> La Martiniere College,<br /> Lucknow, India.<br /> Pitcalyean, Wigg, Ross-<br /> shire.<br /> <br /> Twyford House, near<br /> Winchester.<br /> <br /> Trinity College, Cam-<br /> bridge.<br /> <br /> Trawsmawr Newydd,<br /> Carmarthen.<br /> <br /> 134, Lauderdale Man-<br /> sions, Maida Vale,<br /> N.W.<br /> <br /> Hampden House,<br /> King’s Cross, N.W.<br /> <br /> Haslemere, Orleans<br /> Road, Upper Nor-<br /> wood, 8.E.<br /> <br /> Brunswick House,<br /> <br /> Gayton Road, Har-<br /> row.<br /> <br /> 110, Gilmore<br /> Edinburgh.<br /> <br /> Place,<br /> <br /> _Two members alone do not desire publication<br /> either of their name or address.<br /> <br /> LITERARY, DRAMATIC, AND MUSICAL<br /> PROPERTY.<br /> <br /> ER ee ee<br /> I.—Dumas Translations.<br /> <br /> Duar Sir,—We understand that your issue of<br /> October 1st contains some criticisms of the fees<br /> which are paid to the translators of our new edition<br /> of the novels of Alexandre Dumas, and we hope<br /> that you will in justice to us insert the following<br /> statement.<br /> <br /> An arrangement was made by us with the editor<br /> of the series, by which he undertook for a certam<br /> fee, suggested by himself, the translation of the set<br /> of novels. He offered to find competent assistants,<br /> and he proposed that we should leave the matter<br /> in his hands. We had no reason to doubt his<br /> competence or his fairness, and an arrangement<br /> was made that he should deliver to us the trans-<br /> lated books and pay his assistants out of the fees<br /> which were received from us. Shortly after the<br /> agreement was made we heard, much to our<br /> surprise, that the editor was paying his colleagues<br /> a sum very much lower than the sum which we<br /> paid him. We at once wrote to him protesting<br /> against the division of the fees, and pointing out<br /> to him that the sum he was paying was far too<br /> low. We insisted upon a higher remuneration,<br /> and in order to make things easier for him and<br /> fairer for his staff, we agreed to pay his contributors<br /> a further sum after the sale of a certain number of<br /> copies of each novel. We hold ourselves personally<br /> responsible and we shall see that such payment is<br /> made when the time comes. The correspondence<br /> is at your disposal.<br /> <br /> You will, we are sure, acquit us of any desire to<br /> induce men or women to translate books at unfair<br /> prices. We have always endeavoured to act fairly<br /> to authors, and we are bound to say that we<br /> are surprised that you should by suggestion call<br /> <br /> our fairness into question without having made -<br /> <br /> inquiries from us concerning the facts on which<br /> you comment.<br /> We are, dear sir,<br /> Yours faithfully,<br /> Mertuvuern &amp; Co.<br /> <br /> —+——+<br /> <br /> II.—The Case of a Lost MS.<br /> <br /> THIS case was heard, by consent, before T.<br /> Willes Chitty, Esq., one of the Masters of the<br /> Supreme Court, in August last.<br /> <br /> The plaintiff was an author, the defendant Mr.<br /> John Long, a publisher, and the action was brought<br /> to recover damages for the detention of a manu-<br /> script of a book written by the plaintiff, entitled<br /> “The New Lorelei.”<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> It appears from the evidence given before the<br /> Master that the plaintiff had written several books,<br /> mostly on historical subjects, and also some short<br /> stories for magazines.<br /> <br /> On the 16th September, 1902, the author called<br /> at the offices of Mr. John Long, taking with her<br /> a typewritten manuscript of a novel which she had<br /> written, consisting of 50,000 words, called ‘The<br /> New Lorelei.” The original manuscript was de-<br /> stroyed after the typewritten copy had been made.<br /> <br /> The author offered the manuscript to a gentle-<br /> man whom she believed to be Mr. John Long, who<br /> stated that he would submit it to his reader, and<br /> let her know the result.<br /> <br /> On the following morning she received a letter<br /> from the defendant acknowledging the receipt of<br /> the manuscript, and at the foot of the letter were<br /> the following words :—<br /> <br /> * Note-—Every care will be taken of works<br /> entrusted to Mr. Long, but he cannot be held<br /> responsible for their loss in transit by fire or<br /> otherwise. Authors should keep copies of their<br /> works.”<br /> <br /> Until the receipt of this letter the plaintiff said<br /> she had never heard of the condition mentioned<br /> in the note. Not having received any communi-<br /> cation from Mr. Long, she wrote to him on the<br /> 5th December, 1902, asking what decision he had<br /> come to with regard to the manuscript, and on the<br /> 6th December received a reply from Mr. Long<br /> saying, “I beg to acknowledge the receipt of your<br /> letter, which shall be duly considered.”<br /> <br /> Again on the 26th January, 1903, another letter<br /> was written inquiring as to Mr. Long’s decision<br /> about the manuscript, to which an answer was<br /> received dated the 28th January, saying that the<br /> letter was receiving Mr. Long’s attention.<br /> <br /> On February 5th, 1903, Mr. Long wrote the<br /> following letter to the plaintiff :<br /> <br /> “THE NEW LORELEI.<br /> <br /> “We find this MS. was returned to you on the 6th<br /> November last ‘per London Parcel Delivery Company.<br /> Will you kindly make enquiries your end?”<br /> <br /> The manager of the London Parcels Delivery<br /> Company was called at the hearing and stated that<br /> no parcel was ever delivered to the company by<br /> Mr. Long addressed to the plaintiff. Eventually<br /> it was admitted on behalf of the defendant that no<br /> one could be called to prove that the manuscript<br /> had been delivered to the company. Mr. Long’s<br /> reader gave evidence to the effect that the manu-<br /> script had been sent to him by Mr. Long to read ;<br /> and he had returned it to Mr. Long with his<br /> comments upon it.<br /> <br /> Mr. W. Oliver Hodges (instructed by Messrs.<br /> Field, Roscoe &amp; Co.) appeared for the plaintiff,<br /> and Mr. Barton (instructed by Messrs. Rivington<br /> &amp; Son) appeared for the defendant.<br /> <br /> 33<br /> <br /> On behalf of the defendant it was contended<br /> that—<br /> <br /> (1.) The defendant was a gratuitous and involun-<br /> tary bailee and only liable for gross negligence,<br /> <br /> (2.) The onus of proving negligence lay on the<br /> plaintiff, and the mere loss of the manuscript by the<br /> defendant was not evidence of negligence.<br /> <br /> (3.) By the terms of the note to the author of<br /> September 16th, 1902, the defendant was absolved<br /> from all liability.<br /> <br /> To these points it was replied on behalf of the<br /> plaintiff that—<br /> <br /> (1.) The defendant having received the manu-<br /> script for the purpose of submitting it to his reader<br /> with a view to seeing whether he would accept it<br /> for publication took the case out of the category of<br /> gratuitous bailees, because the bailment was for the<br /> benefit of both parties.<br /> <br /> (2.) The bailment being for the benefit of both<br /> parties the onus lay on the defendant to show that<br /> the loss occurred without negligence, which he had<br /> failed to do.<br /> <br /> (3.) The terms mentioned in the letter of 16th<br /> September were not mentioned when the defendant<br /> received the manuscript, and could not afterwards<br /> be forced upon the plaintiff; and further, if! the<br /> defendant wished to absolve himself from the<br /> negligence of his servants he must do so in clear<br /> and unambiguous terms, which the note did not do.<br /> <br /> The Master gave judgment for the plaintiff for<br /> £20 with costs, and observed that he would give<br /> the defendant every facility should he desire to<br /> appeal from the decision.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> A writer ina weekly newspaper, Zhe Sphere, has<br /> commented on this case, suggesting that the<br /> decision, if legally sound, on which he throws<br /> doubts, was morally unjust, and criticising the<br /> action of our committee in taking up the matter.<br /> <br /> We are confident that our members after reading<br /> the preceding summarised report will consider that<br /> the committee were fully justified in bringing the<br /> case into Court.<br /> <br /> A publisher is a man of business—or at any rate<br /> a man engaged in business—and as such is (as it<br /> happily proved) in some cases legally bound and in<br /> all cases morally bound to deal with property<br /> entrusted to him with ordinary business care.<br /> When he has failed to do so he will not improve<br /> his position in the eyes of the public by making an<br /> attempt which he cannot sustain by evidence, to<br /> shift his responsibility on to others.<br /> <br /> What would the feelings of the anonymous writer<br /> in Zhe Sphere be, if a watchmaker with whom he<br /> had left his watch for repair after long delay failed<br /> to produce it ? Would his higher morality prevent<br /> him from making any claim in respect of the loss ?<br /> <br /> <br /> 34 THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> III.—Copyright Infringement in Germany.<br /> <br /> The following particulars may be of interest to<br /> English authors :—Miss Henriette Jastrow, a<br /> German lady living in London, wrote a leading<br /> article, published in the Frankfurter Zeitung, under<br /> the heading, “‘ Made in Germany : a word to German<br /> manufacturers.” A little later she received from<br /> the secretary of the Allgemeine Schriftstellerverein<br /> (German Society of Authors) a letter, informing<br /> her that her article had been reprinted in extenso<br /> by the General-Anzeiger fiir LElberfeld und<br /> Bremen, and that, unless she had given express<br /> permission, such re-publication was an infringement<br /> of the law, for which she could demand compensa-<br /> tion. Having taken legal advice, Miss Jastrow<br /> handed a statement of her case to the public prose-<br /> cutor, requesting him to take action.<br /> <br /> That official replied that her article, not “being<br /> instructive, nor technical, nor entertaining,” did not<br /> fall under the provisions of the law, of which,<br /> therefore, its reproduction was not an infringement,<br /> <br /> Miss Jastrow, on the advice of her solicitor,<br /> appealed to the higher court, submitting that her<br /> article was instructive, technical, and also enter-<br /> taining, and the higher court instructed the public<br /> prosecutor to take proceedings.<br /> <br /> On the commencement of the proceedings the<br /> editor of the offending paper wrote to Miss Jastrow,<br /> informing her that he threw himself at her feet,<br /> and offering to pay her for the article if the pro-<br /> ceedings were dropped.<br /> <br /> Judgment was given against the editor, who was<br /> ordered to pay a fine to the State of 30 marks,<br /> and a “ Busse,” or damages, to Miss Jastrow of<br /> 100 marks (£5).<br /> <br /> The Schriftstellerverein has arranged with a<br /> press cutting agency to receive notice of the re-<br /> publication of articles written by members of the<br /> Society, and the names of the republished articles<br /> are printed in the Society’s organ, Die Feder.<br /> Members who observe unauthorised reprints of<br /> their own articles can obtain from the office of<br /> Die Feder a copy of the offending paper, and can<br /> then apply for payment. If this is not obtained<br /> on application, the Society will initiate proceedings.<br /> It is expected that members whose path has been<br /> thus smoothed should pay 10 per cent. of the<br /> money received to the Society, or 50 per cent. if<br /> legal proceedings were taken by the Society.<br /> <br /> Observations upon the usefulness of the Society<br /> would be superfluous,<br /> <br /> CLEMENTINA BLACK.<br /> <br /> 1<br /> <br /> IV.—Denmark and the Berne Convention.<br /> <br /> Tue King of Denmark has issued a decree<br /> notifying the fact that Denmark became one of<br /> <br /> the signatories to the Berne Convention of 1886,<br /> to the additional Act of Paris, 1896, and the<br /> Explanatory Declaration, as and from the Ist of<br /> July last.<br /> <br /> ‘The law authorising this step was passed by the<br /> Rigsdag some time ago, but only came into force<br /> on the date above mentioned.<br /> <br /> Ho<br /> <br /> OUR BOOK AND PLAY TALK.<br /> <br /> ——&lt; 1+.<br /> <br /> ROFESSOR CHURCH, F.R.S., has just com-<br /> P pleted for the Board of Education the<br /> revision of his South Kensington Hand-<br /> books on ‘“ English Earthenware” and “ English<br /> Porcelain.” ‘hey have been out of print for a<br /> year. The professor has recently published, through<br /> Seeley &amp; Co., a new edition of the “ Portfolio<br /> Monograph on Josiah Wedgwood,” which first<br /> appeared in 1894. The same publishers have also<br /> lately issued a third edition of this author’s<br /> “Chemistry of Paints and Paintings.” A supple-<br /> ment to his “‘ Food Grains of India” has also been<br /> published.<br /> <br /> A volume entitled “ Records and Recollections ”<br /> has been printed privately to the extent of forty<br /> copies only for relatives of Professor Church. It<br /> is an autobiography illustrated by photographs of<br /> miniatures of works of art, etc., but it includes a<br /> bibliography and a list of memoirs and papers.<br /> Copies have been presented to the Bodleian Library,<br /> the British Museum, and the Heralds’ College.<br /> <br /> Sir Norman Lockyer’s address “ On the Influence<br /> of Brain-power on History,” which was delivered<br /> before the British Association for the Advancement<br /> of Science at Southport, on September 9th, 1903,<br /> is to be published in volume form by Messrs.<br /> Macmillan &amp; Co.<br /> <br /> Professor Bertram Windle, M.D., F.R.S., Dean<br /> of the Faculty of Medicine, University of Bir-<br /> mingham, has just finished a book on the “ Pre-<br /> historic Age in England.” It will appear shortly<br /> after Christmas by Messrs. Methuen. One of the<br /> principal features of this book is that it contains<br /> lists of the major objects, such as earthworks,<br /> arranged according to counties, and lists of the<br /> principal museums in which the minor objects can<br /> be seen. At the present time Professor Windle<br /> is engaged with Mr. F. G. Parsons on a work on<br /> the “ Myology of the Mammalia,” which he hopes<br /> to get out some time next year.<br /> <br /> A new volume in the Cambridge Historical<br /> Series is “ The Expansion of Russia” from 1815<br /> to 1900, by Francis Henry Skrine, I.C.S. (retired),<br /> author of “The Life of Sir W. W. Hunter,” etc.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> “The Expansion of Russia” has a copious biblio-<br /> graphy and index, and three coloured maps. Its<br /> price is 6s. nett. oe<br /> <br /> When Mrs. Craigie delivered her presidential<br /> address to the members of the Ruskin Society of<br /> Birmingham at the Priory Rooms, she took as her<br /> subject “ The Science of Life: Saint Ignatius and<br /> Tolstoi.” After confessing that the science of<br /> life was the most difficult subject in the world,<br /> Mrs. Craigie said, among other interesting things,<br /> that the philosophy of Saint Ignatius, reduced to<br /> its simplest form, was that man was made to serve<br /> God and save his own soul. Tolstoi, who had had<br /> exceptional opportunities for becoming disgusted<br /> with the pleasures of life and the rewards of fame,<br /> entreated men not to argue, not to analyse, but to<br /> dig in the fields. .<br /> <br /> Tolstoi found nothing but imperfections in their<br /> <br /> social organisations and immorality in their con-<br /> ceptions of life. Money was bad—was too evil<br /> even to be given away ; it must be destroyed, and<br /> work paid for with work. Those were paralysing<br /> ideas. Mrs. Craigie considered that much of the<br /> present discontent came from the artificial and<br /> unwarrantable importance of position. She saw<br /> nothing in enormous schemes of wholesale reform,<br /> but everything in attention to the individual.<br /> “ Miss Marie Corelli is at work on a new novel<br /> which is more than half finished, though it will<br /> not be published till next spring or summer. The<br /> authoress has sacrificed a considerable amount of<br /> time and money, besides giving a great deal of<br /> ‘personal hard work, to the business of saving the<br /> , old buildings in Henley Street, Stratford-on-Avon,<br /> on the side of Shakespeare’s birthplace, from<br /> complete demolition,/and considers she has won<br /> a victory over the vandals by the statement. of<br /> facts in her pamphlet, “The Plain Truth of<br /> the Stratford-on-Avon Controversy” (Methuen.<br /> Price 1s.)<br /> <br /> She has saved some genuine Shakespearean<br /> property duly authenticated by old leases and<br /> title-deeds, which would have been razed to the<br /> ground in April last but for her protest. The<br /> fight, however, which is not yet ended, has taken<br /> much of her time away from her usual work,<br /> though she has caught up with this considerably<br /> during her two months’ sojourn at Braemar. Here,<br /> _ ina quiet little cottage on “Chapel Brae,” which<br /> commands a magnificent view of the mountains<br /> and moors, she has been writing steadily, giving<br /> all her mornings to work and her afternoons to<br /> open-air exercise, and has so far proceeded with<br /> her new romance that she has commenced a second<br /> book, thus having two on hand at the same time.<br /> <br /> This double production, it will be remembered,<br /> she succeeded in when “ The Master Christian” and<br /> “Boy ” were published almost simultaneously.<br /> <br /> 35<br /> <br /> Mr. George Gissing, who is in the South of<br /> France just now, has in hand a piece of historical |<br /> fiction which has cost, and is costing, him much |<br /> more labour than anything he has ever done. fit<br /> all goes well, it may be finished by the end of this<br /> year.<br /> <br /> 4 Mr. William Le Queux has gone to the villa he<br /> <br /> has recently bought in the vineyards on the hill-side<br /> at Lastra, overlooking Florence, and is there hard<br /> at work on a new Italian romance of the cinque-<br /> cento, which piece of fiction he has been contem-<br /> plating for two years../He has lived in Italy many<br /> years, and has devoted all his spare time to research<br /> for the historical romance he is now completing.<br /> <br /> Next year Mr. Le Queux will figure largely in<br /> the newspapers and magazines. “The Closed<br /> Book” is the title of his new novel in Chambers’s<br /> Journal. A story called “ Who Giveth this Woman”<br /> is announced by Tillotson’s Syndicate. “Both of<br /> This Parish” will ran through the pages of the<br /> Morning Leader, while he has still commissions to<br /> complete during the forthcoming year for Cassell’s<br /> Magazine, The British Weekly, and Tit-Bits.<br /> <br /> Mr. Le Queux isa steady and industrious worker,<br /> who writes every word with his pen, hates the sound<br /> of a typewriter, and finds recreation in the study of<br /> medizval parchments, in the deciphering of which<br /> he is a recognised expert. His book, “ The Ticken-<br /> cote Treasure,” which deals with ancient documents,<br /> is one of the best selling books of last month.<br /> <br /> Mr. Stephen Gwynne’s new novel, “John Max-<br /> well’s Marriage,” which has been running through<br /> Macmillan’s Magazine, is to be published imme-<br /> diately by that firm. It treats of Irish life during<br /> the period 1760—80, the scene of action being<br /> Donegal.<br /> <br /> Mr. Stephen Gwynne has also written for Messrs.<br /> Macmillan a summary sketch called “ Landmarks<br /> of English Literature,” which is in type. A volume<br /> of fishing sketches, mainly written this summer,<br /> Mr. Gwynne hopes to publish next spring. He has<br /> also arranged to do “ Moore” in the English Men<br /> of Letters Series.<br /> <br /> Miss Sarah Doudney is busy with a novel which<br /> she expects to bring out in the spring. The title<br /> is “ One of the Few.” It deals with the inner life<br /> of a single literary woman, divided between her<br /> devotion to her profession and her tenderness for<br /> an old lover.<br /> <br /> Miss Doudney, who left Oxford last March, and<br /> is now living in a pleasant sunshiny house on Old<br /> London Road leading to Portsmouth, wishes it to<br /> be understood that she writes alone, and has never<br /> been associated with a co-worker.<br /> <br /> Miss Clara Linklater Thomson, whose “ Samuel<br /> Richardson” was published by Horace.Marshalt in<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> 36<br /> <br /> 1900, and who also contributed a little ‘‘ Life of<br /> George Eliot ” to the Westminster Biographies in<br /> 1901, has been devoting herself to the composition<br /> of school books. She has just published Parts I.<br /> and II. of “ A First Book in English Literature,”<br /> and is now engaged on Part V. of a “ First History<br /> of England,” of which four parts have appeared<br /> and are having a good sale. Miss Thomson is now<br /> acting as educational editor to Messrs, Horace<br /> Marshall. : 2<br /> <br /> Mrs. M. H. Spielmann’s “ Littledown Castle,” a<br /> volume of tales for young people, finely illustrated<br /> by jeading artists, is just out. 5<br /> <br /> Miss Lily Dougall’s new story is to appear first<br /> in serial form in Zemple Bar, beginning next<br /> January, and is entitled ‘The Harthly Purgatory.”<br /> Miss Dougall has left Montreal, and is now living<br /> in South Devon.<br /> <br /> Mr. Allan Fea’s new book, “ After Worcester<br /> Fight,” a companion volume to his “The Flight<br /> of the King,” is to be published very soon by Mr.<br /> John Lane. It will contain five contemporary<br /> accounts of Charles II.’s romantic adventures in<br /> 1651, a lengthy introduction dealing with the early<br /> editions of Thomas Blount’s “ Boscobel,”’ with relics<br /> associated with the king’s escape, traditions,<br /> petitions, etc., and an appendix, including an<br /> enlarged and revised Carlos pedigree, and Colonel<br /> Carlos’s will, etc.<br /> <br /> There are upwards of fifty illustrations in “ After<br /> Worcester Fight,” including many portraits of<br /> Charles and his loyal supporters, and facsimile<br /> reproductions of the quaint illustrations in some<br /> rare editions of Blount’s work, with the author’s<br /> permission.<br /> <br /> Messrs. Edwin Davies &amp; Co., publishers, Brecon,<br /> and Messrs. Quaritch, of London, have in the<br /> press a “‘ Life of Richard Fenton, K.C., F.A.S.,”<br /> the historian, by his grandson, Ferrar Fenton,<br /> F.R.AS., M.C.A.A., to precede a new edition<br /> of the “ Historical Tour through Pembrokeshire,’’<br /> with important additions both literary and artistic.<br /> <br /> A new children’s book by Mrs. Ernest Ames is<br /> just out (Grant Richards). It is called “Tim and<br /> the Dusty Man.” It is illustrated in colours, there<br /> being one large picture to each page. “The<br /> Tremendous Twins,” by this authoress, has gone<br /> well.<br /> <br /> Raymond Jacbern’s new books for children this<br /> season are ‘Three Rascals,’ published by<br /> Messrs. Macmillan, and ‘‘ The Scaramouche Club,”<br /> published by Grant Richards.<br /> <br /> Miss Christabel Coleridge did not undertake any<br /> original work while she was engaged on the life of<br /> Miss C, M. Yonge. She is now, however, writing a<br /> <br /> novel, which she. hopes may be completed early<br /> next year, and she continues to edit Friendly Leaves,<br /> the organ of the Girls’ Friendly Society.<br /> <br /> Miss<br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> Coleridge also hopes to undertake some literary<br /> studies in the Arthurian romances and legends,<br /> <br /> ‘A Lady of Misrule” is the title of the Rev.<br /> Henry Cresswell’s new novel. Messrs, Chatto and<br /> Windus are the publishers.<br /> <br /> John Bickerdyke has resigned his editorial<br /> appointment on The Field, with the object of<br /> returning to his first love, Fiction. His last and<br /> fifth novel, “The Passing of Prince Rozan,” had<br /> the misfortune to be published three weeks before<br /> war was declared, with the result that it had a<br /> greater success in the States than in its native<br /> country. Many authors suffered from the same<br /> cause.<br /> <br /> Austin Clare’s new book, “Court Cards” (F.<br /> Fisher Unwin) is a romance concerning the<br /> “Little Game played between England and<br /> Scotland at the close of Centuary 16.”<br /> <br /> Lovers of the occult and mystical will be<br /> interested to hear of a new magazine, devoted to<br /> these subjects, entitled Out of the Silence—now<br /> in its second year—edited by Miss F. Voisin, B.A.<br /> The October number contained the first instalment<br /> of “The Descent,” a poem by an experienced<br /> writer, for many years a member of the Author’s<br /> Society.<br /> <br /> Mr. Arrowsmith, of Bristol, is to publish imme-<br /> diately “A Patience Pocketbook Plainly Printed,”<br /> put together by Mrs. Theodore Bent. It is very<br /> small and compact, and is for the use of travellers.<br /> <br /> Mr. Arthur H. Holmes, author of “ Gumford,’”<br /> etc., has published through Mr. T. Burleigh, at<br /> <br /> ‘2s. 6d., a volume of stories under the title of<br /> <br /> ‘“ Light and Shade.”<br /> <br /> We have received a copy of a little publication<br /> which may be useful to some of our members. It<br /> is The Book Monthly, an illustrated record, guide,<br /> and magazine for booksellers, librarians and pub-<br /> lishers, book-buyers, readers and writers. It is.<br /> published: by Messrs. Simpkin Marshall, Hamilton,<br /> Kent &amp; Co., Limited, at 6d. nett. Its list of “ New<br /> Books Nearly Ready,” and the classified catalogue<br /> of the noteworthy books, new editions, and reprints.<br /> of the month, meet a want, and that in a clear and<br /> concise form.<br /> <br /> Mr. Kipling’s “ The Five Nations” ranks high<br /> <br /> jamong the books recently published by members.<br /> |of our Society.<br /> <br /> Besides the popular edition, there<br /> is one on hand-made paper, limited to two hundred<br /> copies. There is also an edition of thirty copies.<br /> on Japanese vellum at five guineas nett.<br /> <br /> Mr. John Davidson’s new book (Grant Richards)<br /> entitled “The Rosary” is a miscellany of criticism,<br /> fable and parable, and other utterances in verse<br /> and prose. The Coronation Ode written for the<br /> Daily Chronicle is in it, also “ An Helogue of the<br /> Downs,” which appeared in the Anglo-Saxon.<br /> Review,<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> “; We need only mention Mr. H. G. Wells’s<br /> “Mankind in the Making” (Chapman and Hall),<br /> which is attracting so much attention. It is<br /> being largely bought and widely read. We are<br /> sorry we cannot squeeze in even one extract from<br /> it. Chapter X., “ Thought in the Modern State,”<br /> has a particular interest for members of the Society<br /> of Authors.<br /> <br /> We note, among other books recently published<br /> by members, Miss Beatrice Harraden’s “‘ Katharine<br /> Frensham,” Mr. Stanley Weyman’s “The Long<br /> Night,” Mr. Fred Whishaw’s “A Splendid<br /> Impostor,” Mr. F. G. Aflalo’s “Fishes of Our<br /> Seas,” Mr. Neil Munro’s “ Children of Tempest,”<br /> the Hon. Maurice Baring’s ‘The Black Prince”<br /> (a volume of plays in blank verse), Mr. Robert<br /> Machray’s “ The Mystery of Lincoln’s Inn,” which<br /> has been running in 7ii-Bits: Miss Iza Duffus<br /> Hardy’s “ A Butterfly,” Major Arthur Griffiths’<br /> “The Silver Spoon,” Mrs. Hugh Fraser’s “The<br /> Stolen Emperor,” E. Phillips Oppenheim’s “The<br /> Yellow Crayon,” and Mr. Sidney Pickering’s “The<br /> Key of Paradise.”<br /> <br /> Mr. Max Pemberton is writing a modern society<br /> story for the Queen, rather a novel departure for<br /> him. His play, “The Finishing School,” will, Mr.<br /> Pemberton hopes, be produced by Mr. Frank<br /> Curzon before the New Year.<br /> <br /> A dramatic version of Mrs. Croker’s novel,<br /> “Terence,” is being played in the United States<br /> with great success by Chauncey Olcott, the well-<br /> known “star.” The actor and critics are unanimous<br /> in declaring the part of Terence to be the best and<br /> most telling character Mr. Olcott has ever repre-<br /> sented. The play is drawing enormous audiences,<br /> and will be one of the chief attractions in New<br /> York during the winter season. It will probably<br /> be seen in London at a later date.<br /> <br /> Mrs. Croker’s Indian novel, “Her Own People,”<br /> which she completed last year, is to be published<br /> immediately by Messrs. Hurst and Blackett.<br /> <br /> “Man and Superman: A Comedy and a Philo-<br /> sophy,” by Bernard Shaw (Constable), is another<br /> volume by a prominent member of our Society<br /> which is attracting much attention. “Some like<br /> best the “ Epistle Dedicatory to Arthur Bingham<br /> Walkley.” Some prefer the Comedy ; others have<br /> much enjoyed the “ Revolutionists’ Handbook and<br /> Pocket Companion by John Tanner, M.LR.C.<br /> (Member of the Idle Rich Class).”<br /> <br /> “* At Home’ Recitations” has been published<br /> by Miss Ellen Collett, author of “ Play Time<br /> Poems,” “ Flower Fancy,” and other lyrics.<br /> <br /> The same author is producing a song cycle, which<br /> ‘will be sung by a well known vocalist early in 1904.<br /> <br /> Miss Mary Carmichael is the composer.<br /> <br /> Miss Jean Middlemass is publishing a novel<br /> with Messrs. Digby, Long &amp; Co., entitled “ Till<br /> <br /> oT<br /> <br /> Death us do Part,” which will be on the market<br /> in the course of November.<br /> <br /> A book by “ Officer,” entitled “Smith of the<br /> Shamrock Guards,” has been published by Messrs.<br /> Greening &amp; Co., at the price of 2s. 6d. The book<br /> is a drama, in a prologue and five acts, and is dedi-<br /> cated by “ Officer” “to all those officers who, like<br /> myself, abhor the disgraceful system of ‘ ragging,’”<br /> <br /> Mr. J. C. Dick has published with Mr. Henry<br /> Frowde an interesting book on the songs of Robert<br /> Burns, with the melodies for which they were<br /> written. Those who are lovers of old tunes will<br /> have much to learn from the contents of the work.<br /> <br /> /_On Thursday evening, October 8th, Mr. A. W. |<br /> <br /> Pinero’s remarkable new drama, in four acts and<br /> an epilogue, entitled “ Letty,” was produced by Mr,<br /> Charles Frohman at the Duke of York’s Theatre.<br /> Tt made a sensation. Miss Irene Vanbrugh ag<br /> Letty Shell scored another great success; so also<br /> did Mr. H. B. Irving in the part of Nevill Letch-<br /> mere. /‘The whole cast is an admirable one.<br /> <br /> ——_-+—~&gt;—-<br /> PARIS NOTES.<br /> <br /> —+—~@—+<br /> <br /> NE of the strongest and most interesting of<br /> () this season’s novels is undoubtedly “ Le<br /> Maitre de la Mer,” by M. de Vogiié. The<br /> portrait of the millionaire, Archibald Robinson,<br /> who appears to be governing the whole commercial<br /> world, is admirably drawn. The description of his<br /> office in Paris reveals to us at once the man.<br /> Everything in perfect order, and not a superfluous<br /> piece of furniture or ornament. The most con-<br /> spicuous object in the room is an enormous terres-<br /> trial globe. The only pictures are three portraits<br /> of Gordon, Livingstone, and Cecil Rhodes.<br /> <br /> It is only in very rare cases that a French<br /> author succeeds in depicting a typical Englishman<br /> or American. M. de Vogiié has accomplished this<br /> exceptional feat, for his American is a genuine one.<br /> Mme. Fianona, too, a young widow who plays<br /> an important réle in the story, is essentially English.<br /> There are other characters in the book which have<br /> evidently been drawn from life. There is a French<br /> explorer, who, for political reasons, has to return<br /> to his native country just as he has accomplished<br /> the task which ought to have brought him the<br /> highest honours.<br /> <br /> Then, too, thereisan Englishman, whoat first seems<br /> very familiar to us. “ Directeur d’un magazine ou<br /> il développe ses idées originales, tantét il endoctrine<br /> et stimule ses compatriotes, tantot il court le monde,<br /> approchant tous les princes, tous les ministres ; il<br /> les interroge, il leur en impose par sa liberté de<br /> langage. II a été l’un des premiers instigateurs de<br /> cet impérialisme qwil voulait pacifique, dont il<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> 38<br /> <br /> déplore et finit par absoudre les emportements<br /> belliqueux. ‘Il est trés particulier,’ disent en<br /> souriant les gens de sens rassis ; et leur pretention<br /> est de ne pas compter avec ses idées, avec la petite<br /> clientéle de ses fanatiques. Mais le mysticisme<br /> pratique d’Hiram Jarvis a des prises profondes sur<br /> les coeurs anglais; tel article de lui influence la<br /> Cité, les Communes, la Cour, plus que ne veulent<br /> en convenir ceux qui le suivent en le traitant<br /> d’illuminé.”<br /> <br /> The interest of the story is well sustained, and<br /> the characters are all well studied and carefully<br /> delineated, but the great charm of the book lies in<br /> the setting forth in relief, as it were, the great<br /> difference between the Anglo-Saxon and the Latin<br /> race.<br /> <br /> “Toute mon education,” says the American,<br /> “m’a appris a tenir compte du fait, a en tirer le<br /> meilleur parti pour me faire une vie plus large.<br /> Toute la mienne,” replies the Frenchman, “m’a<br /> instruit 4 mépriser le fait qui opprime lidée, a<br /> mourier plutét que de forfairé.”” The key-note of<br /> the whole book is in these few lines, and the author<br /> then proceeds to explain the difference between the<br /> two men. “Non,” he says, “ces deux hommes<br /> ne pouvaient pas se comprendre. Sous la sphére<br /> symbolique, objet de leurs ambitions et lieu de<br /> leurs conflits, ils personnifiaient le duel tragique<br /> de deux races, de deux mentalités. Tous deux<br /> brilaient de conquérir ce globe, par des voies et<br /> pour des fins différentes: l’un par son or, pour en<br /> amasser d’avantage; Vautre par son épée, pour y<br /> planter un drapeau et s’exalter aux anciens réves<br /> de grandeur que lui rappelait cet embléme. Ie<br /> Missionnaire poursuivait sa mission. ... Son<br /> patriotisme ombrageux prétendait ignorer l’huma-<br /> nité, la civilisation, et cet idéaliste prodigue ne<br /> travaillait &amp; son insu que pour elles. Le fils des<br /> Vikings n’était pas moins sincere, pas moins<br /> fidele au dur prosélytisme appris dans sa vieille<br /> Bible, lorqu’il couvrait de ces grands mots son<br /> besoin d’aventures fructueuses ; et il disait vrai:<br /> comme le désintéressement de l’autre, son indus-<br /> trieuse rapacité collaborait au perfectionnement de<br /> ce globe, a la mystérieuse éclosion du futur ot tous<br /> deux consumaient leurs énergies contraires.”<br /> <br /> “La Vie Simple,” by C. Wagner, is an excellent<br /> book. The author is a great believer in modern<br /> progress, but he deplores the “ confusion de l’acces-<br /> soire avec l’essentiel,” which is so common an error<br /> in everyday life. He maintains that the wealthiest<br /> man may be one of the simplest of individuals,<br /> while beggars, parasites of all kinds, misers, effemi-<br /> nate and ambitious men may be entirely devoid of<br /> ‘esprit de simplicité.” “ La livrée n’y fait rien,”<br /> says M. Wagner, “il faut voir le coeur.... Un<br /> homme est simple lorsque sa plus haute préoccupa-<br /> tion consiste 4 vouloir étre ce qu’il doit étre. .<br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> Aspirer a la vie simple, c’est proprement aspirer<br /> remplir la plus haute destinée humaine. Tous les<br /> mouvements de l’humanité vers plus de justice et.<br /> plus de lumiére ont été en méme temps des mouve-<br /> ments vers une vie plus simple. Jt la simplicité<br /> antique, dans les arts, les mceurs, les idées, ne<br /> garde pour nous son prix incomparable que parce<br /> qu’elle est parvenue a donner un relief puissant &amp;<br /> quelques sentiments essentiels, a quelques vérités<br /> permanentes.”<br /> <br /> One of the finest chapters in the volume is<br /> entitled ‘‘ La pensée simple.” The author is an<br /> optimist, as the following lines will prove: ‘La<br /> confiance fondamentale est le ressort mystérieux<br /> qui met en mouvement tout ce qu&#039;il y a de forces<br /> en nous. Elle nous nourrit. C’est par elle que<br /> Vhomme vit, bien plus que par le pain qu’il<br /> mange. .. . L’histoire de l’humanité est celle<br /> de l’invincible espérance. . . .1 Le pessimisme est<br /> inhumain. ... Pour se permettre de trouver<br /> mauvaise cette chose prodigieuse qui se nomme la<br /> vie il faudrait en avoir vu le fond, et presque<br /> avoir faite.”<br /> <br /> “La Paix Latine” is the title of the latest book<br /> by M. Gabriel Hanotaux. ‘“ L’Energie Francaise ”’<br /> was the description of a tour through France and her<br /> colonies, and this new volume is the account of a<br /> journey farther afield. The author takes us from<br /> Paris to Venice, and from thence to Barcelona,<br /> Madrid, Cadiz, Oran, Tunis, Carthage, Palerma,<br /> Syracuse, and Rome. M. Hanotaux appears to be<br /> well up in the history, the foreign policy, and the<br /> political economy of the various countries about.<br /> which he writes. He is convinced that there must<br /> be a Latin Renaissance, and, after pointing out the<br /> great influence wielded by Italy, France, and Spain<br /> in the past, he shows all that may be done in the<br /> future by the “ Paix Latine.”<br /> <br /> After Pierre Loti’s “ L’Inde ” we have “ Visions<br /> de l’ Inde,” by M. Jules Bois. There is much that<br /> is interesting in this volume, but it is more a series<br /> of impressions than a detailed description of India.<br /> <br /> ‘“‘L’Année Fatale” is the title of the eighth<br /> volume of M. Ollivier’s “ History of the Second<br /> Empire.” It treats of the events of 1866, and shows<br /> up the huge mistakes which were made, and which<br /> led to the war of 1870. M. Ollivier has consulted<br /> the letters and memoirs published on the subject<br /> in Italy, Germany, and England, and has inter-<br /> viewed many men who were in a position to know<br /> all the political affairs of the times, so that this new<br /> volume throws light on much that has hitherto<br /> appeared mysterious.<br /> <br /> La Fayette’s correspondence which contains his<br /> “Lettres de Prison” and “ Lettres de |’Hxile”<br /> (1791—1801) has been published, together with<br /> <br /> an excellent biographical study written by M. Jules.<br /> Thomas.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR. 39<br /> <br /> Among the most interesting articles in the recent<br /> reviews are the following :—“ Les Origines du<br /> Roman Balzacien,” by M. André le Breton, in the<br /> Revue de Paris. “ En Pays Bouddhique,” by M.<br /> André Chevrillon, in the Revwe des Deux Mondes.<br /> In this review there is also an excellent transla-<br /> tion of Mrs. Humphry Ward’s novel “ La fille de<br /> Lady Rose.” In the Mercure de France there is<br /> a most interesting article by Arthur Symons on<br /> ‘Casanova &amp; Dux.” The Weekly Critical Review<br /> is also publishing a very fine series of articles by<br /> M. Rémy de Gourmont on “ La Littérature Anglaise<br /> en France.” This review publishes, too, every<br /> week an article by Arthur Symons, and French<br /> readers appear to take the greatest interest in the<br /> subjects treated by our celebrated English critic.<br /> <br /> At the Francais Blanchette, by M. Brieux, has<br /> been put on again. It is the story of a young<br /> girl educated above her station in life. She finds<br /> herself out of her element in her father’s home, and<br /> goes away to seek her fortuneelsewhere. She finds<br /> out her mistake, returns to her parents, and con-<br /> sents to marry the man she had disdainfully refused<br /> some time before. The play is slight but powerful,<br /> and was as well received as when it was first<br /> produced.<br /> <br /> The Gymnase has put on an excellent piece in<br /> five acts by MM. Gugenheim and Le Faure. Itis<br /> entitled L’Epave, and takes us back to the days<br /> which followed Waterloo.<br /> <br /> Louis XVIII. reigns, and Napoleon’s faithful<br /> soldiers are in disgrace. The piece opens with a<br /> fete given by M. de Montenoi, one of the aides-de-<br /> camp in great favour with the King. His wife,<br /> Louise, is the daughter of General Faverney, one<br /> of the most devoted of Napoleon’s soldiers. He is<br /> supposed to be dead, as he was among the missing<br /> after the fatal battle.<br /> <br /> The Chevalier de Meyrargues, who had served<br /> under General Faverney, asks Mme. de Montenoi<br /> to meet him at a house kept by Fvareste Lemblin<br /> at Reuilly, one of the suburbs of Paris. Lemblin<br /> also has a café at the Palais Royal, which is a famous<br /> meeting-place for the half-pay officers of the Grande<br /> Armée. The police keep guard on this café, fearing<br /> an insurrection against the King. In the second<br /> act Mme. de Montenoi, closely veiled, arrives at<br /> the house indicated by her father’s old friend. There<br /> she learns that the General is not dead, and almost<br /> immediately he appears on the scene and reproaches<br /> his daughter bitterly for having married one of the<br /> King’s minions. He proclaims to her his plan for<br /> bringing about a Revolution, and Louise is tortured<br /> between her love for her husband and her devotion<br /> to her father.<br /> <br /> In the third act we are introduced into the bureau<br /> of Baron Chatelard, in the Palace of the Tuileries,<br /> Chatelard is going through the papers belonging<br /> <br /> to the detective service, and believes he has a<br /> case against Meyrargues and Mme. de Montenoi.<br /> Faverney, too, is there, and has taken the name of<br /> Lieutenant Landrieux. The whole affair is most<br /> complicated, and the situation extremely dramatic.<br /> Another scene takes place at the Café Lemblin.<br /> The chiefs of the conspiracy find that they have<br /> been betrayed, and Faverney suspects Meyrargues.<br /> The final scene is superb. The General is arrested,<br /> he avenges himself on Chatelard, loses his reason,<br /> and imagines himself on the battlefield just as the<br /> military music announces the arrival of the King.<br /> The piece will no doubt have great success in other<br /> countries, as there is nothing from beginning to<br /> end to which exception could be taken ; the situa-<br /> tions are extremely dramatic, and the interest well<br /> sustained. M. Calmettes and M. Dumeny are<br /> excellent in their réles.<br /> <br /> At the Opéra Comique Za Tosca has been<br /> given, arranged as an opera in three acts by MM.<br /> Illica and Giacosa, and translated into French by<br /> M. Ferrier.<br /> <br /> Atys HALLARD.<br /> <br /> a ee a os<br /> <br /> THE HANDICAP OF DISTANCE.<br /> <br /> ee ee<br /> <br /> HAVE been asked by the Editor to give the<br /> readers of Zhe Author an idea of what are<br /> the special difficulties that prevent writers<br /> <br /> at the other side of the world from obtaining a<br /> hearing in England.<br /> <br /> All these difficulties can be traced to one<br /> source, the six weeks’ distance that divides them<br /> from the market to which they desire to send their<br /> wares.<br /> <br /> Of recent years a great many articles and even<br /> some books have appeared, purporting to teach the<br /> youthful writer how he is to open the editorial<br /> oyster-shell. The advice given is on the whole<br /> sound and excellent, only much of it is quite<br /> inapplicable here. For instance, a favourite maxim<br /> common to all such literary mentors runs some-<br /> thing like this: ‘‘Don’t be disheartened, keep<br /> sending your manuscript to one magazine after<br /> another.” One cheerful writer, speaking from his<br /> own experience, thinks that till an article has been<br /> declined by at least forty editors it would be pre-<br /> mature to throw it aside as wholly unsuitable. He<br /> <br /> _ gives instances of articles of his own which had<br /> <br /> been finally accepted after as many as twenty-six<br /> and thirty-seven postal journeys. How would<br /> that work out for the colonial writer? A manu-<br /> script cannot possibly make its trip to England and<br /> back under an average of thirteen weeks, that<br /> would make four journeys in a year. It would<br /> take six and a half years to try twenty-six editors,<br /> <br /> <br /> 40<br /> <br /> and ten years to reach the limit of forty. How<br /> many magazine articles would retain their fresh-<br /> ness all that time ? how many would be lost in<br /> transit ? and what a Fortunatus’ purse would be<br /> needed for postage! All the ordinary obstacles<br /> that meet the young English writer, little disagree-<br /> ments about payment, the loss of manuscripts, and,<br /> more serious and more common than all, the logs of<br /> photos, are multiplied tenfold by distance. As in<br /> Newton’s law, the personal importance of a con-<br /> tributor to an editor certainly varies inversely as<br /> the square of the distance which separates them.<br /> Then editors are human: they can get so much on<br /> the spot that they think twice before accepting an<br /> article if it has to be returned to Australia for any<br /> trifling alteration or abridgment. They hesitate<br /> still longer before they give an order for work to<br /> be executed so far away. I for one hardly blame<br /> them, though when I see the superficial work,<br /> studded with inaccuracies of fact and quite un-<br /> Australian in spirit, which passes current for<br /> Australian news in the daily press and in magazines,<br /> I feel that English readers as well as Australian<br /> writers suffer from a great deal of mutual misunder-<br /> standing.<br /> <br /> If an editor should desire to make enquiry as to<br /> the Lona fides of anew contributor, he very often<br /> does not know how to go about it, and prefers to<br /> take no risks. An instance of this puzzle-headed-<br /> ness of the average English editor was made<br /> public some time ago. When the bubonic plague<br /> first broke out in the Australian ports, a young<br /> man, a journalist, who happened to be going to<br /> England shortly afterwards, wrote a sketch on the<br /> methods pursued to extirpate infected rats, of<br /> which he had been a witness here. The sketch<br /> may have been a poor one, but two at least of the<br /> various London editors who refused it gave definite<br /> reasons of another sort. One said that he had not<br /> heard that plague had seriously attacked Australian<br /> cities, and in any case he did not see that the subject<br /> particularly coneerned readers in London. London!<br /> the greatest port in the world! he last to whom<br /> it was offered before being torn up, remarked that<br /> he no more believed in the bubonic plague rat than<br /> in the delirium tremens snake. An enquiry at the<br /> docks or at the School of Tropical Medicine might<br /> have enlightened him. “Ah! but,” says some<br /> one, “think of De Rougemont.” I do think of<br /> De Rougemont, and would reply to my critic that<br /> in his case it was just because some one did not<br /> know where to enquire or did not trouble to enquire<br /> that his huge canards were let locse on England.<br /> <br /> The first task is to get your manuscript inserted.<br /> That accomplished, in matter of payment the<br /> colonial author is at the mercy of his editor to a<br /> degree of which the English resident can have no<br /> conception. An editor or proprietor can pay<br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> anything he likes, he can pay nothing, and except<br /> to members of the Authors’ Society there is no<br /> practicable remedy. These two difficulties sur-<br /> mounted, there remains the third, the greatest<br /> of all, though it will probably strike some of you<br /> in quite a comical light : To see his own article in<br /> print. With contributions published in newspapers,<br /> the odds are even if he ever does. But what<br /> matter, I hear it suggested, to any one past the<br /> stage of the youthful and trembling aspirant.<br /> This matter, that not only is the difficulty of<br /> obtaining fair remuneration thereby complicated,<br /> but in newspaper work all the practical educative<br /> effect of seeing where the editorial blue pencil may<br /> have been used is lost, of noting what in the<br /> editorial eye—that is, in the last resort, in the<br /> English public eye—are the telling points in his<br /> article or his story. Again, unless he belongs to a<br /> press-cutting agency, and few young writers can<br /> afford that luxury, he misses many opportunities<br /> of seeing letters, literary notices and other criticisms<br /> upon his work or his opinions, Is all this no loss ?<br /> <br /> One last pin-prick is inflicted by the Australian<br /> postal system. Not only is the normal rate of<br /> postage to and from England on both letters and<br /> manuscripts heavy, but English correspondents do<br /> not realise this, and the amount of mail matter<br /> that weekly reaches Australia with deficient postage<br /> is incredible. The “more to pay” may be any-<br /> thing from 1d. to 5s. or more. The errors made<br /> are two. Letters are sent at English inland rate,<br /> both as to weight and amount. Manuscripts and<br /> photos are sent closed up, or letters are enclosed in<br /> open manuscripts, the whole perhaps weighing<br /> several ounces, to be surcharged on delivery at<br /> double letter rate, or 5d. per half-ounce.<br /> <br /> It is clear then that a writer resident in<br /> Australia cannot carry out the maxim to look after<br /> his own affairs. He must entrust his manuscripts to<br /> another. Someworry their friends, but that can only<br /> be done occasionally. There remains the literary<br /> agent, as to whose ability and disinterestedness<br /> opinions vary. Buta trustworthy agent who would<br /> make a speciality of Australian work and advertise<br /> the fact in Australian newspapers, giving proper<br /> references, would find no lack of clients. There is<br /> one thing the literary agent cannot do for another,<br /> and that is, make the slight but often important<br /> alterations in phrasing, that render an article<br /> attractive in a particular quarter. But if he did<br /> everything short of that the Australian writer<br /> would be in a less disheartening position than he<br /> generally occupies to-day.<br /> <br /> If the desirable literary agent with an Australian<br /> connection is going to materialise shortly, he will<br /> be by so much the more useful if he has relations<br /> with New York. The best class of American<br /> editors, with due respect to English editors, pay<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR. 4}<br /> <br /> their contributors much higher rates than prevail<br /> in England, and are scrupulously punctual, prompt<br /> and business-like in their dealings.<br /> <br /> Atick HENRY.<br /> Melbourne, Australia.<br /> <br /> ——_—_—_———_+—&lt;—___—<br /> <br /> REALISM IN FICTION.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> UST as there are preternaturally respectable<br /> self-elected custodians of public morality who<br /> would ruthlessly destroy undraped statues,<br /> <br /> and consign to the flames every picture in which<br /> the nude figure appears, so there are other kin-<br /> dred spirits who would have each book faithfully<br /> descriptive of life’s seamy side burnt by the com-<br /> mon hangman and its author branded as an outlaw<br /> withont benefit of sanctuary.<br /> <br /> If the world were an earthly Paradise, men and<br /> women angels deprived of wings, no necessity for<br /> thinkers to treat of subjects other than the most<br /> idyllic would arise. But the merest tyro emanci-<br /> pated from paternal tutelage is brought face to<br /> face with problems calculated to induce grave<br /> reflection, though he may not find it expedient<br /> to discuss them in “‘ polite society,” as soon as he<br /> knocks unbefriended at the gloomy portal of life.<br /> <br /> Were the least communicative citizen of the<br /> world in Christendom to describe a portion only<br /> of what he has seen with his own eyes and heard<br /> with his own ears, he would be in a position to<br /> publish a volume infinitely more shocking than<br /> any effort in the realms of fiction ; for the wildest<br /> flights of a novelist’s imagination would collapse<br /> before the sombre actualities of human depravity<br /> perpetrated without cessation in countries which it<br /> is our graceful method to label Christian.<br /> <br /> It must be remembered that authors do not<br /> ‘manufacture their records in order to convince the<br /> irresponsible. The hoyden’s giggle, the hobblede-<br /> hoy’s guffaw, the prude’s snort, and the prig’s<br /> scowl, they, as a rule, completely ignore in their<br /> mental calculations. There are passages in Shake-<br /> speare, nay, in Holy Writ itself, whose repetition<br /> provokes only insensate manifestations from<br /> listeners of such mould.<br /> <br /> The machinery of the brain once set in motion<br /> cannot be retarded or stopped out of consideration<br /> for the susceptibilities of a class intellectually too<br /> microscopic for the author’s eye to perceive.<br /> <br /> Realism in fiction! And why not ? To advocate<br /> evil, to deck it with perfumed garments and price-<br /> less gems, to make it alluring and seductive is one<br /> affair—the affair of the minor poet.<br /> <br /> To expose its horrors, to foreshadow retribution<br /> inevitably attendant upon its heels, to strip it naked,<br /> <br /> to lay bare its festering sores so that spectators<br /> shudder, inwardly resolving to avoid the delusive<br /> phantasm at all costs—surely this partakes rather<br /> of the nature of a great moral lesson than of a<br /> wanton invitation.<br /> <br /> Descending to a rather lower level of argument,<br /> the writer of this slight plea of justification for the<br /> existence of realism in fiction directs attention to<br /> the obvious inconsistency of those who oppose it<br /> on a basis of public morality ; seeing that, while<br /> reporters are permitted to enlarge at their own<br /> discretion (subject to editorial sanction) upon<br /> loathsome criminal and divorce evidence, it is<br /> both unjust and unreasonable to forbid novelists<br /> to exercise their pens upon matter incomparably<br /> less crudely offensive.<br /> <br /> Let guardians of universal purity, who would<br /> blush to be caught perusing realistic novels, explain<br /> why, not infrequently, they flock to the Law Courts<br /> during the hearing of cases of particularly obscene<br /> or atrocious sensationalism.<br /> <br /> Let them account for the presence of English-<br /> women at these ghastly lecal entertainments, if<br /> the sensibilities of the feminine gender are indeed<br /> and in very truth so ultra-refined that they must<br /> needs be protected from literary moral contagion.<br /> <br /> Now a writer never obliges anybody to purchase<br /> his alleged outrages upon public decorum. How-<br /> ever pernicious his wares may be stigmatised by<br /> his enemies, they must be sought by those desiring<br /> to become familiar with their contents. Disap-<br /> proval of them would be, surely, more effectually<br /> expressed by withholding assistance to their sale, a<br /> course of action decidedly simpler than that of an<br /> enactment of bell-men’s vé/e, and a free advertise-<br /> ment for the very works they profess to abhor.<br /> <br /> Those wretched raids made by the police from<br /> time to time upon booksellers retailing reprints of<br /> Aristotle and unexpurgated editions of volumes<br /> never intended by their creators to be handled by<br /> any save intelligently appreciative students—under<br /> which head disgusting small boys and sly kitchen<br /> wenches emphatically do not come—strike the<br /> present writer as being egregiously illogical, inas-<br /> much as they tickle curiosity concerning knowledge<br /> it is their presumed motive to suppress.<br /> <br /> When the history of current literature arrives at<br /> something approaching elaborated form, two men,<br /> both of them grim, frank, inflexible realists, will<br /> be distinguished as stars of the first intellectual<br /> magnitude amid a whole constellation of dim and<br /> shadowy contemporaries—Zola and Tolstoi. The<br /> <br /> first lived to be honoured in the capital—London<br /> —where he had been venomously attacked and his<br /> publisher prosecuted.<br /> <br /> Passing phases, either of acclamation or oppro-<br /> brium, leave about as much trace behind as the<br /> wind, of which, indeed, they mainly consist.<br /> <br /> <br /> 42<br /> <br /> Authors who conscientiously believe in holding<br /> up the mirror to life may boast the advocacy of<br /> no less stern a moralist than the redoubtable<br /> <br /> r. Johnson.<br /> <br /> e “ Books,” said he, “ without the knowledge of life<br /> are useless, for what should books teach but the art<br /> of living?”<br /> <br /> eatin, pretence, mock-modesty, and hum-<br /> bug, both in literature and life, no doubt prevailed<br /> in his day as they prevail in a far more aggravated<br /> form in our own. :<br /> <br /> In confirmation of Dr. Johnson’s dictum, we<br /> observe Schopenhauer declaring in his “ Essay on<br /> Education”: “The most, necessary thing for the<br /> practical man is the attainment of an exact and<br /> thorough knowledge of what is really going on in<br /> the world. .. . In getting such a knowledge of the<br /> world, it is as a novice that the boy and youth<br /> have the first and most difficult lessons to learn ;<br /> but frequently even the matured man has still<br /> much to learn. The study is of considerable diffi-<br /> culty in itself, but is made doubly difficult by<br /> novels, which depict the ways of the world and<br /> of men who do not exist in real life. But these<br /> <br /> are accepted with the credulity of youth, and<br /> become incorporated with the mind ; so that now,<br /> in the place of purely negative ignorance, a whole<br /> framework of wrong ideas, which are positively<br /> wrong, crops up, subsequently confusing the school-<br /> ing of experience and representing the lesson it<br /> <br /> teaches in a false light. If the youth was pre-<br /> viously in the dark, he will now be led astray by<br /> a will-o’-the-wisp ; and with a girl this is still more<br /> frequently the case.<br /> <br /> “ They have been deluded into an absolutely false<br /> view of life by reading novels, and expectations<br /> have been raised that can never be fulfilled. This<br /> generally has the most harmful effect on their<br /> whole lives.”<br /> <br /> Let antagonists of realism in fiction swallow the<br /> above excerpt from the conclusions of a man pro-<br /> found in reflection and clear in articulation, and,<br /> as the morsel digests, consider whether, after all,<br /> it is so laudable an undertaking to inculcate in<br /> books, lessons hereafter to be disproved by experi-<br /> ence ; to hoodwink innocence and impose upon<br /> ignorance. ;<br /> <br /> In the interests of commonsense, let them medi-<br /> tate upon the absurdity of execrating realism in<br /> fiction so long as newspaper editors and pro-<br /> prietors are free to sell, like hot rolls, editions<br /> detailing infamous cases, and popular fancy rapa-<br /> ciously seizes upon such putrid messes of realism<br /> in life.<br /> <br /> In an age when no man’s private affairs are<br /> respected by the skulking spies of an advanced<br /> press, and a gallant soldier may be driven to<br /> death by their hateful interference, it is but<br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> childish work to assume pious horror at the un-<br /> conventional honesty of certain writers.<br /> Considerations of cant apart, the ruling of a<br /> character so unimpeachable as was that of Dr.<br /> Johnson, ‘Books without the knowledge of life<br /> are useless ; for what should books teach but the<br /> art of living?” must carry weight with open-<br /> minded adjudicators upon the question before us.<br /> Meanwhile the position of those individuals who<br /> would insist on compelling novelists to pen glorified<br /> halfpenny novelettes for the delectation of senti-<br /> mental servant girls ; or preposterous “‘ romances ”<br /> to glut the appetites of mental striplings; or<br /> fatuous “revelations” of a “high life,” to which<br /> their exponents have never by any chance been<br /> admitted, for the special and particular enlighten-<br /> ment of a worthy social substratum professing a<br /> righteous spirit of austerity towards everybody and<br /> everything pertaining to the “ upper ten,” yet per-<br /> versely delighting in nothing better than in feast-<br /> ing upon its imaginary sayings, doings, manners,<br /> and habits—all of which delude their unsophisti-<br /> cated readers into “an absolutely false view of<br /> life ”—is identical with that of the cranky bigots<br /> who scream when they behold a classical or mytho-<br /> logical picture, and avert their eyes at the un-<br /> abashed apparition of a piece of Grecian sculpture.<br /> <br /> L. Haruinerorp Norra.<br /> <br /> ig<br /> <br /> MAGAZINE CONTENTS.<br /> <br /> ges<br /> BLACKWOOD’s MAGAZINE.<br /> <br /> An article on Russia and Japan.<br /> Reviews—<br /> Mr. Morley’s Life of Gladstone.<br /> Mr. Whibley’s monograph on Thackeray.<br /> Mr. Henry James’ biography of William Wetmore Story,<br /> The War in the West. By Martini.<br /> An article on the Fiscal Question.<br /> The first instalment of a story by Hugh Clifford, ‘ Sally :<br /> A Study.”<br /> Musings without Method.<br /> A Perilous Ride. By Pilgrim.<br /> <br /> THE CORNHILL MAGAZINE,<br /> <br /> Good Living. By Laurence Housman,<br /> <br /> The Fond Adventure. Part I. By Maurice Hewlett.<br /> <br /> Blackstick Papers, No. 7. By Mrs. Richmond Ritchie.<br /> <br /> In Guipuzeoa, III. By Mrs. Woods.<br /> <br /> A Son of Empire. By Hamilton Drummond,<br /> <br /> The Queen’s Brooch: A Postscript. By Sarah Sisson.<br /> <br /> Chateaubriand and his English Neighbours. By the Rev.<br /> D. Wallace Duthie.<br /> <br /> A Rodeo in Southern California.<br /> Vachell.<br /> <br /> Mark Macintosh’s Lyrical Monologue.<br /> “Cock.” By F. 8.<br /> <br /> Provincial Letters.<br /> By Urbanus Sylvan.<br /> <br /> Midnight in Cloudland: An Experiment. By the Rev.<br /> John M. Bacon.<br /> <br /> By Horace Annesley<br /> Made at the<br /> XIII.—A House in Hertfordshire.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> ‘<br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> The Sorrows of Mrs. Charlotte Smith. By Viscount St.<br /> Cyres. :<br /> The Countess and the Frying-pan. By M. E. Francis.<br /> FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW.<br /> <br /> Pinchbeck Protection. By Autonomos.<br /> Mr. Chamberlain : The Protagonist and the Future. By<br /> <br /> Calchas,<br /> <br /> Economic Prejudice against Fiscal Reform. By L. L.<br /> Price.<br /> <br /> The Political Poetry of Mr. William Watson. By G. K.<br /> <br /> Chesterton,<br /> <br /> The Alfieri Centenary. By Count Rusconi.<br /> <br /> Tribe and Family. By Andrew Lang.<br /> <br /> The Alaskan Boundary. (Some opinions of those who<br /> cross it.) By Elizabeth Robins.<br /> <br /> The Education Act in the New Parliament.<br /> Macnamara, M.P.<br /> <br /> An Old-World Governess. By D. W. Rannie.<br /> <br /> The Austro-Hungarian Deadlock. By Maurice Geroth-<br /> wohl,<br /> <br /> Thackeray as a Reader and Critic of Books.<br /> Melville.<br /> <br /> The Question of Korea. By Alfred Stead.<br /> <br /> Behind the Scenes of Scottish Politics,<br /> Wallace, LL.D.<br /> <br /> The Woman at the Crossways.<br /> <br /> Lalla Radha and the Churel.<br /> <br /> By T. J.<br /> <br /> By Lewis<br /> <br /> By William<br /> <br /> By Fiona Macleod.<br /> By Laurence Hope.<br /> <br /> Theophano: The Crusade of the Tenth Century<br /> (Chapters iii., iv. and v.). By Frederic Harrison.<br /> Correspondence. By Ernest Marriott. (EK. A. Poe and<br /> <br /> Dr. Russel Wallace.)<br /> LONGMAN’S MAGAZINE.<br /> <br /> Nature’s Comedian (Chapters ix., x.). By W. E. Norris,<br /> <br /> The Nemesis of Froude. By A. L.<br /> <br /> First o’ May. By Ben Bolt.<br /> <br /> Young Russian and Young Englishman.<br /> Clayton.<br /> <br /> The Fairy Pipers. By Duncan J. Robertson.<br /> <br /> Old-fashioned Accomplishments. By Clementina Black.<br /> <br /> The Justice of the Mountains. By Frances MacNab.<br /> <br /> Canada in the Sixties—III. By Paul Fountain.<br /> <br /> On a Cuban Ingenio. By Naranja Amarga.<br /> <br /> The Disenchanted Squirrel. By Netta Syrett.<br /> <br /> At the Sign of the Ship. By Andrew Lang.<br /> <br /> By N. W.<br /> <br /> THE PALL MALL MAGAZINE,<br /> <br /> Master Workers——VIII. The Rt. Hon. J oseph Chamber-<br /> lain, M.P. By Harold Begbie.<br /> <br /> Joseph Chamberlain: The Orator and Debater. By Spencer<br /> Leigh Hughes.<br /> <br /> Autumn near London. By William Hyde.<br /> <br /> Porlick’s Theory: A Complete Story. By Mayne Lindsay,<br /> <br /> Real Conversations.— VII. With Mr. Sidney Lee.<br /> By William Archer.<br /> <br /> The Wish. By Marie Van Vorst.<br /> <br /> Sand-Daisy: A Story. By Eden Phillpotts,<br /> <br /> Recollections of the Chatsworth Theatricals.<br /> Trevor.<br /> <br /> The Wild Dream of Morris Ellison: A Story. By Frederick<br /> Wedmore.<br /> <br /> My First Stag—and Some Others.<br /> Karr, M.P.<br /> <br /> The Queen’s Quair: Book II. (Chapters i., ii.). By Maurice<br /> Hewlett.<br /> <br /> The Rhymer: A Poem. By H. D. Lowry.<br /> <br /> In the Cause of Science: A Story. By Gerald Maxwell.<br /> <br /> Say, But a Kiss: A Poem, By G. A.J. Cole.<br /> <br /> Literary Geography: The English Lakes, II. By William<br /> Sharp.<br /> <br /> By Leo<br /> <br /> By Sir Henry Seton-<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> 43<br /> <br /> Edmund Rostand. By Felicien Pascal.<br /> <br /> James Abbott McNeill Whistler, By Wilfrid Meynell.<br /> <br /> The Palace of Sleep : A Poem, By Maria 8. Steuart.<br /> <br /> The Vineyard (Chapters xiv., xv.). By John Oliver Hobbes<br /> (Mrs. Craigie).<br /> <br /> The Round Table: The Stone Age.<br /> Watson.<br /> <br /> Over the Sea: A Poem.<br /> <br /> By H. B. Marriott-<br /> <br /> By Charles Marriott,<br /> <br /> THE WORLD’s Work.<br /> <br /> The Right Hon. Earl Spencer, K.G. (Special Portrait.)<br /> <br /> The March of Events. (With-full page Portraits of the<br /> Right Hon. Alfred Lyttelton, K.C., M.P., and the Right<br /> Hon. H. 0. Arnold-Forster, M.P.)<br /> <br /> The Month in Polities, By the Editor.<br /> <br /> Peace or War in the Far East ? By the Editor.<br /> <br /> The Hope of Temperance Reform, 3y the Editor.<br /> <br /> Mr. Chamberlain’s Case and its Answer.<br /> <br /> Alaska and its Prospects, By William R. Stewart.<br /> (Ilustrated.)<br /> <br /> Railway Motor Cars. By H. G. Archer.<br /> <br /> Municipal Milk. By C. Ww. Saleeby, M.B.<br /> <br /> The Day’s Work of a Ship’s Captain, (ustrated.)<br /> <br /> Preparing an Atlantic Liner for Sea. (illustrated.)<br /> <br /> The Worm Disease among Miners. By J. Court, L.R.C.P.<br /> <br /> Making a Protective Tariff, By Chalmers Roberts,<br /> <br /> Life in the Zoo. By R. I. Pocock. Cillustrated.)<br /> <br /> Cold Storage and Ice Making. By R. M. Leonard,<br /> (llustrated.)<br /> <br /> The Scottish Granite Industry,<br /> Cillustrated.)<br /> <br /> The Art of Memory. By Eustace Miles.<br /> <br /> The Work of a Lady Health Lecturer.<br /> took.<br /> <br /> A Daily Newspaper for Madame.<br /> <br /> Gladstone the Worker.<br /> <br /> The New Poultry Movement.<br /> Cillustrated.)<br /> <br /> The Story of Irish Lace. 3y E. M. Leahy. Clustrated.)<br /> <br /> The Books of the Month. (With Portraits of Mr. Richard<br /> Whiteing, Mrs. Fuller Maitland, Mr. Cutcliffe Hyne, Mr.<br /> H. G. Wells.)<br /> <br /> The World of Women’s Work.<br /> <br /> Among the World’s Workers,<br /> <br /> (Ulustrated.)<br /> (Illustrated.)<br /> <br /> By William Diack,<br /> <br /> By Clarence<br /> By Alfred Harmsworth.<br /> <br /> By Home Counties,<br /> <br /> TO —<br /> <br /> TRADE NOTES.<br /> ae<br /> The Primrose Press.<br /> <br /> “The Primrose Press,” we understand, is the<br /> name of a new publishing house which is being<br /> started under the management of Mr. Allen Upward<br /> and Mr. L. Cranmer Byng.<br /> <br /> J. C. Nimmo, Ltd,<br /> <br /> The first meeting of the creditors and contribu-<br /> tories under the winding-up order made against<br /> John C. Nimmo, Limited, was held on Oct. 9th<br /> at the offices of the Board of Trade, in Companies<br /> Winding-up, Carey Street, Lincoln’s Inn.—Mr.<br /> Winearls, Assistant Receiver, read his report.—<br /> The Official Receiver was appointed liquidator to<br /> wind up the company.<br /> 44<br /> <br /> WARNINGS TO THE PRODUCERS<br /> OF BOOKS.<br /> <br /> —+——+ —<br /> <br /> ERE are a few standing rules to be observed in an<br /> agreement. There are four methods of dealing<br /> with literary property :—<br /> <br /> I. Selling it Outright.<br /> <br /> This is sometimes satisfactory, if a proper price can be<br /> obtained, But the transaction should be managed by a<br /> competent agent, or with the advice of the Secretary of<br /> the Society.<br /> <br /> Il. A Profit-Sharing Agreement (a bad form of<br /> agreement).<br /> <br /> In this case the following rules should be attended to:<br /> <br /> (1.) Not to sign any agreement in which the cost of pro-<br /> duction forms a part without the strictest investigation.<br /> <br /> (2.) Not to give the publisher the power of putting the<br /> profits into his own pocket by charging for advertisements<br /> in his own organs, or by charging exchange advertise-<br /> ments. Therefore keep control of the advertisements.<br /> <br /> (8.) Not to allow a special charge for ‘office expenses,”<br /> unless the same allowance is made to the author.<br /> <br /> (4.) Not to give up American, Colonial, or Continental<br /> rights.<br /> <br /> (5.) Not to give up serial or translation rights. :<br /> <br /> (6.) Not to bind yourself for future work to any publisher.<br /> As well bind yourself for the future to any one solicitor or<br /> doctor !<br /> <br /> III. The Royalty System.<br /> <br /> This is perhaps, with certain limitations, the best form<br /> of agreement. It is above all things necessary to know<br /> what the proposed royalty means to both sides. It is now<br /> possible for an author to ascertain approximately the<br /> truth. From time to time very important figures connected<br /> with royalties are published in Zhe Author.<br /> <br /> IV. A Commission Agreement.<br /> <br /> The main points are :—<br /> <br /> (1.) Be careful to obtain a fair cost of production.<br /> (2.) Keep control of the advertisements.<br /> <br /> (3.) Keep control of the sale price of the book.<br /> <br /> General.<br /> <br /> All other forms of agreement are combinations of the four<br /> above mentioned.<br /> <br /> Such combinations are generally disastrous to the author,<br /> <br /> Never sign any agreement without competent advice from<br /> the Secretary of the Society.<br /> <br /> Stamp all agreements with the Inland Revenue stamp.<br /> <br /> Avoid agreements by letter if possible.<br /> <br /> The main points which the Society has always demanded<br /> from the outset are :—<br /> <br /> (1.) That both sides shall know what an agreement<br /> means.<br /> <br /> (2.) The inspection of those account books which belong<br /> to the author. We are advised that this is a right, in the<br /> nature of a common law right, which cannot be denied or<br /> withheld.<br /> <br /> (3.) Always avoid a transfer of copyright.<br /> <br /> 0 a 8<br /> <br /> WARNINGS TO DRAMATIC AUTHORS.<br /> <br /> Seige Sang ee<br /> EVER sign an agreement without submitting it to the<br /> Secretary of the Society of Authors or some com-<br /> petent legal authority.<br /> 2. It is well to be extremely careful in negotiating for<br /> <br /> the production of a play with anyone except an established<br /> manager.<br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> 8. There are three forms of dramatic contract for plays<br /> in three or more acts :—<br /> <br /> (a.) Sale outright of the performing right. This<br /> is unsatisfactory. An author who enters into<br /> such a contract should stipulate in the contract<br /> for production of the piece by a certain date<br /> and for proper publication of his name on the<br /> play-bills,<br /> <br /> (b.) Sale of performing right or of a licence to<br /> perform on the basis of percentages on<br /> gross receipts. Percentages vary between 5<br /> and 15 per cent. An author should obtain a<br /> percentage on the sliding scale of gross receipts<br /> in preference to the American system. Should<br /> obtain a sum in advance of percentages. A fixed<br /> date on or before which the play should be<br /> performed.<br /> <br /> (c.) Sale of performing right or of a licence to<br /> perform on the basis of royalties (7.¢.. fixed<br /> nightly fees). This method should be always<br /> avoided except in cases where the fees are<br /> likely to be small or difficult to collect. The<br /> other safeguards set out under heading (0.) apply<br /> also in this case.<br /> <br /> 4, Plays in one act are often sold outright, but it is<br /> better to obtain a small nightly fee if possible, and a sum<br /> paid in advance of such fees in any event. It is extremely<br /> important that the amateur rights of one-act plays should<br /> be reserved.<br /> <br /> 5. Authors should remember that performing rights can<br /> be limited, and are usually limited, by town, country, and<br /> time. This is most important.<br /> <br /> 6. Authors should not assign performing rights, but<br /> should grant a licence to perform. The legal distinction is<br /> of great importance.<br /> <br /> 7. Authors should remember that performing rights in a<br /> play are distinct from literary copyright. A manager<br /> holding the performing right or licence to perform cannot<br /> print the book of the words.<br /> <br /> 8. Never forget that United States rights may be exceed-<br /> ingly valuable. ‘They should never be included in English<br /> agreements without the author obtaining a substantial<br /> consideration.<br /> <br /> 9. Agreements for collaboration should be carefully<br /> drawn and executed before collaboration is commenced.<br /> <br /> 10. An‘ author should remember that production of a play<br /> is highly speculative: that he runs a very great risk of<br /> delay and a breakdown in the fulfilment of his contract.<br /> He should therefore guard himself all the more carefully in<br /> the beginning.<br /> <br /> 11. An author must remember that the dramatic market<br /> is exceedingly limited, and that for a novice the first object<br /> is to obtain adequate publication.<br /> <br /> As these warnings must necessarily be incomplete, on<br /> account of the wide range of the subject of dramatic con-<br /> tracts, those authors desirous of further information<br /> are referred to the Secretary of the Society.<br /> <br /> —_—_—+ &lt;&gt; —___—_—__<br /> <br /> WARNINGS TO MUSICAL COMPOSERS.<br /> <br /> —<br /> <br /> ITTLE can be added to the warnings given for the<br /> assistance of producers of books and dramatic<br /> authors. It must, however, be pointed out that, as.<br /> <br /> a rule, the musical publisher demands from the musical<br /> composer a transfer of fuller rights and less liberal finan-<br /> cial terms than those obtained for literary and dramatic<br /> property. The musical composer has very often the two<br /> rights to deal with—performing right and copyright. He<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> should be especially careful therefore when entering into<br /> an agreement, and should take into particular consideration<br /> the warnings stated above.<br /> <br /> Oa<br /> <br /> HOW TO USE THE SOCIETY.<br /> oe<br /> <br /> i. VERY member has a right toask for and to receive<br /> K advice upon his agreements, his choice of a pub-<br /> lisher, or any dispute arising in the conduct of his<br /> business or the administration of his property. The<br /> Secretary of the Society is a solicitor, but if there is any<br /> special reason the Secretary will refer the case to the<br /> Solicitors of the Societv. Further, the Committee, if they<br /> deem it desirable, will obtain counsel’s opinion. All this<br /> without any cost to the member.<br /> <br /> 2. Remember that questions connected with copyright<br /> and publishers’ agreements do not fall within the experi-<br /> ence of ordinary solicitors. Therefore, do not scruple to use<br /> the Society.<br /> <br /> 3. Send to the Office copies of past agreements and past<br /> accounts, with a copy of the book represented. The<br /> Secretary will always be glad to have any agreements, new<br /> or old, for inspection and note. The information thus<br /> obtained may prove invaluable.<br /> <br /> 4. Before signing any agreement whatever, send<br /> the document to the Society for examination.<br /> <br /> 5. Remember always that in belonging to the Society<br /> you are fighting the battles of other writers, even if you<br /> are reaping uo benefit to yourself, and that you are<br /> advancing the best interests of your calling in promoting<br /> the independence of the writer, the dramatist, the composer.<br /> <br /> 6. The Committee have now arranged for the reception<br /> of members’ agreements and their preservation in a fire-<br /> proof safe. The agreements will, of course, be regarded as<br /> confidential documents to be read only by the Secretary,<br /> who will keep the key of the safe. The Society now offers:<br /> —(1) To read and advise upon agreements and to give<br /> advice concerning publishers. (2) To stamp agreements<br /> in readiness for a possible action upon them. (3) To keep<br /> agreements. (4) To enforce payments due according to<br /> agreements, Fuller particulars of the Society’s work<br /> can be obtained in the Prospectus.<br /> <br /> 7. No contract should be entered into with a literary<br /> agent without the advice of the Secretary of the Society.<br /> Members are strongly advised not to accept without careful<br /> consideration the contracts with publishers submitted to<br /> them by literary agents, and are recommended to submit<br /> them for interpretation and explanation to the Secretary<br /> of the Society.<br /> <br /> 8. Many agents neglect to stamp agreements. This<br /> must be done within fourteen days of first execution. The<br /> Secretary will undertake it on behalf of members,<br /> <br /> 9. Some agents endeavour to prevent authors from<br /> referring matters to the Secretary of the Society ; so<br /> do some publishers. Members can make their own<br /> deductions and act accordingly.<br /> <br /> 10. The subscription to the Society is £4 1s.&quot; per<br /> annum., or £10 10s. for life membership.<br /> <br /> 45<br /> THE READING BRANCH.<br /> <br /> —+—~<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> EMBERS will greatly assist the Society in this<br /> N branch of its work by informing young writers<br /> of its existence. Their MSS. can be read and<br /> treated as a composition is treated by a coach. ‘The term<br /> MSS. includes not only works of fiction, but poetry<br /> and dramatic works, and when it is possible, under<br /> Special arrangement, technical and scientific works. The<br /> Readers are writers of competence and experience. The<br /> fee is one guinea,<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> —&gt;— +<br /> <br /> NOTICES.<br /> —_1~&gt;+__<br /> <br /> HE Editor of Zhe Author begs to remind members of<br /> <br /> the Society that, although the paper is sent to them<br /> <br /> free of charge, the cost of producing it would be a<br /> <br /> very heavy charge on the resources of the Society if a great<br /> <br /> many members did not forward to the Secretary the modest<br /> 5s. 6d. subscription for the year.<br /> <br /> Communications for Ze Author should be addressed to<br /> the Offices of the Society, 39, Old Queen Street, Storey’s<br /> Gate, S.W., and should reach the Editor not later than<br /> the 21st of each month.<br /> <br /> All persons engaged in literary work of any kind,<br /> whether members of the Society or not, are invited to<br /> communicate to the Editor any points connected with their<br /> work which it would be advisable in the general interest to<br /> publish.<br /> <br /> Oo<br /> <br /> Communications and letters are invited by the<br /> Editor on all subjects connected with literature, but on<br /> no other subjects whatever. Every effort will be made to<br /> return articles which cannot be accepted.<br /> <br /> —_+~&gt;—+—_.<br /> <br /> The Secretary of the Society begs to give notice<br /> that all remittances are acknowledged by return of post,<br /> and he requests members who do not receive an<br /> answer to important communications within two days to<br /> write to him without delay. All remittances should be<br /> crossed Union Bank of London, Chancery Lane, or be sent<br /> by registered letter only.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> AUTHORITIES.<br /> <br /> oe<br /> <br /> We are glad to print under “ Literary, Dramatic,<br /> and Musical Property,” a letter from the firm of<br /> Messrs. Methuen &amp; Co., explaining their position<br /> in the matter of the Dumas Translations.<br /> <br /> We have seen the correspondence referred to in<br /> that letter. The firm seem to have dealt with<br /> the question promptly and vigorously. We give<br /> publicity to this letter with the more pleasure as<br /> our opinian of the transactions of this firm and its<br /> bearing towards authors has in the past always<br /> been favourable.<br /> <br /> It should, however, be remembered that publishers<br /> must bear the responsibility for arrangements made<br /> 46<br /> <br /> in their name and under their authority. — It is<br /> their duty to guard their reputation from criticism<br /> by making sufficient stipulations with those whom<br /> hey employ.<br /> <br /> We aes tad letters from other authors touching<br /> this same question. The need for farther criticism<br /> is at an end, but it may be interesting to state a<br /> few facts concerning the price that ordinary trans-<br /> lation work will obtain in the market. ;<br /> <br /> As a rule, the pay is by no means lavish. In<br /> consequence, many translations are done in a hurried<br /> fashion and in an unsatisfactory manner. The<br /> remuneration given varies between 10s. and 5s. per<br /> thousand words. Sometimes for special technical<br /> work or translations of special difficulty, even a<br /> higher figure is received, but the mean may be<br /> taken at 7s. 6d. A well-known firm always pays<br /> 9s. In consequence, its translations are done with<br /> care, and gain a corresponding reputation in the<br /> book market.<br /> <br /> We print below an article dealing with the<br /> United States Market. The subject must be<br /> one of great importance to all British authors,<br /> and the experience of members of the Society<br /> would be interesting reading. We shall be much<br /> obliged if those authors who have been in the<br /> habit of obtaining these rights, would forward<br /> some facts for the advantage of the other members<br /> of the profession.<br /> <br /> It is with much pleasure that we chronicle at<br /> the same time a marked difference that has<br /> occurred in the forms and terms of agreement<br /> of some of the best known publishing houses<br /> during the last three or four years, in spite of the<br /> draft agreements issued by the Association to which<br /> these firms belong. In one case, for the first time,<br /> we have seen the publisher accept as one of the<br /> terms of the contract a clause undertaking to<br /> “gecure the American Copyright on behalf of the<br /> authors, and further, if the book was finally placed<br /> onthe United States Market through his (the Pub-<br /> lisher’s) agency, agreeing to accept as his share of<br /> the result merely the agency fee, 10 per cent.<br /> This is indeed an advance, as prior to this, the<br /> lowest commission charged was 25 per cent., and<br /> many have asked for half profits for negotiating<br /> the United States Market. Our exultation was<br /> somewhat marred a week later by an agreement<br /> with the same firm asking for 333 per cent.<br /> <br /> THosE members of the Society who care to have<br /> a photographic reproduction of the Memorial to Sir<br /> Walter Besant will be able to obtain the same from<br /> the Autotype Company, 74, New Oxford Street, W.,<br /> at the price of 10s. 6d. each.<br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> OBITUARY NOTICE.<br /> <br /> ——1—~ + —<br /> <br /> T is our sad duty to chronicle the death of one<br /> of the most distinguished members of the<br /> Society and a member of the Council. Pro-<br /> <br /> fessor W. E. H. Lecky died on Thursday,<br /> October 22nd. He was a distinguished scholar, a<br /> thoughtful philosopher, but above all a laborious<br /> and impartial historian. His “ History of Euro-<br /> pean Morals” brought him the well deserved praise<br /> of all intelligent and serious students ; and his fame<br /> as a writer was further enhanced by his monu-<br /> mental work on the “Highteenth Century of<br /> English History.” Every subject he took under<br /> his consideration he treated in a broad spirit, from<br /> the standpoint of the upright judge unswept by<br /> party passion and class bias.<br /> <br /> As a historian, and litterateur, his death must be<br /> a sad loss to all those members of the Society who<br /> are sincerely interested in the fellowship of the<br /> profession.<br /> <br /> But not on his position as an author alone does<br /> his claim to fame rest ; he was a Member of Par-<br /> liament for the University of Dublin, and in 1897<br /> was elected a Privy Councillor.<br /> <br /> From his position as Member of the House of<br /> Commons he used his best endeavours to bring<br /> forward a bill for amending and consolidating the<br /> law of copyright.<br /> <br /> Finally, he obtained the fullest public recognition<br /> of his work when he was appointed one of the<br /> original members of that most exclusive order—<br /> The Order of Merit.<br /> <br /> —_—_—<br /> <br /> ENGLISH AUTHORS AND THE UNITED<br /> STATES RIGHTS.<br /> <br /> ———&gt;+<br /> <br /> HE wider the Copyright Protection the larger<br /> <br /> a nation’s literature. Before there was any<br /> <br /> copyright for British authors in the States<br /> or for United States authors outside their political<br /> combination the works of the former in pirated<br /> form were printed and read everywhere, while<br /> authors—citizens of the United States—save with<br /> afew striking exceptions, did not exist ; and the<br /> United States literature was a tree of stunted<br /> growth.<br /> <br /> The United States publishers, owing to an<br /> honourable understanding among themselves that<br /> if one firm reproduced a British author no other<br /> firm should interfere with his profits, found that<br /> piracy paid, and the would-be United States authors<br /> found that the remuneration of literature did not<br /> suffice to purchase the bare necessaries of life. In<br /> fact the almighty dollar was the moving factor<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> to the gain of the one side and the loss of the<br /> other. What then was the cause of revolution,<br /> of the change in policy from this restrictive pro-<br /> tection and limitation ?—again the dollar.<br /> <br /> Some keener sighted Yankee watching the<br /> market saw his opportunity, and by a process of<br /> underselling disturbed the family party, till pro-<br /> fits were cut down to nothing, and the trade<br /> generally began to realise that piracy at first so<br /> profitable was now a failure. Then came about<br /> that combination of author and publisher which,<br /> backed by the capital of the latter, was able by a<br /> stubborn political contest to bring about that<br /> alteration in the United States Copyright Law<br /> which gave the right of protection under restric-<br /> tions to the work of foreigners.<br /> <br /> This commercial transaction was covered with<br /> the beautiful cloak of upright dealing to the<br /> foreigner. But whatever the alleged motive—and<br /> there were many put forward—the publisher could<br /> now again produce the work of the. foreigner at a<br /> profit, and he proceeded to do so.<br /> <br /> Owing to previous piracy the author who had<br /> not the unbounded felicity of being a citizen of<br /> the United States had for many years held the<br /> literary market, and to him the United States<br /> tradesman naturally turned in the first instance.<br /> British authors accordingly found that they now<br /> had a double market, from each of which they<br /> could obtain their deserved profit, and the trade<br /> evolved itself along customary lines and under<br /> natural laws.<br /> <br /> By degrees, however, the United States authors<br /> found that this alteration from the protective<br /> copyright of former days to the freer trade of a<br /> broader law raised their efforts in the wage<br /> market. They could now obtain a fair return for<br /> their work. They were not undersold by the pirated<br /> brain work of the foreigner, but they were struggling<br /> in equal competition with other nations, and a<br /> good work had an equal chance in the United<br /> States as in the British Empire and among<br /> European nations. Many accordingly began to<br /> write in earnest for a livelihood where formerly a<br /> few had written for love. Gradually, and as a<br /> natural sequence, the publisher awoke to this<br /> fact. He found the United States author was<br /> more easily dealt with than his brother across the<br /> Atlantic—he knew less of the value of literary<br /> property—that the delay in correspondence was<br /> less, and that the United States public had a<br /> natural leaning towards those who described in<br /> feeling terms their own patriotic ideals, or lashed<br /> unfeelingly their own patriotic vices.<br /> <br /> Accordingly where one name was known in<br /> literature in a few years there were ten, and the<br /> foreigner appeared to be losing ground. For this<br /> latter fact there was another cause. Hitherto the<br /> <br /> 47<br /> <br /> United States publishers had been looking to the<br /> British author and had been competing for the<br /> purchase of his wares, deeming them the best to<br /> supply the market, now they looked to the United<br /> States. The British author failed to grasp the fact.<br /> <br /> It is necessary therefore—to use some oft-<br /> quoted words—that he should “wake up.” He<br /> does not want to write better stuff; it is only<br /> given to the few to be “among the gods.” But<br /> he does want to see that his wares are better<br /> marketed as far as the United States is concerned.<br /> For this purpose it is essential to lay bare a few<br /> faults and suggest a few remedies. Sir Walter<br /> Besant has often pointed out that it is in no way<br /> derogatory to a writer to obtain the best market<br /> for his wares. Nor need this latter point in any<br /> way detract from his artistic effort.<br /> <br /> There are two ways in which authors can deal<br /> with the United States market. (1) Direct, (2)<br /> Through an agent.<br /> <br /> As the first method is most important it is<br /> necessary to consider the means an author should<br /> employ in order to obtain an opening.<br /> <br /> It is feared that some authors have allowed<br /> matters to glide along too smoothly and prefer to:<br /> lose the market by leaving the matter in the hands<br /> of the middleman—the publisher or the literary<br /> agent—rather than bestir themselves. It is<br /> essential that an author should at once grasp the<br /> fact that the United States market is of consider-.<br /> able value, is worth a struggle to obtain, and<br /> when obtained is worth holding ; that the United<br /> States magazines pay for serial use, in many cases.<br /> larger sums than the English magazines ; that the.<br /> United States book market is almost as equally pro-<br /> ductive, from a financial point of view, asthe English..<br /> <br /> There are those authors who, cursed with the<br /> artistic temperament, and full of the loathing for:<br /> all business transactions, are unable to carry:<br /> through their®own negotiations _ satisfactorily.<br /> For these an agent is necessary. But for those—<br /> and there are not a few—who are blessed with<br /> cool business heads, the best method of dealing<br /> with these rights is by going direct to the United<br /> States publisher or United States editor. As.<br /> there must be some delay in the correspondence,<br /> even when the publisher or editor has an office in,<br /> London, the author should take care to begin<br /> early in trying to place his work—some time before-<br /> he commences to try and place the book in<br /> England. Instead of leaving these negotiations. .<br /> to the last minute, as is the common practice at.<br /> present—a practice which cannot but end in<br /> failure—he should take time by the forelock. He:<br /> should not be disheartened by refusals, but should<br /> continue with even greater persistence than he<br /> would, did he desire English publication only.<br /> His energy must increase commensurately with his.<br /> 48<br /> <br /> difficulty. It is almost certain that if his work<br /> has any value he will at last obtain his reward.<br /> There are, no doubt, some books which are suitable<br /> for the English market only, but these are the<br /> exceptions. Many kinds of literature appeal to<br /> the whole world. :<br /> <br /> When an offer has been made, then it may be<br /> worth while to put the agreement before the<br /> secretary of the Society of Authors for advice and<br /> counsel. Further, as there must necessarily be<br /> some delay owing to the distance between the<br /> United States and the British Isles, it is advis-<br /> able to deal in the first instance with the best<br /> known publishing houses and the best known<br /> magazines. For although the terms of the agree-<br /> ment may not be altogether satisfactory, and<br /> though it may be impossible to alter them in detail<br /> owing to delay, yet a bad agreement with a trust-<br /> worthy house might be more worthy of acceptance<br /> than a better agreement with a doubtful tradesman.<br /> British authors should not however abandon weakly<br /> an important term in the contract merely on<br /> account of delay. They should endeavour to make<br /> their arrangements so that a little delay will not<br /> invalidate their position. Above all things they<br /> should persist and insist.<br /> <br /> In considering the second method, the different<br /> forms of dealing through an agent must be<br /> enumerated and considered. Firstly, it is possible<br /> <br /> to deal through the United States literary agent,<br /> who will deal with the United States publisher.<br /> Secondly, to deal with the English agent who<br /> <br /> deals with the United States publisher. Thirdly,<br /> with the English agent who deals with the United<br /> States agent who deals with the United States<br /> publisher. Fourthly, with the English agent who<br /> deals with the English publisher who deals with<br /> the United States publisher; and lastly, with the<br /> English publisher who acts as agent and deals<br /> with the United States publisher.<br /> <br /> As has been pointed out already, the system of<br /> dealing direct is, on the whole, the soundest,<br /> but if an agent has to be employed, it is best for<br /> the author to obtain a trustworthy agent in the<br /> United States, and request him to attend to the<br /> matter on his behalf. An agent on the other side<br /> can deal direct with the publisher, and loses no<br /> time between the rejection by one publisher and<br /> the transmission of the MS. to another. He<br /> should not, save under exceptional circumstances,<br /> be allowed a free hand to accept any terms without<br /> the author’s sanction. Although agents, no doubt,<br /> have large knowledge of the trade, they are not<br /> always infallible. There are not many literary<br /> agents in the United States, but there are one or<br /> itwo whose work has been thoroughly satisfactory.<br /> An author should avoid if possible an agent who<br /> also acts for English publishers.<br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> Under the next three headings the question of<br /> the English agent is raised, and there is no doubt<br /> that he cannot work so successfully in obtaining<br /> the United States rights as his fellow-trader in<br /> America. Firstly, if he is dealing with the American<br /> publisher direct, the same difficulties arise which<br /> are bound to arise when the English author deals<br /> with the United States publisher direct ; but there<br /> is this additional difficulty, that as the English<br /> agent is also trading the English rights, hemay some-<br /> times be tempted, if he has obtained a particularly<br /> beneficial English contract, and wants to settle the<br /> matter out of hand, to waive the question of the<br /> United States. He is very often guilty of delay,<br /> commencing the United States negotiations sub-<br /> sequent to or simultaneously with the disposal of<br /> English rights. It was necessary to warn the<br /> author of this fault when dealing direct, but an<br /> agent ought to know the dangers. Heis appointed<br /> for this sole reason to overcome these difficulties,<br /> and make the rough places plain. Whatever means<br /> he may attempt to satisfy the author’s objections,<br /> still his failure is blameworthy. If he is dealing<br /> through a United States agent then comes the ques-<br /> tion of double agency fees ; and if the English agent<br /> charges 10 per cent., there is generally a 5 per<br /> cent. additional charge for the American agent as<br /> well. One middleman is bad enough, but when<br /> negotiations are carried through two middlemen,<br /> the matter is complicated.<br /> <br /> For the same reason it is a mistake to allow the<br /> agent to leave the United States rights in the<br /> hands of the English publisher ; but in addition,<br /> firstly, it is the English agent’s duty to try to<br /> obtain the United States rights—he should not<br /> shift that duty on to the back of the publisher.<br /> Secondly, the English publisher generally makes<br /> excessive charges when he acts in this way ; and<br /> thirdly, his financial interests are not in accord<br /> with those of the author, as it often pays him<br /> better to sell an edition in sheets to the United<br /> States, or to sell stereo plates, than to obtain the<br /> copyright in that country. If therefore an English<br /> agent is employed, the author should insist that<br /> he should keep the work in his own hands, and<br /> should not create a second middleman ; that he<br /> should endeavour to place the American rights<br /> before he markets the rights for the British<br /> Empire, and under the Berne Convention ; that he<br /> should persist in his efforts and not weakly give<br /> way with some specious excuse, as agents are some-<br /> times inclined to do, owing to the greater trouble<br /> involved.<br /> <br /> Lastly, there is the case of the English publisher<br /> acting as agent and dealing with the United States<br /> publisher. Why this course is unsatisfactory has<br /> to a certain extent been already propounded; yet<br /> there are other reasons. Firstly, the English<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> publisher not infrequently asks 50 per cent. of the<br /> profits resulting from his negotiations, work for<br /> which an agent would charge 10 per cent. Secondly,<br /> it often pays him better, as stated above, to sell<br /> sheets or stereo plates to the United States, rather<br /> than to make fan effort to secure the copyright ;<br /> and lastly, the publisher is employed under a<br /> licence from the author to put the book on the<br /> English market, and to use his special knowledge<br /> of the English trade, and ordinary agency busi-<br /> ness does not come within his range, or if it<br /> does, is not the main object of his existence. He<br /> will therefore, apart from other reasons, not give<br /> his full attention to this part of the work, and<br /> will not put that thoroughness into it which is<br /> absolutely essential, should the British author<br /> desire to obtain the full returns that are due to<br /> him for his labours.<br /> <br /> Finally, it must be again repeated that if<br /> English authors are failing in their efforts in the<br /> United States market, the fault lies with them<br /> and with them alone. It is not that the United<br /> States literature is on a higher basis than that<br /> produced in England, but it is because the author,<br /> either owing to his artistic temperament, or owing<br /> to the lack of energy in the agent he employs, is<br /> weakly turning away when it is essential that he<br /> should make a specially strenuous effort. It is to<br /> be hoped, therefore, that the English author will<br /> look well to it, and will ‘‘ wake up” to the realities<br /> of the situation.<br /> <br /> A, ©. B.<br /> <br /> THE TRUTH ABOUT AN AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> —-—— +.<br /> I.—The Struggles of an Unpublished Author.<br /> <br /> FEW months ago Mr. William Heinemann<br /> published a book entitled “The Journal of<br /> Arthur Stirling.” It purported to be a<br /> <br /> record of the struggles of a young American poet<br /> who had written a blank verse tragedy which had<br /> been rejected by some six or seven publishers, At<br /> length in despair of acquiring the fame he sought,<br /> the author tied a weight round his body and<br /> dropped into the depths of the River Hudson.<br /> <br /> The following obituary notice appeared in the New<br /> York Times.<br /> <br /> STIRLING, ARTHUR—By suicide in the Hudson River,<br /> poet and man of genius, in the twenty-second year of his<br /> age, only son of Richard T, and Grace Stirling, of Chicago.<br /> <br /> The publication of the “Journal” in America<br /> caused a sensation. Since its introduction to this<br /> country its authenticity has been called into<br /> <br /> 49<br /> <br /> question. But whether or not the book is what<br /> it claims to be, the actual experiences of one<br /> particular individual of literary proclivities in his<br /> struggles to obtain a hearing, the fact remains that<br /> it makes a most pathetic piece of reading, and if<br /> ** Arthur Stirling” was of mere mythical substance,<br /> it is none the less true that his alleged experi-<br /> ences are the record of scores of young writers of<br /> merit, who know what it is to have drunk deep of<br /> the cup that falls to the lot of the persistently<br /> rejected. No less is it true that the book is a<br /> document that will form a text for many an editor<br /> and publisher from which to draw a salutary moral<br /> lesson.<br /> <br /> As an over-much rejected novelist, the writer of<br /> the following has tasted all the ignominy which<br /> was the inheritance of “ Arthur Stirling.’ Hopes<br /> raised, fears, weeks and months of weary waiting,<br /> dreams of success ruthlessly dispelled, have been his:<br /> lot again and again. “ Arthur Stirling” gave up<br /> the struggle when his work had been rejected some<br /> half-dozen times ; the present writer’s only novel<br /> has been refused by no less than twenty-seven<br /> publishers ! He still remains to tell the tale.<br /> <br /> No doubt the reader will exclaim, “If twenty-<br /> seven publishers have rejected the manuscript it<br /> is highly probable that it is not worth publish-<br /> ing!” Having only read so far, such a comment<br /> is justified. But the writer has no doubt that<br /> before the end of his story is reached he will<br /> be able to prove otherwise on the testimony of<br /> the publishers themselves.<br /> <br /> Ten or twelve years ago the writer was a more<br /> or less successful contributor of articles and short<br /> stories to the popular monthly magazines. Evi-<br /> dently his work gave pleasure—(perhaps to none<br /> more than himself)—for he was the recipient of<br /> some scores of letters from strangers, testifying to<br /> the interest that they, as readers, had taken in the<br /> productions of his pen. Among these letters were:<br /> several which strongly urged him to write a novel.<br /> The young author was flattered, but he doubted<br /> his own powers for such an undertaking. At this<br /> critical moment he received a letter from a friend,<br /> a popular novelist, urging him to undertake the-<br /> writing of a book. His ambition was fired, and he<br /> determined to make a longer essay in fiction than<br /> he had hitherto thought of. That well-meaning<br /> letter from his novelist friend has been to the writer<br /> the innocent cause of the misery of years !<br /> <br /> The novel decided on, it only remained to evolve<br /> it, place it on paper, and send it to a publisher.<br /> The work was carried out with much burning of<br /> midnight oil during a period covering long months,<br /> until the end of a year saw the completion of what<br /> the author considered a masterpiece, in one hundred<br /> and thirty thousand words, and a young man pale:<br /> and haggard but triumphant.<br /> <br /> <br /> 50<br /> <br /> The manuscript had now to be typewritten.<br /> This meant what to its author was a ‘considerable<br /> sum of money. But he had reckoned on this, and<br /> by exercising a certain amount of self-sacrifice he<br /> had saved the necessary six pounds. _<br /> <br /> In due time the novel was typewritten, revised<br /> and corrected. A leading London publisher was<br /> selected, the maiden effort carefully and lovingly<br /> packed and sent off with a polite letter. =<br /> <br /> ‘And now followed some anxious weeks of waiting.<br /> This time had its joys, for in it the novelist built<br /> a hundred castles—not more substantial than those<br /> in Prospero’s dream. Every day his darling book<br /> was with him in thought, every day he made<br /> schemes for future work.<br /> <br /> At length, one morning, the postman brought a<br /> letter, bearing on the outside of the envelope the<br /> favoured publisher&#039;s address. The author went<br /> white with joy. His trembling hand tore off the<br /> cover, and he read the following :—<br /> <br /> “ DEAR SIR,—I am returning your MS. entitled ‘<br /> by parcels post. While thanking you for allowing me to<br /> read it, I regret to say that I do not feel justified in under-<br /> taking its publication.<br /> <br /> ’<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> ”<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> “ Yours truly,<br /> <br /> The manuscript was duly delivered by parcels<br /> post. The fair sheets of foolscap had become<br /> curled and soiled. “This,” thought the author,<br /> “‘ will probably prejudice my novel in the eyes of<br /> the next pablisher to whom I send it, and who<br /> may thus have reason to think that it has already<br /> been read and rejected.” A hot iron and a piece<br /> of india-rubber made it respectable once more,<br /> the wretched publisher’s label was scratched off<br /> the brown paper wrapping, another was pasted on<br /> in its place, and the parcel was a second time<br /> committed to the post.<br /> <br /> The weeks of waiting that followed were more<br /> anxious than the last ; there might be more than<br /> one foolish publisher in the world. Too true.<br /> <br /> “Mr. regrets that he is not able to accept Mr.<br /> ’s story entitled ‘— . While the novel has<br /> certain points of merit it appears to fail in construction.<br /> It is also much too long. The MS. is returned herewith,<br /> with thanks.”<br /> <br /> Here was a blow, but a reason was given.<br /> Youth requires much to daunt it. The author<br /> determined to have an expert opinion on his work.<br /> That excellent institution, the Society of Authors,<br /> gives practical advice on young writers’ manu-<br /> scripts for a moderate fee. The story was posted<br /> to the secretary, and in due course was returned<br /> with the following notes :—<br /> <br /> “The Reader of ‘———,’ after careful consideration,<br /> has come to the following conclusions. In the first place<br /> the story is much too long, novels of 80,000 to 100,000 words<br /> are generally the most acceptable length. Secondly, the<br /> <br /> weakest point of the story lies/in the lack of artistic con-<br /> struction, But artistic literary construction can be acquired<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> —in fact must be acquired if the author wishes to write<br /> successful fiction, The Reader advises Mr. — to study<br /> the novels of Guy de Maupassant, the best of which are<br /> models of literary construction. He has pleasure in adding<br /> that he considers that Mr. ’s story is well-written,<br /> and evinces distinct promise. There are dramatic moments<br /> and scenes of very considerable power. The scenes are<br /> also well handled. Moreover, the novel contains many<br /> passages of considerable value and strength, and the inci-<br /> dents themselves are welltold. The knowledge of ‘ charac-<br /> ter’ displayed is deep and effective (this is particularly so<br /> in the case of the characters X and Z ), and<br /> the Reader must add that the author has distinct power asa<br /> descriptive writer. Where he fails is in the very elements<br /> of successful novel writing ; and the Reader’s advice to Mr.<br /> — is that he should reconstruct, rewrite, and con-<br /> siderably curtail his story. Mr. has the ability,<br /> and his success depends entirely upon himself.” :<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Youth was cheered. Apparently only hard work<br /> and proper discernment were in the author’s way<br /> to success. He placed his manuscript aside for six<br /> months and studied Maupassant. The story was<br /> reconstructed, entirely rewritten, and shortened to<br /> about half its original length. The author gave<br /> the nights and holiday afternoons of nearly two<br /> years to the work, but the giant’s task was accom-<br /> plished, and the novel was again despatched to the<br /> Reader of the Society of Authors. His reply came<br /> as follows :— :<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> “ The Reader congratulates Mr. on his successful<br /> accomplishment of that most difficult enterprise—the<br /> rewriting of a novel. The ending of the story is undeniably<br /> effective, and the whole novel seems to the Reader to move<br /> swiftly and strongly from opening to close.... The<br /> Reader would strongly advise Mr. to devote himself<br /> at once to a new novel, in which he should try to do even<br /> better work.”<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Once more joy! Once more hope! To<br /> Publisher Number Two the manuscript was again<br /> despatched. Three weeks later it was returned :<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> “Mr, ——— has read Mr. ’s rewritten story with<br /> pleasure. It is a more concise and better book than it<br /> was, and it is certainly astory of merit. Mr. thinks<br /> that it would be well spoken of by reviews, but owing to<br /> the unsatisfactory state of the literary market, he doubts<br /> if its sale would be sufficiently great to render it com-<br /> mercially successful. Heis much obliged to Mr. for<br /> allowing him to see the MS, again, which he is returning<br /> by parcel post.”<br /> <br /> But was “merit” to be smothered at birth for<br /> the want of a foster-parent? No, it should seek<br /> one elsewhere.<br /> <br /> Two months later the novel came back once<br /> more. The author was becoming bold and hard<br /> of heart. He wrote for a reason of the rejection :<br /> <br /> “Tt is not our practice to give reasons for the rejection<br /> of MSS. We may say, however, that we do not at present<br /> feel justified in taking up the work of new authors. Our<br /> Readers allagree that the story is very well written, but we<br /> do not feel that it would be likely to be as popular as its<br /> merits deserve. We returned the MS, reluctantly.”<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Despair now suggested itself. Yet while there<br /> was a publisher in London who remained untried,<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR. :<br /> <br /> there should be no fainting heart. The next<br /> firm written to politely declined to read the novel<br /> as “the supply of fiction was greater than the<br /> demand.” It was therefore offered to a young and<br /> enterprising house. This firm kept it some five or<br /> six months before sending it back :<br /> <br /> “ Our Reader informs us that the book has many qualities,<br /> but not qualities that would be likely, in the present<br /> depressed condition of the market for books—and especially<br /> for fiction—to attract to it a sufficient amount of attention<br /> to enable a publisher to sell the thousand or so copies that<br /> are essential.”<br /> <br /> And so the heartbreaking work of despatching<br /> the story and receiving it back continued for<br /> years. Sometimes the MS. was returned with a<br /> polite note of refusal, sometimes a few words of<br /> appreciation and commendation were offered, and<br /> thankfully received. In nearly all cases where<br /> reason for refusal was given, the excuse was laid<br /> to the account of the bad state of ‘the literary<br /> market.”<br /> <br /> At length the author decided to seek new fields.<br /> He sent his novel to a popular newspaper that<br /> makes a feature of publishing serial stories. Three<br /> months later the now familiar answer came :<br /> <br /> “The novel is most carefully written, but we prefer<br /> stories of strictly modern days. Always glad to read any<br /> story you may write.”—Editor<br /> <br /> About this time the would-be novelist received<br /> a letter from his friend, who, in the course of it,<br /> remarked, “if you at any time decide to write a<br /> novel, and desire ‘a friend at court,’ send the MS.<br /> on to me and I will forward it to ———” (a<br /> publisher), “who is a friend of mine.”<br /> <br /> Here was hope again! ‘The story was des-<br /> patched, with a note of thanks for the offer. Four<br /> months later the novelist wrote :<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> “ My DEAR , [am sorry—very sorry to tell you that I<br /> have been unsuccessful in placing your novel. I have read<br /> it myself, and think that with a few touches it ought to go<br /> well. But, as you know, there is such a little chance for<br /> new writers nowadays. Everything tends towards keeping<br /> fiction in a narrow and successful ring. Publishers abso-<br /> lutely refuse to risk money over new authors, while with<br /> the favourites all they write sells before it is published—or<br /> at least is ordered by the trade, which is the same thing.<br /> If your story was published bearing the name of a well-<br /> known author it would sell, whereas with your name being<br /> unknown to the trade as that of a novelist, I dare say that<br /> the novel would hardly repay the publisher for the<br /> printing.<br /> <br /> “Yet it seems a pity for such a good story to remain in<br /> oblivion !<br /> <br /> “ Both and (here is inserted the names<br /> of two publishers) say that they won’t risk a penny on<br /> new authors. Shall I send the MS, back, or what shall I<br /> do with it?<br /> <br /> ”<br /> <br /> “ Yours ever, ———-—<br /> <br /> This was the last straw! The author replied<br /> that he did not much care what his friend did with<br /> the MS. : he might make pipe-lights of it, or give<br /> it away.<br /> <br /> 51<br /> <br /> It has come back !<br /> <br /> So ends the story of an unpublished author of<br /> “merit,” and so does mere cleverness—wanting<br /> the name of popularity—find no favour with Dame<br /> Fortune. How obtain a hearing? The multitude<br /> will not hear you because they know you not,<br /> neither do they wish to know you. And yet, if<br /> they would but listen ———-! No, they will not<br /> —the twenty-seven publishers have decided. When<br /> no hand is extended to help him the young novelist<br /> must devise other means to gain a hearing, or<br /> perish. He may present his work to some pub-<br /> lisher or editor (if he will have it) for the sake of the<br /> advertisement its publication may give him, or he<br /> may pay a publisher to produce his work. Other-<br /> wise he may sup on leek and remain, like the present<br /> <br /> “writer,<br /> <br /> Unwept, UNHONOURED AND UNSUNG.<br /> ee ot<br /> <br /> II.—The Struggles of a Published Author.<br /> <br /> THERE are aspects of the literary life other<br /> than those presented in “The Truth about an<br /> Author.” The pleasant experiences of the writer<br /> of that book belong to the exception, not to the<br /> rule, and certainly they do not square with my<br /> own. My literary career has been an unceasing<br /> struggle, in which every advantage had to be<br /> fought for ; each advance was contested and had to<br /> be won, and the merit of one book in no way<br /> assured a reception for the next. In fact the<br /> reverse happened, for with each success it became<br /> increasingly difficult to place another book.<br /> <br /> My grandfather wrote books which were issued<br /> by the leading publisher of his day ; my father<br /> wrote books which were published by a newer<br /> house, but I have not been able to place anything<br /> with either firm. Practically I started without<br /> knowing any publisher or editor, determined simply<br /> to make my way by the quality of my work. [<br /> have written a few novels and six other books ; all<br /> have been well received by the Press; all are<br /> considered successful. One is in the reading room<br /> of the British Museum, another has been trans-<br /> lated into various Huropean languages, and<br /> published in half-a-dozen countries; of another<br /> a pirated edition in the Japanese vernacular has<br /> been issued at Tokyo; some have sold as well<br /> in America as in this country, and one is in its<br /> seventh English edition. I could paper the walls of<br /> my study with different very flattering notices news-<br /> paper critics have wasted upon my work, and I<br /> have perhaps a score of more or less disparaging<br /> reviews. All my books have attracted notice.<br /> Several times I have fancied myself near real<br /> pecuniary success, believing after so much praise<br /> had been lavished upon one book that I should<br /> 52<br /> <br /> find the search for a publisher easier, be. offered<br /> work by editors, or, at least, get some sort of<br /> salaried post on a periodical. :<br /> <br /> My latest book was the first of mine to be issued<br /> simultaneously in distinct editions in England and<br /> America. In both countries it had excellent<br /> publishers who advertised it generously ; it was<br /> noticed on the day of publication and much<br /> praised ; the daily newspapers gave it a column,<br /> and of the literary weeklies some devoted as many<br /> as six columns to the book; extracts from it<br /> appeared in almost every periodical from the<br /> Family Herald to the Quarterly Review, both<br /> included ; the public responded.<br /> <br /> With so much fame and the book selling, I<br /> thoucht it a fit moment to approach publishers and<br /> editors for future work. The result was dis-<br /> appointing. ‘Twelve book publishers refused abso-<br /> lutely to consider anything ; fifteen others would<br /> not entertain a work on the subjects I suggested,<br /> one because he had published a book on a cognate<br /> topic, another because he was going to do s0, a<br /> third because he had never done so—any excuse<br /> served to complete the vicious circle. The net<br /> result was that two firms, quite third-rate in the<br /> trade, answered by inviting me to “ submit ”’—an<br /> abominable word—my manuscript. One then<br /> stated that he liked what I offered, but declined<br /> to publish it on any terms ; the other has the work<br /> under consideration still.<br /> <br /> The Press Syndicates refused my overtures. Of<br /> the editors of periodicals eight declined to consider<br /> any serial from me; thirty others rejected various<br /> offers I made them of articles, services, etc. ; three<br /> only stated as a reason that my price was too high.<br /> The net result was—one short article accepted,<br /> and four intimations that I might “submit”<br /> MSS. which, if used, would be paid for at scale<br /> rate, which was not specified.<br /> <br /> For all practical purposes of making a livelihood<br /> by writing, I am in exactly the same position I<br /> was before my “ great” book was published.<br /> <br /> In itself the pecuniary value of literary fame is<br /> nil. It issomething which is worth more to any-<br /> one else than it is to the literary worker.<br /> <br /> For instance, my fame has brought me an offer<br /> from a firm of German manufacturers who, if only<br /> I will cease writing and will travel about to get<br /> information for them, will pay all my expenses and<br /> reward me with a high salary. I detest Germans<br /> and I abhor trade, but I do like getting informa-<br /> tion, and I want that salary very badly. If a<br /> British or an American firm offered it I would<br /> close at once, and then anybody who wishes to<br /> possess a first-class reputation might obtain one<br /> ready-made and cheap from a writer who has never<br /> had any use for it.<br /> <br /> ARTIFEX,<br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> AN EDITOR’S LETTER BOX.<br /> <br /> 1<br /> <br /> YE Editor of the “ New York Bookman,” in<br /> <br /> his interesting paragraphs “Chronicle and’<br /> Comment,” publishes some letters which show a<br /> pleasing variety in the correspondence that comes<br /> to him as he sits in his editorial chair. He says,<br /> “Tg it not more pitiful than humorous that so<br /> many simple souls come to such an unfeeling con-<br /> fessor in his unadorned confessional and lay bare<br /> their very hearts and reveal their desires and hope-<br /> less aspirations?” and later, “When a busy man<br /> has given a half hour of his valuable time to<br /> dictate a word in season to a youth who will never<br /> be able to write, as even a blind man could dis-<br /> cover, and receives no more thanks for his pains<br /> than this, one cannot wonder that he grows<br /> indifferent :—<br /> <br /> “ Dear sir, your crazy ; i ean right, you don’t know what<br /> your talking about. Your a d—— fool and your old paper<br /> aint no good anyhow. i no good potry wen i see it, and<br /> my prose is excellent to, having bin criticised by the best.<br /> Their is those who strive to keep us from getting to the<br /> front where we belong, but it aint no use. So ile take<br /> your old paper and throw it in the fire and ile tell all my<br /> frens to do the same. All editors are fools anyway. Your<br /> a bigger one... .”<br /> <br /> Another style of writer sends him the follow-<br /> ing :—<br /> <br /> “ Please do not return this story to me if you do not want<br /> <br /> it as I do not wish my wife to know that it has been<br /> rejected. She would laugh so at me.”<br /> <br /> We fear that writers under this category are not<br /> a few. What again is to be said of the woman<br /> from Kansas who, when told that the Editor’s<br /> payment was ten dollars a thousand, writes to say<br /> that she would rather stick to chicken raising, as<br /> it would take her so long to write a thousand<br /> stories.<br /> <br /> The Hditor not infrequently received letters<br /> from would-be suicides :—<br /> <br /> “ Unless you except this pome by leven o’clock thursday<br /> morning i will jump into the hudson river.”<br /> <br /> There is no doubt that such letters are written.<br /> We have heard of similar cases in the English<br /> Literary Market, but so far, we have never<br /> heard of the suicide. Of another kind of writer<br /> we have also had experience this side of the<br /> water, the half educated, sentimental, romantic<br /> woman who considers herself a genius, and sits<br /> down and fills reams of paper to the distraction of<br /> her family with no benefit to herself. We quote<br /> the Editor of the “ Bookman’s” experience of this<br /> kind of person :—<br /> <br /> “Tam most ambitious to appear in the leading magazines<br /> <br /> and papers throughout the country, and if you like the<br /> first hundred thousand words of my novel, | will send you<br /> <br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> the rest as soon as it is completed. I am working hard on<br /> it now. My husband idles his days away. He will not<br /> work, but is only too willing to sleep, and I have to do<br /> something to support the family. Iam conscientious about<br /> my literary work, and I feel sure that I was cut out to be<br /> an author. I cannot afford to pay the express charges on<br /> my story, so send it at your expense. If you return it—<br /> and oh, I pray you won’t !—please prepay the package, for<br /> we are very, very poor. I have been writing ever since I<br /> was a child, and I am now forty-three years old, but I have<br /> never had anything published either in a paper or in a<br /> book. But I know I am just as big a genius as , only<br /> I have never had the chances he has. We have had hard<br /> bacon for breakfast so long that I’m tired of it; so please<br /> hurry my check if you accept my story, as I would like a<br /> change of food, and also I would like to surprise my<br /> indolent husband.”<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> The same date the Editor received a letter from<br /> the irate mother which we have also taken the<br /> liberty of reprinting :—<br /> <br /> “Dear sir,—By this mail, I understand that my daughter,<br /> who is married, is sending you a pleading letter—I know<br /> it must be pleading for she has been writing them for<br /> years—and a big manuscript. I beg you to believe that it<br /> will be the greatest kindness if you will pay no sort of<br /> attention to her story or her letter. She is the mother of<br /> three young children, and while her husband does all he<br /> can to support her and them, he cannot earn very much,<br /> owing toa heart weakness. She should take in washing,<br /> as I have had to do, and try to help out by that instead of<br /> by writing fool stories. She has always had an idea that<br /> she was a great author, and we cannot keep the pencil out<br /> of her hand, although we hide it and the paper pads ton,<br /> If she would spend more time in doing honest sensible<br /> work instead of wasting her days in composing novels that<br /> I know are trash, she would be better off. So please don’t<br /> answer her request, and don’t encourage her in any way.<br /> I am her mother, and I know.<br /> <br /> “ Yours in all sincerity.”<br /> <br /> It certainly is more pitiful than humorous.<br /> We can only hope that the Editor will continue in<br /> his kind and praiseworthy efforts. To many, no<br /> doubt, his communications come as a gleam of<br /> sunshine. Where there is real hard work, where<br /> there is really a painstaking effort, a favourable<br /> comment will go a long way to smooth the toil-<br /> some path. But while human nature is humanly<br /> natural, the other side, which is pitiful, cannot fail<br /> to come to the fore. But let us not despair.<br /> <br /> Finally the Editor, after considering so many<br /> letters as the companions of MSS., is inclined to<br /> think that as a rule the letter is a superfluity, and<br /> that Editors generally can do better without them.<br /> <br /> ———<br /> <br /> THE HORSE IN FICTION.<br /> <br /> &lt;&gt;<br /> <br /> rYN\HE coming of the motor-car seems likely to<br /> displace that noble animal, the horse—in<br /> Enrope at all events—from the high posi-<br /> tion he has held’ for innumerable centuries. Is<br /> this proud, generous, and most useful beast, the<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> 53<br /> <br /> friend and ally of warriors and of princes, to be<br /> relegated to obscurity, to fade out of existence? In<br /> all sincerity one may hope not! What a history<br /> has been his! The Bible, in glowing words, has<br /> set forth his renown ; poets and writers in all ages<br /> have sung his prowess ; he has aided in the winning<br /> of great battles, the conquering and overrunning<br /> of vast countries ; his achievements, whether in<br /> peace or war, have been as innumerable as they<br /> have been glorious. Yet, though poets and<br /> novelists have in countless works written in vague<br /> and general praise of the horse, when one begins<br /> to delve into particulars, one realises that the<br /> writer of fiction has, as a rule, been always rather shy<br /> of this subject. The novelist and the poet have<br /> not, one begins to discover, much real acquaintance<br /> with horses and horsemanship, and a survey of the<br /> literature of the last century almost convinces one<br /> that writers, as a class, prefer to leave the achieve-<br /> ments of the noblest of all domesticated animals<br /> rather severely alone. Few creators of romance<br /> have, in fact, cared to particularise on a subject<br /> which, adequately dealt with, offers many<br /> attractions.<br /> <br /> Byron, it is true, strikes a stirring note in the<br /> poem of ‘‘ Mazeppa,” that spirited and romantic set-<br /> ting of an old Polish or Cossack tradition. Byron<br /> gathered his materials for‘‘ Mazeppa”’ from Voltaire’s<br /> ‘* History of Charles XIT.,” and makes his hero, the<br /> aged Hetman of the Ukraine Cossacks, recount his<br /> terrible ride to Charles on the night following the<br /> disastrous battle of Pultowa. According to Byron,<br /> Mazeppa, a young Polish gentleman, detected in<br /> an intrigue with the wife of a Count of Podolia, is<br /> seized, bound to the back of an unbroken horse<br /> fresh from the wilds of Ukraine, and driven forth<br /> into the forest and the wilderness. The tale is<br /> finely told in Byron’s best manner, yet, when one<br /> begins to inquire closely into the particulars, one<br /> finds that poetical licence has been somewhat<br /> too freely made use of. For two days and nights,<br /> according to Byron, Mazeppa’s steed carries him in<br /> a career so headlong that even the tireless wolves<br /> which pursue them are left behind. Now wolves,<br /> it is well known, will run down the best horse in<br /> the world ; while any one who is acquainted with<br /> horses and their capabilities, will bear out the<br /> writer in his affirmation that no horse ever foaled<br /> could pursue a rapid flight, unchecked, for forty-<br /> eight hours. However, at the end of that time, even<br /> the steed portrayed by Byron begins to flag. He<br /> swims with his burden across a mighty river, and<br /> presently sinks down upon the Ukraine steppe, where<br /> Mazeppa is rescued and unbound by natives of<br /> that wild district. Among these people the hero<br /> makes his home, in years to come rising to the<br /> position of Hetman or Prince of the Ukraine<br /> Cossacks.<br /> 54<br /> <br /> Sir Walter Scott understood horses probably a<br /> good deal better than did Byron, and in the “ Lady<br /> of the Lake” Fitzjames’s chase of the stag, roused<br /> in Glenartney Forest, is with a first-rate horse<br /> feasible enough. Fitzjames, however, appears to<br /> have been a more enthusiastic hunter than he was<br /> a good horse-master, and having overridden his<br /> good grey from Glenartney to the shores of Loch<br /> Katrine, the generous beast yields up its life, and<br /> “stretched its stiff limbs to rise no more.” Scott,<br /> however, paints an incident that still occasionally<br /> happens, even in fox-hunting, and his knowledge<br /> of the grdund described, and of the limits of a<br /> horse’s endurance, have prevented him from depict-<br /> ing the impossible in his spirited account of the<br /> great run with a Glenartney stag.<br /> <br /> Harrison Ainsworth’s well-known description of<br /> Dick Turpin’s ride to York almost rescues “ Rook-<br /> wood” from the region of rather cheap melodrama.<br /> Turpin, of course, never performed the ride in<br /> question, a ride, as Ainsworth describes it, prob-<br /> ably far beyond the limits of any single horse’s<br /> endurance. Nevertheless, so well is the famous<br /> highwayman’s gallop described, and so much pains<br /> has the novelist displayed in the management of<br /> this part of his tale, that good Black Bess and her<br /> immortal course will probably live in fiction to<br /> delight schoolboys for generations yet to come.<br /> <br /> Among English novelists, Whyte Melville cer-<br /> tainly knew more about horses and their capa-<br /> bilities than any other. In “ Katerfelto” he has<br /> made the highwayman’s grey nag, of which. John<br /> Garnett becomes possessed, almost as much the<br /> hero of his tale as the man who bestrides it. The<br /> hunt on Exmoor is excellently well done, and<br /> Katerfelto’s leap for freedom, a leap which saves<br /> his master, and is the undoing of Parson Gale and<br /> his black gelding, Cassock, is admirably set forth.<br /> The stallion Katerfelto, according to Whyte Mel-<br /> ville, is never again captured, and becomes the<br /> semi-feral progenitor of much of the moorland<br /> pony-stock of West Somerset and North Devon.<br /> There may be, as Melville hints, some substratum<br /> of truth at the bottom of this romance. ‘‘Sata-<br /> nella” is another of Whyte Melville’s tales, which<br /> mingles the fortunes of a handsome black mare<br /> with the story of a beautiful but ill-starred woman.<br /> <br /> Among other famous horsemen and horses of<br /> <br /> fiction, Starlight and his good nag, in “ Robbery<br /> <br /> Under Arms,” naturally occur to one; while the<br /> great ride of Umslopogaas, so graphically set forth<br /> by Rider Haggard in “ Allan Quatermain,” is an<br /> excellent piece of work, strong, exciting, and not<br /> ‘overdone in colouring. Taken as a whole, how-<br /> ever, fiction is somewhat surprisingly poor in a<br /> domain where it might have been expected to<br /> reap many laurels, and horses and their feats have<br /> been but little utilised.<br /> <br /> THER AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> Turning from the realm of fiction to that of —<br /> hard facts, one recalls three great and marvellous<br /> rides. First, that of the Welsh Knight of the<br /> Shire, who rode up to London, on the spur, from<br /> his own home to record his vote in favour of that<br /> Act of Succession which established the present<br /> dynasty on the throne of Britain. The squire<br /> reached Westminster literally in the very nick of<br /> time, and his casting vote decided the fate of the<br /> Stuarts and the rise of their Hanoverian cousins.<br /> One of the greatest of all historic rides was that of<br /> young Robert Carr from London to Edinburgh, to<br /> carry to James the First the tidings of the death<br /> of Queen Elizabeth. Carr’s ride, accomplished<br /> practically without rest or respite, on relays of<br /> horses, still stands to the present day as one of the<br /> finest of all achievements in endurance and horse-<br /> manship.<br /> <br /> Sir Harry Smith’s ride from Cape Town to<br /> Grahamstown, on the outbreak of the Kaffir War,<br /> in 1834, is beyond all doubt one of the most<br /> striking feats in horsemanship ever recorded. He<br /> accomplished the distance—610 miles—in six<br /> days, picking up raw, grass-fed Cape ponies as he<br /> went along, and accomplishing his journey success-<br /> fully during the height of the hot weather season.<br /> Browning’s imaginary gallop with the good news<br /> from Ghent to Aix pales effectually before this<br /> very real and wonderful performance of the fiery<br /> veteran, Sir Harry Smith.<br /> <br /> H. A. BRYDEN.<br /> <br /> ee<br /> <br /> THE ONLY WAY.<br /> <br /> — a<br /> <br /> HIS book is harmless. It is also colourless.<br /> <br /> It is full of platitudes, and appears to be<br /> <br /> written by one who has some knowledge but<br /> <br /> no sympathy. It is not likely to inspire genius.<br /> <br /> It is not likely to spread any literary disease. The<br /> <br /> impression it makes is lack of impression —it<br /> inspires no ideals.<br /> <br /> That the book is written with some knowledge<br /> is evident from the quotation of current prices and<br /> certain reliable information of the contents of the<br /> better-known magazines. There are some minor<br /> hints on technique which expose the expert.<br /> <br /> The facility of the whole work inclines one to<br /> think that though the author has trodden the path<br /> to success, he has not been assailed by the thorns<br /> and brambles that clog the footsteps of the ordinary<br /> literary tramp. He has in consequence become<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> * “How to Become an Author,’ by Arnold Bennett,<br /> (C. Arthur Pearson, Limited.)<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> didactic and narrow. He looks upon his road as<br /> | the only road, and cannot help his fellow wayfarer<br /> <br /> 4) to overcome his difficulties.<br /> <br /> That the author inspires no ideals is clear from<br /> his view of modern journalism, which he asserts<br /> has attained its present perfection in a well-known<br /> halfpenny Daily.<br /> <br /> The spirit of this method speaks through the<br /> author as follows: “‘ Let us decide whether our<br /> readers—not as they ought to be, but as they actually<br /> are—will read and be interested in this thing.”<br /> <br /> The freelance, he assures us—not in these words<br /> —ought to write down to his public ; and again,<br /> “He must put away all sentimentality about the<br /> art of literature and the moral mission of<br /> “journalism.”<br /> <br /> This sort of advice may be successful in turning<br /> out a fair hack, but not a real live author; but<br /> these wise saws are no good if the practical advice<br /> does not help the would-be author further.<br /> <br /> Again, his opinions about fiction and other<br /> -methods of becoming an author may or may not<br /> be true—that is neither here nor there. Stories<br /> are not written, books are not composed by rule.<br /> Tot homines, quot sententie, is still a good motto,<br /> but when these wise sayings have been read, is the<br /> teacher convincing, or does the tyro’s mind at the<br /> end of this book appear like Lord Rosebery’s slate<br /> —without a mark upon it, absolutely clean ?<br /> <br /> The practical side of the book is unsatisfactory,<br /> and the remarks on the technique of literary work,<br /> the business of placing the book on the market,<br /> the prices paid for modern literature, and the<br /> thousand and one pitfalls to be avoided are sadly<br /> deficient.<br /> <br /> ‘We must protest also that only one reference<br /> is made to the Authors’ Society, and that in<br /> no liberal spirit. Mr. Bennett does not appear<br /> from the published list to be one of that body.<br /> Though he knows of its existence, he is ignorant<br /> of the work it does and of the information at its<br /> command. In the journalistic portion he men-<br /> tions some books which may be useful to beginners,<br /> but does nct care to refer to the valuable, confi-<br /> dential, and practical help offered by the Society.<br /> In his advice to producers of books he states, “ In<br /> selecting publishers for experiment, the aspirant<br /> should begin with the best and work downwards<br /> in the scale of importance,” but where is the<br /> information to come from? Who are the best<br /> publishers? The writer is evidently not aware<br /> that some firms whose names loom large to the<br /> public are utterly unsatisfactory to the author.<br /> Here again there is no mention of the Authors’<br /> Society.<br /> <br /> Only when touching on the question of contracts<br /> for books (he makes no attempt to discuss con-<br /> tracts with editors, perhaps rightly), after some<br /> <br /> 55<br /> <br /> interesting suggestions, he states, “The aspirant<br /> with a legal turn who wishes for further informa-<br /> tion should join the Authors’ Society, which pub-<br /> lishes a highly interesting and intricate literature<br /> on the relations between writers and publishers<br /> and all the dreadful possibilities thereof.”<br /> <br /> If the author had dealt with his subject in any<br /> other way than facile superficiality this book might<br /> have sufficed, but his method is so full of omissions<br /> when he writes with the air of finality that from<br /> the business standpoint his view may lead beginners<br /> far astray.<br /> <br /> For instance, “The aspirant should not trouble<br /> much about American (he means United States)<br /> copyright. It is exceedingly difficult to obtain<br /> American copyright of a first book. But if by a<br /> happy chance it can be obtained, so much the<br /> better.”<br /> <br /> Because it is difficult, therefore the fledgling<br /> need not trouble.<br /> <br /> The United States market is in many ways a<br /> bigger financial gain than the British, therefore,<br /> so far from not troubling, the tyro should strain<br /> every nerve for success.<br /> <br /> We are glad to see that he has noted one well-<br /> known publisher who settles libel actions at his<br /> own discretion, but at the author’s expense. Who-<br /> ever he may be, our adviser states “that this is<br /> manifestly wicked.”<br /> <br /> In conclusion, the work can only be expressed<br /> by a series of negations. It is not a good book ;<br /> it is not practical. It lacks depth. It is a series<br /> of omissions.<br /> <br /> Sir Walter Besant’s “‘ Pen and the Book” is still<br /> by far the best work at present on the subject, in<br /> spite of ‘‘ How to Publish,” “‘ How to Write for<br /> Magazines,” and many similar effusions. A second<br /> edition is sadly needed.<br /> <br /> If the author is a member of the Society then<br /> there is no apology needed for these strictures.<br /> If not, he should study the work it does, and<br /> remember that authors who personally stand in no<br /> need of direct assistance must yet directly profit<br /> by much of its work, done at the expense of its<br /> members.<br /> <br /> BR. ULE<br /> <br /> eg<br /> <br /> CORRESPONDENCE.<br /> <br /> —_—&gt;—-+—<br /> A Lirerary FRAUD.<br /> I.<br /> <br /> Srr,—All I can say about Mr. Isidore G. Ascher’s<br /> admirable letter under the above heading in your<br /> 56<br /> <br /> last issue is that I, for one, would be very glad of<br /> an opportunity of writing books at a living wage<br /> for rich people desirous of literary celebrity.<br /> Naturally, I detest the notion of permitting other<br /> persons to batten on my brains : but I detest still<br /> more the notion of becoming useless and idle in<br /> the workhouse. ae<br /> <br /> You see, now (when every Gajo, Titio, and<br /> Sempronio writes), it is quite impossible for every-<br /> one to get published. ‘Then debt, duns, the dead<br /> whiteness of a gardenia replacing ruddy health on<br /> one’s child’s face, the awful aspect of friends whose<br /> eyes say, “I hope to God you&#039;re not going to ask<br /> me to do anything for you,” harass and benumb<br /> and acidulate the boycotted writer, who naturally<br /> catches at any straw in the current which is sweep-<br /> ing him to perdition. It is not fame, it is not<br /> justice which he wants now, but a roof and daily<br /> bread.<br /> <br /> No; I do not think one ought to denounce as<br /> guilty of fraud the hacks who sell their brains.<br /> They do it, not for pleasure, but from necessity.<br /> Their motive is the honourable one :of Indepen-<br /> dence. Blame the crow who wears the peacock’s<br /> tail, as “a disgrace to literature,” etc., if you will,<br /> but do be merciful to the poor peacock.<br /> <br /> Yours truly,<br /> <br /> A. Hack.<br /> <br /> — +<br /> <br /> II.<br /> <br /> Srr,—I cannot quite understand Mr. Ascher’s<br /> indignation against the “ ghost” system. What<br /> does it matter whether the twaddle given to the<br /> world under a popular name has been written by<br /> a money-grubbing celebrity himself, or by some<br /> talented unknown person who is thus enabled to<br /> get the living he could not, perhaps, otherwise<br /> obtain ?<br /> <br /> No decent author would ever allow his, or her,<br /> name to appear over another person’s work, and<br /> those who are sufficiently degraded to allow it<br /> must be punished by the knowledge that their<br /> “ghosts” are as competent as themselves. If<br /> they have any amour propre at all this should<br /> gall them; and if the public cannot detect any<br /> difference between the work of its idols and that<br /> of industrious employees, then the public certainly<br /> deserves to be taken in. Finally, if the poor<br /> “ghost” can only get his work in print this way,<br /> why grudge him the joys of authorship beneath<br /> what is, practically, a pseudonym? As things go,<br /> with a huge mass of readers devoid of literary<br /> taste and craving only “names,” the employment<br /> of journeymen seems to me rather a good arrange-<br /> ment. The true man of letters knows that his<br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> work can be done by himself alone, and why<br /> should he care if the charlatan makes a fortune,<br /> through which some needy quill-driver benefits ?<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Yours truly,<br /> M. L. P.<br /> <br /> ——~—+—<br /> <br /> THINGS THAT MATTER.<br /> <br /> Srr,—I notice in your last issue a list of the so .<br /> contents of various magazines, and I think this &lt;i;<br /> would be a useful feature of The Author, providing =&lt;&quot;<br /> it appears regularly and includes all the articles =...<br /> in the periodicals mentioned. It is impossible to «!“&#039;<br /> subscribe to every magazine, and writers who ~<br /> travel, as well as your readers residing in the -<br /> country and abroad, will welcome such a list as =&gt;<br /> you give, since it contains information not elsewhere<br /> readily obtainable. 5<br /> <br /> It occurs to me that your “Trade Notes” would — °<br /> be more valuable if you made a point of mention-<br /> ing well in advance of publication the issue of new &gt;<br /> periodicals—of which doubtless you receive, or can = «<br /> get, the earliest trustworthy information. What —<br /> writers wish to know is the scope of a pro- —<br /> jected magazine, and who will edit and who ~<br /> publish it. Subsequently there might be published —<br /> in The Author the ‘ Notice to Contributors,”<br /> as supplementary to the list you have issued<br /> separately.<br /> <br /> Mention might be made also of new firms of — ™<br /> publishers and of new publishing companies<br /> Several firms of book publishers have commenced<br /> business recently, but of them there has not been ~<br /> a word in Zhe Author. Of new publishing com<br /> panies there are many more, and a list of these —<br /> might be given, with such particulars as will<br /> enable writers to form an adequate idea of the ©<br /> scope of the enterprise projected. In September,<br /> for instance, the following were registered at<br /> Somerset House :—African Publications; British —<br /> Sports ; English Illustrated Magazine ; Enterprise —<br /> Publishing Co.; Folkestone Chronicle; Index ©<br /> Advertising Co. ; Press Picture Agency; Smart<br /> Set ; Sphere and Tatler ; Studio Press; World of —<br /> Billiards ; all with limited liability, and with a ~<br /> nominal capital of from £500 to £200,000 each.<br /> Some, doubtless, are of no possible use to any ©<br /> member of the Society, but of them such particulars —<br /> might be given as will enable each reader to judge -<br /> whether or not they are, or may be, of service. ;<br /> <br /> I have no doubt the secretaries of all newly<br /> formed companies will be ready to furnish readers<br /> of The Author with information of interest to<br /> writers and readers.<br /> <br /> Yours faithfully,<br /> Broap-NIs., The Author
488 Author, Vol. 14 Issue 03 (December 1903)<a href="/items/browse?advanced%5B0%5D%5Belement_id%5D=49&advanced%5B0%5D%5Btype%5D=is+exactly&advanced%5B0%5D%5Bterms%5D=%3Cem%3EThe+Author%3C%2Fem%3E%2C+Vol.+14+Issue+03+%28December+1903%29"><em>The Author</em>, Vol. 14 Issue 03 (December 1903)</a><a href="/items/browse?advanced%5B0%5D%5Belement_id%5D=51&advanced%5B0%5D%5Btype%5D=is+exactly&advanced%5B0%5D%5Bterms%5D=Publication">Publication</a>1903-12-01-The-Author-14-3<a href="/items/browse?advanced%5B0%5D%5Belement_id%5D=76&advanced%5B0%5D%5Btype%5D=is+exactly&advanced%5B0%5D%5Bterms%5D=1903-12-01">1903-12-01</a><a href="/items/browse?advanced%5B0%5D%5Belement_id%5D=89&advanced%5B0%5D%5Btype%5D=is+exactly&advanced%5B0%5D%5Bterms%5D=14">14</a>357–8419031201Che Huthor.<br /> <br /> (The Organ of the Incorporated Society of Authors.<br /> <br /> Monthly.)<br /> <br /> FOUNDED BY SIR WALTER BESANT.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Vou. XTV.—No. 3.<br /> <br /> DECEMBER 1sT, 1903.<br /> <br /> [Prick SIXPENCE.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> TELEPHONE NUMBER :<br /> <br /> 374 VICTORIA.<br /> TELEGRAPHIC ADDRESS:<br /> <br /> AUTORIDAD, LONDON.<br /> <br /> a<br /> <br /> THE<br /> UNVEILING OF THE MEMORIAL<br /> TO SIR WALTER BESANT.<br /> <br /> —— 9<br /> <br /> ORD MONKSWELL, the Chairman<br /> <br /> of the London County Council, has<br /> <br /> kindly undertaken the duty of unveiling<br /> <br /> the Memorial to Sir Walter Besant. The<br /> <br /> ceremony will take place in the Crypt of<br /> <br /> St. Paul’s Cathedral on the afternoon of<br /> Friday, December 11th, at 3 o’clock.<br /> <br /> It is hoped that those members of the<br /> Society who care for the memory of Sir<br /> Walter Besant, and are grateful for his<br /> unselfish and earnest labours on behalf of<br /> his fellow writers, will make every effort<br /> to be present.<br /> <br /> es<br /> NOTICES.<br /> <br /> OR the opinions expressed in papers that are<br /> signed or initialled the authors alone are<br /> responsible. None of the papers or para-<br /> <br /> graphs must be taken as expressing the opinion<br /> of the Committee unless such is especially stated<br /> to be the case.<br /> <br /> Tue Editor begs to inform members of the<br /> Authors’ Society and other readers of The Author<br /> VoL, XIV.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> that the cases which are from time to time quoted<br /> in The Author are cases that have come before the<br /> notice or to the knowledge of the Secretary of the<br /> Society, and that those members of the Society<br /> who desire to have the names of the publishers<br /> concerned can obtain them on application.<br /> <br /> a<br /> <br /> List of Members.<br /> <br /> TuE List of Members of the Society of Authors<br /> published October, 1902, at the price of 6d., and<br /> the elections from October, 1902, to July, 1903, as<br /> a supplemental list, at the price of 2d., can now be<br /> obtained at the offices of the Society.<br /> <br /> They will be sold to members or associates of<br /> the Society only.<br /> <br /> od<br /> <br /> The Pension Fund of the Society.<br /> <br /> THE investments of the Pension Fund at<br /> present standing in the names of the Trustees are<br /> as follows.<br /> <br /> This is a statement of the actual stock; the<br /> money value can be easily worked out at the current<br /> price of the market :—<br /> <br /> ORO FE oor es £1000 0 0<br /> Wocal Wioans 20... 500 0 0<br /> Victorian Government 8 % Consoli-<br /> <br /> dated Inscribed Stock ............... 291 19 11<br /> <br /> War Oa 2630090. ee 20r 9 8<br /> oval... 6. oe £1,993 9 2<br /> <br /> Subscriptions.<br /> 1908. £ 8s. d.<br /> Jan. 1, Pickthall, Marmaduke 010 &amp;<br /> » Deane, Rey. A.C. . 010 O<br /> Jan. 4, Anonymous : 0 5 0<br /> » Heath, Miss Helena : ~ 0 5 0<br /> &gt;» Russell, G. H. : : 11.0<br /> 58 THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> Jan. 16, White, Mrs. Caroline<br /> <br /> », Bedford, Miss Jessie<br /> Jan. 19, Shiers-Mason, Mrs.<br /> Jan. 20, Cobbett, Miss Alice :<br /> Jan. 30, Minniken, Miss Bertha M. M.<br /> Jan. 31, Whishaw, Fred. : -<br /> Feb. 3, Reynolds, Mrs. Fred<br /> Feb. 11, Lincoln, C. .<br /> Feb. 16, Hardy, J. Herbert .<br /> <br /> » Haggard, Major Arthur .<br /> Feb. 23, Finnemore, John .<br /> Mar. 2, Moor, Mrs. St. C.<br /> Mar. 5, Dutton, Mrs. Carrie<br /> Apl. 10, Bird, CO. P..<br /> Apl. 10, Campbell, Miss Montgomery .<br /> May Lees, R. J...<br /> <br /> Wright, J. Fondi .<br /> <br /> Nov. 138, Longe, &quot;Miss Julia .<br /> <br /> Donations.<br /> <br /> Jan. 8, Wheelright, Miss H. :<br /> », Middlemass, Miss Jean . :<br /> Jan. 6, Avebury, The Right Hon.<br /> <br /> The Lord .<br /> » Gribble, Francis<br /> Jan. 13, Boddington, Miss Helen .<br /> Jan. 17, White, Mrs. Wollaston .<br /> » Miller, Miss E. T. .<br /> Jan. 19, Kemp, Miss Geraldine<br /> Jan. 20, Sheldon, Mrs. French<br /> Jan. 29, Roe, Mrs. Harcourt<br /> Feb. 9, Sher wood, Mrs. .<br /> Feb. 16, Hocking, The Rey. Silas<br /> Feb. 18, Boulding, J. W. .<br /> 5, Ord, Hubert H.<br /> Feb. 20, Price, Miss Eleanor<br /> » Carlile, Rev. J. C..<br /> Feb. 24, Dixon, Mrs.<br /> Feb. 26, Speakman, Mrs...<br /> Mar. 5, Parker, Mrs. Nella<br /> Mar. 16, Hallward, N.L. .<br /> Mar. 20, Henry, Miss Alice .<br /> », Mathieson, Miss Annie .<br /> » Browne, T, A. (“ Rolfe Boldre-<br /> wood”’) ‘<br /> Mar. 23, Ward, Mrs. Humphry<br /> Apl. 2, Hutton, The Rev. W. H<br /> Apl. 14, Tournier, Theodore<br /> May King, Paul H. :<br /> S Wynne, Charles Whitw orth<br /> », 21, Orred J. Randal :<br /> June 12, Colles, W. Morris .<br /> » Bateman, Stringer .<br /> * = Aton. 3.<br /> » Mallett, Reddie<br /> Oct. 27, Sturgis, Julian<br /> <br /> =<br /> <br /> rt<br /> OOH OO OHS OHOL ON OHA ONO SO OL OUT OT<br /> <br /> cCorocoroocoooorSSOSC’®<br /> He<br /> <br /> eoooamoccoeosoooooo™<br /> <br /> SCeorocounooeocorooocoroeon oo<br /> <br /> e on} I<br /> _<br /> <br /> _<br /> <br /> eouncoorocouncocorH<br /> ecoaoecoecoocoo ccoocoooceocoononoonoonaoeo on<br /> <br /> eooocoocorocooconNnNorFH<br /> <br /> or<br /> <br /> Nov. 2, Stanton, V. H. ;<br /> Nov. 18, Benecke, Miss Ida. ;<br /> Nov. 23, Harraden, Miss Beatrice<br /> <br /> The following members have also made subserip-<br /> tions or donations :—<br /> <br /> Meredith, George, President of the Society.<br /> 1 hompson, Sir poy Bart., F.R.C.S.<br /> Rashdall, The Rey. H<br /> <br /> Guthrie, &quot;Anstey.<br /> <br /> Robertson, C. B.<br /> <br /> Dowsett, C. F.<br /> <br /> There are in addition other subscribers who do<br /> not desire that either their names or the amount<br /> they are subscribing should be printed.<br /> <br /> —___<br /> <br /> FROM THE COMMITTEE.<br /> <br /> A<br /> <br /> At the meeting of the Committee held on the<br /> 2nd of November, 18 members and associates were<br /> elected, bringing the total for the curftent yeaup<br /> to 182.<br /> <br /> The date for the unveiling of the Besant<br /> Memorial was discussed and the necessary details<br /> considered. The full statement of the arrange-<br /> ments is set forth on another page. There were<br /> one or two other matters on “ the agenda,” but no<br /> contentious business. One case, which was laid<br /> before the Committee, they did not see their<br /> way to take up, and it was hoped that another case,<br /> dealing with accounts, would be satisfactorily<br /> settled between the secretary and the publisher,<br /> without any need of further action.<br /> <br /> Se<br /> <br /> Cases.<br /> <br /> Since the last statement was issued twelve cases<br /> have been in the Secretary’s hands for settlement.<br /> Four of these refer to the return of MSS., three to<br /> the rendering of accounts, four to the payment or<br /> rather the non-payment of money, and the last to<br /> false representation. MSS., accounts and money<br /> are the most frequent causes for the Secretary’s<br /> interference, as will be seen by those members who<br /> read the monthly statement of the Society’s work.<br /> Of the twelve cases four have been concluded and<br /> eight are still unsettled. Of the former, in the one<br /> dealing with MS., the MS. has been returned and<br /> forwarded to the author; in the one dealing with<br /> accounts, the necessary documents have been<br /> supplied; and in the two demands for the payment<br /> of money the amount due has been forwarded to<br /> the office.<br /> <br /> Out of the cases reported in former issues there<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> _~ Prothero, G. W.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR. 59<br /> <br /> ‘are only three still open. One of these, it is<br /> possible, will have to be abandoned owing to the<br /> fact that the member resides abroad ; the other two,<br /> although the authors are unwilling to follow up their<br /> ‘demands by an action in Court, will probably be<br /> satisfactorily settled.<br /> <br /> —_—<br /> <br /> November Elections.<br /> <br /> 81, Congoumbruto,<br /> Leghorn, Italy.<br /> <br /> 6, Sidney Terrace,<br /> New Road, Ports-<br /> mouth, Hants.<br /> <br /> Wiscombe Park, Coly-<br /> ton, Devon.<br /> <br /> Carmichael Montgomery .<br /> <br /> Eagleman, E. J. (Colin<br /> Conway)<br /> <br /> Edmonds, Miss<br /> <br /> Eldridge, Robey F. . Daylesford, Newport,<br /> Isle of Wight.<br /> <br /> Fevez, Miss Coralie Westdale, Streatham,<br /> S.W.<br /> <br /> Firth, C. H. 2, Northmoor Road,<br /> Oxford.<br /> <br /> Madeira Hotel, Shank-<br /> lin, Isle of Wight.<br /> Spixworth Park, Nor-<br /> <br /> wich.<br /> St. Ives, Cornwall.<br /> The Hut, Fairlie, N.B.<br /> 24, Bedford Square,<br /> <br /> Howell, Miss Constance .<br /> Longe, Miss Julia G.<br /> <br /> Marriott, Charles<br /> Morgan, Mrs. .<br /> <br /> WC.<br /> <br /> Smedley, Miss Constance. 119, Ashley Gardens,<br /> BWo<br /> <br /> Shore, Miss Emily K. 29, Norfolk Mansions,<br /> Battersea Park, 8S. W.<br /> <br /> Sparrow, A. G. Daisy Mere House,<br /> Near Buxton.<br /> Stirling, Mrs. (Percival 30, Sussex Villas, W.<br /> Pickering)<br /> Wyatt, DaviesErnest R.J. 7, Bridge Street, Cam-<br /> bridge.<br /> 20, Kew Gardens Road,<br /> <br /> Kew.<br /> <br /> Yosall, J. H., M.P.,<br /> <br /> PENSION FunD.<br /> <br /> THE Pension Fund Committee held a meeting<br /> on Monday, November 2nd, at the offices of the<br /> Society, 39, Old Queen Street, Storey’s Gate, in<br /> order to deal with the moneys which the trustees<br /> had intimated were at their disposal for the<br /> allotment of a fresh pension.<br /> <br /> The Committee granted a pension of £25 a<br /> year to Miss Helen M. Burnside, whose work as a<br /> writer of verse and whose books for children are<br /> well known.<br /> <br /> Among those who supported her application may<br /> be mentioned the following :—<br /> <br /> Mr. Mackenzie Bell, Miss Rosa Nouchette Carey,<br /> Sir A. C. Mackenzie, Miss M. Montresor, Mr.<br /> Algernon Swinburne, Mrs. Humphry Ward, Mr.<br /> Watts-Dunton, Mr. Arthur Waugh, Mr. W. H.<br /> Wilkins, and others.<br /> <br /> In order to give members of the Society, should<br /> they desire to appoint a fresh member to the<br /> Pension Fund Committee, full time to act, it has<br /> been thought advisable to place in Zhe Author a<br /> full statement of the method of election under the<br /> scheme for administration of the Pension Fund.<br /> Under that scheme the Committee is composed of<br /> three members elected by the Committee of the<br /> Society, three members elected by the Society at<br /> the General Meeting, and the chairman of the<br /> Society for the time being, ew officio. The three<br /> members elected at the general meeting when the<br /> fund was started were Mr. Morley Roberts, Mr.<br /> M. H. Spielmann, and Mrs. Alec Tweedie.<br /> <br /> According to the rules it is the turn of Mr.<br /> M. H. Spielmann to resign his position on the Com-<br /> mittee. In tendering his resignation he submits<br /> his name for re-election.<br /> <br /> The members have power to put forward other<br /> names under Clause 9, which runs as follows :—<br /> <br /> “ Any candidate for election to the Pension Fund Com-<br /> mittee by the members of the Society (not being a retiring<br /> member of such Committee) shall be nominated in writing<br /> to the seeretary, at least three weeks prior to the general<br /> meeting at which such candidate is to be proposed, and<br /> the nomination of each such candidate shall be subscribed<br /> by, at least, three members of the Society. A list of the<br /> candidates so nominated shall be sent to the members of<br /> the Society with the annual report of the Managing Com-<br /> mittee, and those candidates obtaining the most votes at<br /> the general meeting shall be elected to serve on the Pension<br /> Fund Committee.”<br /> <br /> In case any member should desire to refer to<br /> the list of members, a copy complete, with the<br /> exception of those members referred to in the note<br /> at the beginning, can be obtained at the Society’s<br /> office.<br /> <br /> It would be as well, therefore, should any of the<br /> members desire to put forward candidates, to take<br /> the matter within their immediate consideration.<br /> The general meeting of the Society has usually<br /> been held towards the end of February or the<br /> beginning of March. ‘This notice will be repeated<br /> in the January number of The Author. It is<br /> essential that all nominations should be in the<br /> hands of the secretary before the 31st of January,<br /> 1904.<br /> <br /> o—~&lt;&gt; «-<br /> <br /> <br /> 60<br /> <br /> AFLALO AND COOK vy. LAWRENCE AND<br /> BULLEN.<br /> <br /> —1——+ —<br /> <br /> HIS case came before the House of Lords on<br /> November 13th, the defendant company<br /> having appealed from the judgments given<br /> <br /> in the Court of First Instance and in the Court of<br /> Appeal to the House of Lords. The facts of the<br /> case may be briefly set forth as follows :—<br /> <br /> The plaintiff, Aflalo, conceived a scheme for the<br /> publication of a work to be called “The Encyclo-<br /> peedia of Sport.” The defendants determined to<br /> adopt the scheme making the plaintiff, Aflalo,<br /> editor under an agreement, the chief terms of<br /> which were as follows :—<br /> <br /> That for his editorial services the plaintiff<br /> should be paid £500, and a further sum to cover<br /> expenses of postage, etc. :<br /> <br /> That the plaintiff should write, without further<br /> fee, 7,000 words as special articles, and contribute<br /> all the unsigned articles that might be required.<br /> <br /> That the plaintiff should be entitled to pursue<br /> his literary work so far as it did not interfere with<br /> the performance of his editorial duties.<br /> <br /> That the defendants might determine the agree-<br /> ment under certain conditions.<br /> <br /> Under this agreement the work was produced,<br /> and the plaintiff Aflalo contributed an article,<br /> entitled “Sea Fishing.” Prior to the commence-<br /> ment of the action he was registered as the holder<br /> of the copyright. The plaintiff Aflalo, as editor,<br /> further arranged with the co-plaintiff Cook, for<br /> the latter to contribute certain articles at certain<br /> prices on terms contained in a letter dated June 2nd,<br /> 1896. The following, omitting the formal parts,<br /> is a copy :—<br /> <br /> “IT am now requested by Messrs. Lawrence and Bullen<br /> to definitely ask you to undertake for their forthcoming<br /> “Encyclopedia of Sports and Pastimes” the following<br /> work. Of the angling article 5,000 words and separate<br /> articles of 5,000 each on trout and pike.<br /> <br /> “The former (angling) we should want in by the middle<br /> of July, the two latter will do later. The remuneration<br /> will be at the rate of £2 per thousand, payable ordinarily<br /> when the work is passed for press, but if you prefer letting<br /> us have all the trout and pike articles in by August I<br /> understand the publishers will make no difficulty about<br /> paying for the whole by October. Will you also see Senior<br /> about your share in the angling article, and also let us know<br /> if these terms are satisfactory.”<br /> <br /> These articles were written and appeared in the<br /> “Encyclopedia.” Prior to the commencement of<br /> the action the plaintiff Cook was registered as the<br /> proprietor of the copyright in his articles. In<br /> neither of the agreements with the plaintiffs (i.e.,<br /> the above-mentioned agreement and letter) was<br /> there any express stipulation as to the proprietor-<br /> ship of or copyright in any of the articles so<br /> contributed by them.<br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> In 1900 the defendants published a book, entitled<br /> “The Young Sportsman,” containing copies of each<br /> of the said articles or substantial portions of them.<br /> The plaintiffs alleged that such reproduction in-<br /> fringed their copyright, and further that it was a<br /> publication of the said articles separately or singly<br /> within the meaning of section 18 of the Copyright<br /> Act. The plaintiffs claimed injunction and<br /> damages.<br /> <br /> The defendants put in issue the allegations of the<br /> plaintiffs. They denied that the plaintiffs were<br /> the holders of the copyright in the articles, and<br /> claimed that an implied term of the agreement<br /> between them and the plaintiff Aflalo was that the<br /> copyright should belong to the defendants as pro-<br /> prietors of the “ Encyclopedia,” or that alternately,<br /> the plaintiff became their servant for the purpose<br /> contemplated in the agreement, and all the work<br /> he did was their absolute property.<br /> <br /> That the plaintiff Cook was employed by them<br /> upon the terms contained in the letter of June<br /> quoted above. That the said articles were paid for<br /> by the defendants upon the terms contained in<br /> the said letter, and that it was an implied term<br /> of the plaintiff Cook’s said employment that the<br /> copyright in the said articles should belong to the<br /> defendants as proprietors of the “‘ Encyclopedia.”<br /> <br /> They admitted publishing “The Young Sports-<br /> man,” and that as they were entitled to do they<br /> reprinted therein the said articles or portions<br /> thereof. And by way of counter-claim the defen-<br /> dants claimed a deévlaration that they were the<br /> proprietors of the copyrights in the said articles,<br /> and an order expunging from the book of registry<br /> the entries whereby the plaintiffs had wrongfully<br /> registered themselves as such proprietors and<br /> damages and costs.<br /> <br /> In order to assist further those interested in the<br /> judgment we print the portion of the second section<br /> of the Copyright Act referred to herein, and the<br /> eighteenth section in full :—<br /> <br /> Section 2. “In the construction of this Act the word.<br /> “Book” shall be construed to mean and include every<br /> volume, part or division, of a volume, pamphlet, sheet of<br /> letter-press, sheet of music, map, chart, or plan separately<br /> published.”<br /> <br /> Section 18. “ When any publisher or other person shall,<br /> before or at the time of the passing of this Act, have pro-<br /> jected, conducted and carried on, or shall hereafter project,<br /> conduct, and carry on, or be the proprietor of any encyclo-<br /> pedia, review, magazine, periodical work, or work published<br /> in a series of books or parts, or any book whatsoever, and’<br /> shall have employed or shall employ any persons to compose<br /> the same, or any volumes, parts, essays, articles or portions.<br /> thereof, for publication in or as part of the same, and such<br /> work, volumes, parts, essays, articles or portions shall have<br /> been or shall hereafter be composed wrder such employ-<br /> ment on the terms that the copyright therein shall belong<br /> to such proprietor, projector, publisher, or conductor, and<br /> paid for by such proprietor, projector, publisher, or con-<br /> ductor, the copyright in every such encyclopedia, review,<br /> magazine, periodical work, and work published in a series:<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR. 61<br /> <br /> of books or parts, and in every volume, part, essay, article,<br /> and portion so composed and paid for, shall be the property<br /> of such proprietor, projector, publisher, or other conductor,<br /> who shall enjoy the same rights as if he were the actual<br /> author thereof, and shall have such term of copyright<br /> therein as is given to the authors of books by this Act;<br /> except only that in the case of essays, articles, or portions<br /> forming part of and first published in reviews, magazines,<br /> or other periodical works of a like nature, after the term of<br /> twenty-eight years from the first publication thereof respec-<br /> tively the right of publishing the same in a separate form<br /> shall revert to the author for the remainder of the term<br /> given by this Act : Provided always, that during the term<br /> of twenty-eight years the said proprietor, projector, pub-<br /> lisher, or conductor shall not publish any such essay,<br /> article, or portion separately or singly without the consent<br /> previously obtained of the author thereof, or his assigns :<br /> Provided also, that nothing herein contained shall alter or<br /> affect the right of any person who shall have been or shall<br /> be so employed as aforesaid to publish any such his com-<br /> position in a separate form, who by any contract, express<br /> or implied, may have reserved or may hereafter reserve to<br /> himself such right; but every author reserving, retaining,<br /> or having such right shall be entitled to the copyright in<br /> such composition, when published in a separate form,<br /> according to this Act, without prejudice to the right of<br /> such proprietor, projector, publisher, or conductor as<br /> aforesaid.”<br /> <br /> The case in the Court of First Instance was<br /> heard on July 81st, 1901, before the Hon. Mr.<br /> Justice Joyce, and judgment was given in favour<br /> of the plaintiffs on the same date. His lordship’s<br /> judgment is reported in the Law Reports, 1902,<br /> 1 Ch., p. 264.<br /> <br /> From this judgment the defendants appealed to<br /> His Majesty’s Court of Appeal, and the appeal was<br /> heard before the said Court, consisting of Lords<br /> Justices Vaughan Williams, Romer, and Stirling<br /> upon June 30th and July Ist, 1902, when their<br /> lordships took time to consider their judgments.<br /> Upon August 11th, 1902, their lordships inti-<br /> mated that they desired to hear further arguments<br /> -upon the point whether under the circumstances<br /> and having regard to the definition of a “ book”<br /> in section 2 of the Act and to section 3, the plain-<br /> tiffs had any such right as entitled them to main-<br /> tain their action—copyright or any other right.<br /> And the said appeal was further heard and argued<br /> efore the said Court upon December 6th, 1902,<br /> when their lordships again took further time to<br /> consider their judgments ; and on December 18th,<br /> 1902, they delivered judgments differing in opinion,<br /> Lord Justice Vaughan Williams delivering judg-<br /> ment in favour of the defendants the appellants,<br /> whilst Lords Justices Romer and Stirling delivered<br /> judgment in favour of the plaintiffs. The plaintiffs<br /> accordingly obtained a second decision in their<br /> favour. Their lordships’ judgments are reported<br /> in the Law Reports, 1903, 1 Ch., p. 318.<br /> <br /> From this judgment the defendants again ap-<br /> pealed to the House of Lords. The appeal was<br /> heard on November 13th. Their lordships gave<br /> their judgments as follows :—<br /> <br /> Tue Lorp CHANcELLOR.—My lords, if I had<br /> not come to the conclusion that the case is covered<br /> by authority I should have desired further time to<br /> consider the mode in which I should express the<br /> views I entertain.<br /> <br /> I think it is absolutely impossible, after the<br /> decision arrived at just about half a century ago<br /> upon this very point, and confirmed as it is by a<br /> decision of the Court of Appeal, to render it<br /> doubtful what the decision on this appeal ought to<br /> be. Ido not deny that there may be—there pro-<br /> bably is—a distinction between the inference of<br /> fact that would be drawn from the fact that a<br /> person had employed another to create something<br /> for him if it was a mere material subject and the<br /> rule which would apply to literary composition.<br /> Although there is a distinction in that respect<br /> which ought to be insisted upon, on the other<br /> hand, literary compositions are subjects of barter<br /> and sale. When a person is employed to create<br /> some literary composition, and that involves some-<br /> body else spending money for its publication, and<br /> incurring the responsibilities and great risk that<br /> may attend the publication, it is impossible not to<br /> recognise the fact that some of the inferences at<br /> all events could have been drawn from those facts<br /> of employment and payment which would naturally<br /> attach to the payment for something for which<br /> another person was employed. It is not a question<br /> of law ; it is a question of fact to be derived from<br /> all the circumstances of the case what is the nature<br /> of the contract entered into between the parties.<br /> <br /> My lords, I must say I thought that we had<br /> arrived at some sort of concurrence by the<br /> learned counsel themselves in the course of the<br /> argument, that in the construction of the eighteenth<br /> section, at all events, there were two propositions<br /> that could not be disputed. The first was that the<br /> bargain between the parties involving this question<br /> of copyright need not be in writing. Secondly,<br /> that no express words were necessary in order to<br /> constitute the contract, such as it is, contemplated<br /> by the statute. I must say I can entertain no<br /> doubt that this is one of those inferences which<br /> you are entitled to draw, but for which you can lay<br /> down no abstract rule. That which may be im-<br /> plied in a contract must depend very much on<br /> what the contract is—the nature of the contract—<br /> and whether or not the written contract displaces<br /> every other term whatsoever ; because, in the infi-<br /> nite variety of dealings among mankind, there are<br /> some things which none would think of expressing<br /> in terms, although undoubtedly they would form<br /> part of any contract made on such a subject.<br /> <br /> Now, my lords, as I have said, this case, I<br /> think, is concluded by authority, and, therefore, I<br /> do not want to re-argue the matter; but I rather<br /> concur with what fell from my noble and learned<br /> 62<br /> <br /> friend Lord Davey, that if this question had not<br /> been raised and decided half a century ago, it would<br /> have been open to consideration whether or not<br /> the eighteenth section did not imply some express<br /> contract, at all events, one way or the other ; but<br /> where a state of law has been recognised now for<br /> half a century and confirmed by the Court of<br /> Appeal, it would be, I think, a startling novelty for<br /> your lordships to treat that as res integra, which<br /> we should determine for ourselves without reference<br /> to previous decisions. .<br /> <br /> My lords, I confess I should feel great hesi-<br /> tation in disagreeing with any proposition that<br /> had been laid down by such a Court presided over<br /> by such Judges as those who decided the case<br /> in the Common Pleas, which has been referred to,<br /> <br /> I think, after the very careful review of<br /> those cases that have been brought before your<br /> lordships by the learned counsel who very ably<br /> and candidly argued this question on the part of<br /> the plaintiffs, it is unnecessary to go through the<br /> whole of these authorities beyond this: if one<br /> looks at that case in the Common Pleas, one<br /> sees it was decided upon a special case, and<br /> the learned Judges were unanimous in their<br /> decision that you could infer a transfer of the<br /> copyright from the facts, and then when you look<br /> and see what the facts are to which they refer<br /> as being those from which a reasonable man would<br /> infer it, it is manifest that the question which<br /> is raised here, about the possibility of competition,<br /> formed no factor in the problem which the learned<br /> Judges decided. It is said: “Here is a person<br /> who is for the purpose of profit selling to a person<br /> who is to adventure and risk his money in the<br /> concern, and unless you come to the conclusion<br /> as a matter of reasonable inference that the copy-<br /> right in the thing so purchased was to belong to<br /> him, the result would be that he would get nothing<br /> for his money.”<br /> <br /> My lords, that is a general observation which<br /> I think may very properly be made in the abstract.<br /> People do not spend money except upon the hypo-<br /> thesis that they get something for it, and unless<br /> you give to the bargain the effect which the<br /> language itself seems to import, that the person<br /> who is the projector, the publisher, and who is<br /> called “the proprietor,” is to stand in the shoes<br /> of the actual author, and if you are to treat it<br /> as it has been treated at the Bar here, the truth<br /> is the projector, the publisher, and so forth would<br /> get nothing for his money, because the whole<br /> object of his publication might be defeated the<br /> very next day either by the same person to whom<br /> he had paid the money, or by any stranger who<br /> might obtain the result of if. It seems to me,<br /> therefore, that it would be a very unreasonable<br /> inference to draw from such a transaction as this,<br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> that the person who paid the money was not to<br /> have the right which would, as a matter of business<br /> in the case of a publisher where he is buying<br /> literary compositions, naturally be the thing for<br /> which he pays. He is the publisher, not the<br /> author ; he goes to the author and buys from him<br /> what the author composes. Under these circum-<br /> stances, my lords, it seems to me it would be a<br /> most unreasonable inference for one to draw from<br /> the facts, in proof in this case, if I were not to<br /> suppose that the person who paid that money and<br /> incurred that risk was not to have the complete<br /> right such as the original author would have had if<br /> it were not published in this way, to publish it<br /> himself.<br /> <br /> Therefore, my lords, I think the appeal ought<br /> to be allowed and the judgment ought to be<br /> reversed. ;<br /> <br /> As I have already intimated, another question<br /> has been raised (I mean the words “ separately<br /> published”) upon which I propose to give no opinion<br /> at all. I therefore propose to leave that question,<br /> because it is not necessary to decide it for the pur-<br /> poses of the present case.<br /> <br /> Lorp S#HAND.—My lords, as your lordships<br /> have resolved that there shall be no decision given<br /> on the question which has been raised under<br /> section 2 of the Statute as to the effect of the<br /> words “separately published,” there used in regard<br /> to the publication of the different articles, with<br /> others in an encyclopedia or magazine, I shall say<br /> no more than that I am certainly not prepared,<br /> from the arguments we have heard, to agree with<br /> Lord Justice Vaughan Williams in what he alone<br /> has said on that subject.<br /> <br /> With reference to the case otherwise, I entirely<br /> agree with what has fallen from my noble and<br /> learned friend on the Woolsack. The question<br /> really here to be decided is whether the copyrights<br /> have been transferred by the publication from the<br /> authors to the publisher.<br /> <br /> The case is one in which the publisher’s right<br /> depends on its being shown that the articles were<br /> contributed “on the terms” that the copyright in<br /> them should belong to him. Upon that question<br /> I think we have important facts to consider. In<br /> dealing with it, it has not been disputed, that<br /> although the agreement is contained in writing, it<br /> is not necessary that the terms as to copyright<br /> shall be expressly stated, and where as here there<br /> are not express terms, it is enough to create a<br /> transfer of the right, if that right be implied from<br /> the nature and whole circumstances of the publica-<br /> tion, and the arrangement and transaction between<br /> the parties. As bearing upon that matter I think<br /> in the first place a very important point is that the<br /> publisher conceives the creation of the magazine<br /> which he publishes as his undertaking for his<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> profit ; that it is for the purpose of his magazine<br /> that the articles are contributed. Again, the<br /> articles as so contributed for the purpose of being<br /> used in his magazine are given on his employment,<br /> and on his payment undertaken and made.<br /> Regarding those circumstances together, it appears<br /> to me that the articles are contributed on the<br /> footing that on payment under such employment<br /> they shall become his property.<br /> <br /> The Statute declares that if transferred on terms<br /> having this effect they shall be the property of the<br /> proprietor or publisher, who shall enjoy the same<br /> rights as if he were the “ actual author thereof.”<br /> It appears to me that it would be inconsistent<br /> with the notion that they were to become his<br /> property as if he were the author and with all the<br /> full rights of the author, that there should be still<br /> left in the author after payment made to him a<br /> property which would enable him to use the same<br /> articles in other magazines. This would clearly<br /> follow if the appellants’ contention were sound.<br /> It would give the publisher little if any benefit for<br /> the payment he had made, and I think that<br /> circumstance so inconsistent with the result of the<br /> payment made in the circumstances as of itself<br /> sufficient to show that the practical result of what<br /> happened between the parties, having regard also<br /> to the clause in the Statute, is that the terms to be<br /> inferred are that the copyright should belong to the<br /> proprietor or publisher ; and that is to my think-<br /> ing, therefore, the inference to be drawn from the<br /> contract between the parties.<br /> <br /> On these grounds, my lords, and concurring with<br /> all that his lordship has said upon the authority<br /> of the cases in the past, I am of opinion that<br /> the decision of the Court of Appeal should be<br /> reversed.<br /> <br /> Lorp Davey.—My lords, I am of the same<br /> opinion. If this matter could be regarded ag res<br /> integra I think that there would be a great deal to<br /> be said for a construction of the eighteenth section<br /> such as that which was contended for by the<br /> learned counsel in the case which was referred to<br /> of Lamb v. Evans, viz., that it was for the publisher<br /> or proprietor to prove an agreement that the com-<br /> poser or author was employed upon the terms that<br /> the copyright should belong to the publisher. But,<br /> my lords, any such proposition as that would be<br /> inconsistent with the law as laid down in the cases<br /> to which my noble and learned friend has referred,<br /> of Sweet v. Benning, and the more recent case of<br /> Lamb v. Evans.<br /> <br /> My lords, the law which I understand to be laid<br /> down in Sweet v. Benning is that it is not necessary,<br /> according to the true constructionof the eighteenth<br /> section of the Copyright Act, that you should find<br /> an actual agreement that the copyright should<br /> belong to the proprietor; nor indeed is it even<br /> <br /> 63<br /> <br /> necessary to find special circumstances which lead<br /> to that conclusion. I say so because I find that in<br /> the case of Sweet v. Benning the special case upon<br /> which the opinion of the Common Pleas was<br /> delivered contained a statement that nothing was<br /> said between the parties affecting copyright. I<br /> can find no special circumstances stated in the<br /> special case, and the decision seems to me to have<br /> been founded only upon the nature of the employ-<br /> ment, the nature of the publication and the<br /> relation of the parties,<br /> <br /> My lords, Mr. Justice Joyce tells us in his<br /> judgment: “I decide this case upon the short<br /> ground that I see no special circumstance either<br /> in the nature of the work or in the terms or in the<br /> nature of the employment, from which I can infer,<br /> or must infer, that which is not expressed, namely,<br /> that the copyright is to belong to the proprietor.”<br /> That being so, he says in another passage that the<br /> consequence would not be different from what it<br /> would be in an ordinary case. Now, my lords, [I<br /> do not think that that decision was consistent with<br /> Sweet v. Benning or Lamb v. Evans. I think that<br /> what the Court has to do is to look at all the<br /> circumstances of the case and to say as a jury,<br /> what is the inference which you would draw ? or as<br /> Lord Justice Bowen puts it in his judgment in<br /> Lamb v. Evans, what is the way in which business<br /> men would look at the question ?<br /> <br /> My lords, of course what the inference should be<br /> isa matter of fact, and for my own guidance [<br /> adopt the rule laid down by Lord Justice Kay in<br /> Lamb v. Evans, as correctly stating what I under-<br /> stand to be the law, and therefore I ask myself<br /> what is the inference which I am to draw from<br /> these circumstances ? The circumstances are that<br /> the publisher is minded for his own profit to<br /> publish an “ Encyclopedia of Sport” ; he is prepared<br /> to spend, and he does spend, a very large sum of<br /> money, amounting to some thousands of pounds,<br /> upon the enterprise in which he is engaged ; he<br /> employs a gentleman to act as editor and also to<br /> write some of the articles at a given salary, and<br /> through the editor he employs another gentleman<br /> named Mr. Cook to write articles for a given<br /> remuneration. Those are all the material facts of<br /> the case ; and I have to ask myself what is the<br /> inference that I draw from those facts. That, I<br /> repeat, is a matter of fact and not a matter of law.<br /> No doubt one may gain some assistance from the<br /> way in which a similar set of facts have been<br /> regarded in other cases ; but after all, where it is<br /> a question of fact each case must stand upon its<br /> own merits.<br /> <br /> My lords, if I were to express my opinion as a<br /> juryman upon the facts I have mentioned, I should<br /> say that it was one of the terms on which these<br /> gentlemen were employed to write articles for the<br /> 64<br /> <br /> « Encyclopedia,” that the copyright should belong<br /> to the proprietor, and I say so for this reason, ‘The<br /> ‘* Encyclopeedia ” was to be his property, it was to be<br /> his book, he was to derive the benefit and profit to<br /> be derived from its publication ; and therefore I<br /> should assume that in buying the articles written<br /> by these gentlemen the inference 18 that both<br /> parties intended that the proprietor should have<br /> the right that was necessary for him to protect the<br /> property which he had purchased, and adequately<br /> to protect the enterprise for the purpose of which<br /> these articles were intended to be used. In my<br /> judgment he could not adequately protect the<br /> articles which he had purchased, or his property,<br /> in the book for the purpose of which the articles<br /> were written and purchased, without having the<br /> right to prevent an invasion—I hardly like to say<br /> of the copyright, but I must say of the copyright<br /> in those articles. ‘Therefore the inference I should<br /> draw would be the same as was drawn in the cases<br /> of Sweet v. Benning and Lamb v. Evans ; and for<br /> my part 1 am perfectly prepared to adopt every<br /> word of the judgment of Lord Justice Bowen, and<br /> that of Lord Justice Kay, as well as the judgments<br /> in the earlier cases. If I might choose one passage<br /> which I think expresses my meaning in better<br /> terms than I could use myself, I ask leave to read<br /> this passage from the judgment of Lord Justice<br /> Kay : “ What is the fair inference from the facts<br /> of the case? Surely the inference is that the<br /> man who is to go to the expense of printing and<br /> publishing this book will, as between him and the<br /> agents he may have employed to assist him in<br /> the compilation of it, have in himself whatever<br /> property the law will give him in that book.<br /> That is the inference I should certainly draw ;<br /> and, I think, in this case it is sufficiently clear, in<br /> the absence of evidence to the contrary, that the<br /> terms of employment of those several agents<br /> involved this, that the copyright in the portions<br /> of this book which they composed should belong<br /> to the owner of the book.”<br /> <br /> Lorp Rogertson.—My lords, in my opinion<br /> this case ought to have been decided on the<br /> authority of Sweet v. Benning and Lamd v. Evans,<br /> as furnishing a rule of inference applicable to the<br /> facts of the present case.<br /> <br /> I do not think that the conclusion which I sup-<br /> port is accurately described as inferring one of three<br /> statutory requirements from the existence of two.<br /> Whether that inference be legitimate or not must<br /> depend on the nature and on the other conditions<br /> of the employment ; and the cases to which I refer<br /> do nothing to take the question out of the region<br /> of fact. Butit is obvious that the facts of employ-<br /> ment and of payment stand in a different category<br /> from the terms on which employment and payment<br /> take place, those terms being necessarily an element<br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> or ingredient in the employment, and not a separate<br /> or independent fact.<br /> <br /> Accordingly the view of the two Lords Justices<br /> about the three conditions all requiring, by the<br /> structure of the section, to be proved, really means<br /> that an express agreement about copyright must be<br /> proved, or the writer retains the copyright. Unable<br /> as I am to accept this view, which is opposed to the<br /> decision in Sweet v. Benning, and indeed was not<br /> supported by Mr. Scrutton, I am free to consider<br /> what is prima facie the proper inference ; and I<br /> prefer, on its merits and also from its authority,<br /> the inference of Sweet v. Benning.<br /> <br /> The result has been that the judgments of the<br /> two Courts below have been reversed and dis-<br /> charged and final judgment given that the action<br /> be dismissed with costs,<br /> <br /> aa ee<br /> <br /> OUR BOOK AND PLAY TALK.<br /> <br /> oe<br /> <br /> ROFESSOR J. E. GORE, F.R.A.S., M.R.LA.,<br /> <br /> who published recently a book entitled “‘ The<br /> <br /> Stellar Heavens: An Introduction to the<br /> <br /> Study of the Stars and Nebule” (Chatto and<br /> <br /> Windus), has in hand a work on the constella-<br /> <br /> tions, with special reference to the Persian astro-<br /> <br /> nomer, Al-Sufi’s, “‘ Description of the Fixed Stars,”<br /> <br /> written in the tenth century. This will probably<br /> <br /> be published early next year. Professor Gore has<br /> <br /> also nearly ready for the press a collection of popular<br /> <br /> articles on astronomical and other scientific sub-<br /> jects.<br /> <br /> Mr. de V. Payen-Payne, Hon. Treasurer of the<br /> Modern Language Association, Principal of Ken-<br /> sington Coaching College, &amp;c., &amp;c., is compiling a<br /> “ Scientific French Reader” for Messrs. Blackie; be<br /> is also editing a series of ‘‘Short French Readers’’<br /> for Mr. Nutt, and is correcting Cassell’s “ French<br /> Dictionary.” Then the Cambridge University Press<br /> will shortly publish an abridgment of Gautier’s<br /> “Voyage en Italie,” annotated by Mr, de VY.<br /> Payen-Payne.<br /> <br /> Mr. A. C. Benson has a study of Tennyson<br /> (Methuen’s “ Little Biographies”) coming out<br /> very soon; also a small selection of “ Whittier,”<br /> which is to be published by Messrs. Jack, of Hdin-<br /> burgh; while his “ Rossetti’? (Macmillan’s ‘* Men<br /> of Letters” series) is in the press. At the end of<br /> this year Mr. Benson resigns his mastership at<br /> Eton, which he has held for nineteen years, and<br /> he will take up, with Viscount Esher, the task of<br /> editing ‘Queen Victoria’s Correspondence from<br /> 1837—1861.”<br /> <br /> Major Greenwood, M.D., L.L.B., has a novel in<br /> hand. His book, The Law Relating to the Poor<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> Law Medical Service,” is now being advertised by<br /> the medical press. Messrs. Bailli¢re, Tindall and<br /> Cox are the publishers of it. :<br /> <br /> Mr. James Baker, F.R.G.S., F.R.Hist.Soc., is<br /> now travelling in the East, and will be making a<br /> tour in the Holy Land. Before leaving Clifton he<br /> was engaged on a series of topographical articles,<br /> and he has completed a novel on Oxford life. He<br /> has been writing a great deal on technical educa-<br /> tion and technical agricultural education for the<br /> Leeds Agricultural College.<br /> <br /> Mr. Baker is also preparing several lectures for<br /> the early part of 1904 on Egypt, Russia, &amp;c. He<br /> has lately written, too, an article on the life of<br /> Macaulay, using for it some of Macaulay’s hitherto<br /> unpublished letters.<br /> <br /> Mr. Wynford Dewhurst, R.B.A., will publish<br /> immediately through Messrs. Newnes &amp; Co. his<br /> book, ‘‘ Impressionist Painting.’ Its price is 25s.,<br /> and it will contain some 50,000 words and about<br /> 100 illustrations in monochrome and colours.<br /> There will be photographs and short biographies of<br /> leading impressionist artists. The whole is the out-<br /> come of many years ofart study, of friendships with<br /> the impressionist painters, and of strong conviction.<br /> <br /> Mr. G. B. Buckton, F.R.S., has recently published,<br /> through Messrs. Lovell, Reeve &amp; Co., a “ Mono-<br /> graph of the Membracide.” The family of insects<br /> it treats of is only barely represented in this<br /> country. A review of the extraordinary develop-<br /> ment of the five hundred insects Mr. Buckton<br /> draws and colours is highly suggestive. Professor<br /> E. B. Poulton, of Oxford, adds a valuable chapter<br /> to illustrate the effects of protective mimicry,<br /> which he assigns as the principal cause of these<br /> highly specialised forms.<br /> <br /> This monograph professes to be only pioneering<br /> work in an almost unexplored region of entomology<br /> —yet the spread of these curious insects is almost<br /> world-wide. Their chiefly known homes are the<br /> two continents of America, though the Old World<br /> is also well represented,<br /> <br /> We note three important books by members<br /> of the Society. There are Lord Wolseley’s two<br /> volumes of “ Memoirs,’ just out; there is Sir<br /> Gilbert Parker’s “ Old Quebec,” written in col-<br /> laboration with Mr. Claude G. Bryan; and there<br /> is Mr. EK. K. Chambers’ ‘‘ The Medieval Stage,” in<br /> two volumes.<br /> <br /> Lord Wolseley is an active member of our Society.<br /> He wrote an account of the China War in 1860.<br /> He is, besides, the author of “The Soldier’s Pocket<br /> Book,” which went through several editions ; he<br /> has written books on Napoleon, and has contributed<br /> numerous articles to the leading magazines of<br /> England and America. Then last, but far from<br /> least, there are his two volumes on the great Duke<br /> of Marlborough,<br /> <br /> 65<br /> <br /> The demand for the eighth edition of Lieut.-<br /> Colonel E. Gunter’s “ Officer’s Field Note and<br /> Sketch Book and Reconnaissance Aide-Mémoire,”<br /> published by Messrs. Wm. Clowes &amp; Son, 23,<br /> Cockspur Street, Charing Cross, in August, hag<br /> been such that the edition is nearly exhausted.<br /> <br /> Mr. H. Rider Haggard’s novel, “ Stella Frege-<br /> lins,” appears at the beginning of next year. It<br /> is a mystical story of modern life. His romance,<br /> “The Brethren,” a tale of the Crusades, begins in<br /> Cassell’s Magazine next month. Mr. Hagvard is<br /> now engaged upon a sequel to “She,” and it will<br /> be published in the Windsor Magazine in due<br /> course.<br /> <br /> Sydney C. Grier is at present finishing a his-<br /> torical novel, which Messrs. Blackwood hope to<br /> publish in the spring. It is called “The Great<br /> Proconsul,” and deals with the Indian career of<br /> Warren Hastings, from his marriage in 1777<br /> to his return to England in 1785. The story is<br /> told in the first person by an inmate of his<br /> household, and aims at bringing out the lighter<br /> and more domestic side of his character, which is<br /> necessarily almost overlooked in the formal bio-<br /> graphies, while preserving the historical background<br /> intact.<br /> <br /> It is ten or twelve years since Sydney C. Grier<br /> began to collect the materials for this book, and<br /> for the past two years she has devoted herself to<br /> it exclusively, studying as little as possible the<br /> modern books written about Hastings, and as much<br /> as possible the immense mass of contemporary<br /> material still extant.<br /> <br /> Madame Albanesi is engaged on a novel, which,<br /> after serial production here, and in the United<br /> States, will be published in book form by Messrs.<br /> Methuen &amp; Co. in England, and Messrs. McClure,<br /> Phillips &amp; Co. in America.<br /> <br /> Madame Albanesi is also just finishing a series<br /> of stories for Zhe Onlooker, which are now running.<br /> Further, she is at work on a play—the dramatisa-<br /> tion of one of her own books—and she has certain<br /> serials to finish, which appear either anonymously<br /> or under a pen-name.<br /> <br /> The title of Miss Jean Middlemass’s novel “ Till<br /> Death Us Do Part” has been altered to “ Ruth<br /> Anstey,” owing to the fact that the former title has<br /> already been used,<br /> <br /> Mrs. Edith E. Cuthell’s new story for children<br /> will run as a serial in Cassell’s Little Folks in the<br /> last half of next year. Mrs, Cuthell, as in her<br /> early work “ Only a Guardroom Dog,” now in its<br /> second edition, tells of the life of an officer’s<br /> children and their pet. But the scene is now laid<br /> in India, and in the more remote and thrilling days<br /> of the Mutiny. The adventures are exciting, but<br /> all ends happily.<br /> <br /> Mr. F, Anstey has written a story for children<br /> 66<br /> <br /> called “ Only Toys.” It contains numerous illus-<br /> trations by Mr. H. R. Millar, and tells how Santa<br /> Claus gave the gift of speech and movement to the<br /> toys belonging to a little boy and girl who con-<br /> sidered themselves too big and far too clever to play<br /> with them. Mr. Grant Richards is the publisher<br /> of “Only Toys.”<br /> <br /> . yes. Bright,” by Miss Montgomery-Campbell<br /> (Jarrolds, 1s. 6d.), a book of heroic deeds for lads,<br /> dedicated to the Church Lads’ Brigade, has just<br /> been published, and has received favourable notices<br /> from the provincial press. ‘The second edition of<br /> “Qld Days in Diplomacy,” which Miss Montgomery-<br /> Campbell was instrumental in bringing before the<br /> public, and for which she wrote a preface, is being<br /> widely read, and has been warmly praised by<br /> diplomatists. :<br /> <br /> Mrs. E. M. Davy’s new book of stories, “ Seven<br /> of Them,” was published the other day. All the<br /> tales contained in the volume have appeared in<br /> good English and American serials.<br /> <br /> Two of Miss R. N. Carey’s recent books, “ Rue,<br /> With a Difference,” and “Heart of Grace,” have<br /> been published in cheap standard editions. “A<br /> Passage Perilous” is being issued in Baron Tauch-<br /> nitz’s Continental series. a ov<br /> <br /> Norley Chester’s new book, “ Cristina,” is just<br /> out. It is published by Messrs. Swan Sonnen-<br /> schein.<br /> <br /> Messrs. Kegan Paul, Trench, Triibner &amp; Co.<br /> have ready a new and cheaper edition of Mr.<br /> Austin Dobson’s ‘The Ballad of Beau Brocade,<br /> and Other Poems of the XVIIIth Century,”<br /> with fifty-five illustrations by Hugh Thomson,<br /> price 2s. 6d. net, and 3s. 6d. net. There is a<br /> special edition, limited to 250 copies, with all<br /> the illustrations coloured by hand, at 12s. net.<br /> <br /> In his “ Fanny Burney” (Messrs. Macmillan’s<br /> “ English Men of Letters ” series), Mr. Dobson has<br /> given us a study of the surroundings in which<br /> that famous novelist was brought up ; there is a<br /> detailed account of Evelina and Cecilia; and a<br /> condensed account of George III.’s Court as Miss<br /> Burney saw it, including a touching picture of the<br /> king’s madness.<br /> <br /> Owing to the success of Mr. Powis Bale’s work,<br /> “A Handbook for Steam Users,” Messrs. Crosby<br /> Lockwood &amp; Son will publish immediately a com-<br /> panion volume entitled “Gas and Oil Engine<br /> Management.”<br /> <br /> Mr. A. B. C. Merriman Labor, of the Colonial<br /> Secretary’s Office, is issuing this month the second<br /> edition of his handbook on Sierra Leone for 1904<br /> and 1905. It is a treasury of information relating<br /> to the Colonial and municipal governments, trade,<br /> religion, education, army and navy, and every con-<br /> ceivable matter of interest connected with the<br /> Colony and its Protectorate. Its price is 3s. net,<br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> and the publisher is Mr. John Heywood, of Man-<br /> chester.<br /> <br /> The American Register, published weekly in<br /> Paris and London (13, Rue Tronchet, and 20, Hay-<br /> market, W.), has decided to include each week a<br /> Supplement of Sports, without extra charge. Its<br /> <br /> rice is 1d.<br /> <br /> Mr. Haldane Macfall spent some three years<br /> over his novel, “The Masterfolk,”” published a<br /> short while ago by Mr. Heinemann. Curiously<br /> enough both Mr. Wells and Mr. Bernard Shaw<br /> touch close on the heels of the idea embodied in<br /> “The Masterfolk.” It is in the (psychic) air, no<br /> doubt. Oddly enough, Mr. Macfall’s first title, “ A<br /> Strenuous Life,” was filched, all unwitting, by the<br /> President of the United States; and the second<br /> one, “ Youth,” was taken in all ignorance by Mr.<br /> Conrad.<br /> <br /> The main scheme of the book is that of a youth<br /> and maiden of to-day awaking into the modern<br /> idea and the modern thought: old ideas lie crumb-<br /> ling, new ideals are all untried, and the two move<br /> forward with all the splendid insolence of youth to<br /> try them. To quote his own words :—<br /> <br /> “T look upon the novel as the great literary means of<br /> artistic expression to-day ; not as a mere tale, or a cold,<br /> polished marble unity, but as a splendid artistic instrument<br /> in which the prose of each chapter should leap to the mood<br /> of the idea expressed, moving in slow cadence of prose to<br /> the solemn mood, and skipping light-footedly to the jigging,<br /> lyrical emotions. . . . Well, in some hundred movements,<br /> or chapters if you will, I have tried to give emotionally<br /> the lives of this pair of humans, with the secondary<br /> harmonies of others, moving to the goal in which they<br /> would find the meaning of life.”<br /> <br /> Mr. Macfall is now at work on a comedy “ of<br /> the rollicking high-comedy complexion.”<br /> <br /> “‘My Lady’s Favour” is the title of a (one-act)<br /> Little Comedy in black and white, by Mary C.<br /> Rowsell and E Gilbert Howell. It is published by<br /> Samuel French, Limited, 26, Southampton Street,<br /> Strand. Miss Rowsell has also published two<br /> musical fairy-extravaganzas for private perform-<br /> ance, and “ Richard’s Play.” This last was written<br /> with Mr. Joseph J. Dilley.<br /> <br /> Mr. George Alexander will return to the St.<br /> James’s Theatre on January 28th, and will start<br /> with “ Old Heidelberg.”<br /> <br /> It stands at present that Mr. Tree will produce<br /> the Japanese play, “The Darling of the Gods,”<br /> on the 28th inst. Miss Lena Ashwell will take<br /> the part of Yo-San.<br /> <br /> Mr. Arthur Bourchier will produce Mr. J. L.<br /> Toole’s version of “‘The Cricket on the Hearth,”<br /> at the Garrick for a Christmas run. The music is<br /> by Mr. Edward Rickett.<br /> <br /> Mr. Seymour Hicks’ new musical play “The<br /> Cherry Girl” is to be produced at the Vaudeville<br /> on or about the 10th inst.; and Messrs. Seymour<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR. 67<br /> <br /> icks and Ivan Caryll’s new musical play “The<br /> Ouy Gil” is to be plied at the Adelphi on<br /> 7th inst.<br /> ae date Mr. E. 8. Willard will revive<br /> “The Professor’s Love Story” at the St. James’s<br /> re.<br /> Tye Sideraand that Captain Basil Hood’s new<br /> comedy, “ Love in a Cottage,” will be produced at<br /> Terry’s Theatre early in 1904.<br /> <br /> When Miss Lena Ashwell was the guest of the<br /> New Vagabonds’ Club last month, Mr. A. E. W.<br /> Mason presided ; and amongst those present were<br /> Mr. and Mrs. Anthony Hope, Mrs. Arthur Stannard,<br /> Mrs. Heron-Maxwell, and Lady Colin Campbell.<br /> <br /> Mr. Haddon Chambers is in New York super-<br /> intending the rehearsal of his new play “The By-<br /> Path,” which is to be produced by Miss Annie<br /> Russell.<br /> <br /> —_—_ +o o-_<br /> <br /> PARIS NOTES.<br /> <br /> +--+<br /> <br /> HE literary season has begun in good earnest,<br /> and it is very evident that French authors<br /> have not all been holiday-making, as every<br /> <br /> week brings us a long list of new books, and the<br /> announcement of many new plays. Among the<br /> most interesting of the novels which have appeared<br /> during the last month is “Guilleri Guilloré,” by<br /> M. Charles Foley. The author has succeeded, as<br /> usual, in getting the atmosphere of the times<br /> about which he writes into his book. It is a novel<br /> which, though not precisely historical, treats of<br /> historical personages. The scene is laid in La<br /> Vendée, that heroic province of France, the history<br /> of which M. Foley has studied so thoroughly that<br /> he is now considered one of the greatest authorities<br /> on the subject.<br /> <br /> The plot of this new novel is based on an episode<br /> connected with the last of the Legitimist con-<br /> spiracies of 1832. ‘The famous Duchess of Berry<br /> has returned from exile and landed on the French<br /> coast, hoping to excite a movemeni i favour of<br /> her son. She finds friends in ua Vendée who are<br /> willing to risk their fortunes and even their lives<br /> in the cause of the young prince. The exploits of<br /> the courageous and fascinating young duchess,<br /> her wanderings in disguise, and her hairbreadth<br /> escapes are graphically described by M. Foley.<br /> Guilloré is a young aristocrat who, thanks to his<br /> fallen fortunes, political opinions, and the troubled<br /> times in which he lives, is separated from his<br /> fiancée. He, too, in his wanderings through La<br /> Vendée, takes his life in his hands, for, although he<br /> is not in the conspiracy, he runs the same risk ag<br /> the duchess, whom he meets disguised as a young<br /> man. He recognises her, but is too chivalrous to<br /> <br /> let her know this until he has escorted her in<br /> safety to her destination.<br /> <br /> The whole story of the political intrigue and<br /> the treachery of the man who betrays her is<br /> woven into M. Foley’s novel.<br /> <br /> From the first page to the last the book is<br /> captivating, with its melancholy Vendean atmo-<br /> sphere and its well-defined types of aristocrat,<br /> bourgeois and peasant. Most dramatic, too, are<br /> many of the incidents, and intensely so the scene<br /> in the street, when the duchess has been captured<br /> and is being led on foot through a dense crowd of<br /> spectators. Guilloré and his fiancée are there, too,<br /> watching with deep pity and dreading lest any<br /> word of insult should be uttered by the people.<br /> When the duchess reaches him, Guilloré, alone in<br /> all that vast assembly, takes off his hat and stands<br /> bareheaded as she passes by. The effect of his<br /> action is instantaneous, and all the men with one<br /> accord “in dead silence follow his example, moved<br /> with a feeling of respect and pity for the vanquished<br /> heroine.”’<br /> <br /> “T’Hau souterraine,” by MM. Paul and Victor<br /> Margueritte, can scarcely be called a novel. It is<br /> a most charming psychological study woven into<br /> a romance. Aicha is the daughter of an Arab<br /> chief who has been compelled to submit to French<br /> rule. On seeing that further rebellion is in vain,<br /> he not only bows to the inevitable but he deter-<br /> mines to make the best of it. He is soon on<br /> friendly terms with his conquerors, who find him<br /> most useful in his native country, so that as time<br /> goes on he is able to take a high official post under<br /> the new dispensation.<br /> <br /> In order to flatter the French he educates his<br /> little girl in the European way, with the result<br /> that she marries one of the French officers. The<br /> great interest of the book lies in the conflict waged<br /> in the Arab soul between the great force of<br /> atavism and the new interests which come into the<br /> girl’s life. With her native intelligence and tact<br /> she is able to take her position as an officer’s wife<br /> in French society, and, through her deep affection<br /> for her husband, she becomes as it were a French-<br /> woman at heart. But when through a terrible<br /> catastrophe she is suddenly left a widow, the bond is<br /> snapped which has held her to her adopted country,<br /> and she returns to her native land to finish her<br /> days as an Arab woman. It is the dme invisible<br /> which is the “Eau souterraine,” as the author<br /> explains most poetically at the close of the book.<br /> <br /> “Une source vive jaillit de la terre... Elle<br /> orne la montagne et vivifiela plaine . . . Soudain,<br /> source, ruisseau, riviére, l’eau qu’on voyait a dis-<br /> paru . . . Mais tout &amp; coup, a quelques kilometres<br /> ou &amp; quelques lieues, l’eau qu’on croyait perdue,<br /> de nouveau surgit Ame invisible, eau<br /> souterraine.”<br /> 68<br /> <br /> “T’Enfant 2 la Balustrade,” by M. René Boy-<br /> lesve, is another delightful story without any<br /> strong plot. It treats of provincial life and is<br /> supposed to be told by a boy. We can only say<br /> that, considering his age, the boy was marvellously<br /> observant and philosophical. It is the history of<br /> a certain M. Nadaud, a notary, in one of those<br /> country towns where everyone attends to his neigh-<br /> bour’s affairs. M. Nadaud is unfortunate enough<br /> to offend the great man of the town by purchasing<br /> a house which the said great man had intended to<br /> buy. This apparently simple incident is the great<br /> theme of the book. The notary has to endure all<br /> kinds of tribulations and humiliations, and we are<br /> introduced to nearly all the inhabitants of the<br /> town, for the silent quarrel between the wealthy<br /> man who keeps open house, and Monsieur Nadaud<br /> is a great and momentous event in which every<br /> person for miles round is concerned. _<br /> <br /> M. Boylesve excels in these provincial sketches,<br /> and succeeds admirably in taking his reader away<br /> from the rush and turmoil of city life to little, out-<br /> of-the-world places, where the inhabitants are<br /> entirely taken up with their own small interests<br /> and rarely give a thought to what is happening<br /> beyond the boundary of their own town.<br /> <br /> Madame Gautier has published the new volume<br /> of her Memoirs as the “ Second Rang du Collier.”<br /> This second volume is, perhaps, even more interest-<br /> ing than the first one. Another book of souvenirs<br /> which will be read with pleasure is “ La Cour et la<br /> Société du Second Empire,” the second series of<br /> which M. James de Chambrier has just published.<br /> There are in all about forty chapters, containing<br /> anecdotes and impressions, collected by the author,<br /> about the various literary men, artists and histori-<br /> cal personages of that epoch. There is a chapter<br /> on “ Thiers et Jules Simon,” another on “ Duruy<br /> et Napoléon III.,” some interesting notes about<br /> Gambetta Pasteur, Caro et l’Impératrice, the<br /> “Salons of Mme. Aubernon and Mme. Adamand,”<br /> various anecdotes in connection with the Embassies.<br /> Among the persons of interest who figure in this<br /> book are also Gounod, Sardou, Sarcey, Octave<br /> Fenillet, Mérimée, Augier, Rosa Bonheir, Sainte-<br /> Beuve, Renan, Lamartine, Coppée, Dumas, Georges<br /> Sand, Maupassant, Balzac, Rachel, Madame Patti,<br /> Alphonse Daudet, and many others.<br /> <br /> “Monsieur de Migurac, ou Le Marquis Philo-<br /> sophe,” by M. André Lichtenberger, is the story of<br /> the life and adventures of a “ gentilhomme péri-<br /> gourdin,” born in the year 1741, and is curious as<br /> a study of habits and customs.<br /> <br /> “Ernest Renan en Bretagne” is a new bio-<br /> graphy compiled by M. René d’Ys.<br /> <br /> M. Anatole France has also published, in pam-<br /> phlet form, an excellent résumé of the work of<br /> Ernest Renan. It is in reality the “Discours”<br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> pronounced by M. France on the occasion of the<br /> inauguration of Renan’s statue at Tréguier, and<br /> gives an admirable idea of the great savant, both<br /> as a man and as a conscientious thinker and<br /> writer.<br /> <br /> “Forces Perdues ” is the title of the new volume<br /> by Pierre Baudin.<br /> <br /> “ Petites Confessions,” by M. Paul Acker, will<br /> appeal to amateurs of what is generally known as<br /> “literary gossip.” The volume consists of a series<br /> of articles entitled “ Visites” and “ Portraits<br /> Littéraires,” which have appeared in one of the<br /> Parisian dailies.<br /> <br /> Among the most interesting articles in the<br /> French Reviews are the following :—<br /> <br /> In the Revue des Deux Mondes—“ La Facheuse<br /> Equivoque,” a criticism by M. Brunetiére of “La<br /> Religion d’autorité et la Religion de I’ esprit.”<br /> <br /> The “ Correspondance inédite de Sainte-Beuve ”<br /> is also being continued in this review, and the<br /> serial story by Mrs. Humphry Ward, “ La Fille de<br /> Lady Rose.”<br /> <br /> Another serial translated from the English is<br /> “ Anticipations,” by H. G. Wells, in La Grande<br /> Revue.<br /> <br /> In this review there is an excellent article by<br /> M. C. Bouglé, ‘Contre le Darwinisme social ”<br /> (Les Conditions humaines de la lutte pour la vie).<br /> <br /> In La Renaissance Latine there ig an article<br /> by M. Loiseau on “La Russie et les réformes<br /> intérieures,”<br /> <br /> - In La Revue, M. d’Estournelles de Constant<br /> writes on “Le Mouvement pacifique,” and speaks<br /> in the highest terms of M. Roosevelt.<br /> <br /> There is also an article with some telling<br /> statistics, by M. Lefévre, entitled, “ Comment<br /> reconquerir la beauté, la force et la santé.”<br /> <br /> “Les Anglais dans le roman francais moderne”<br /> is the title of an article by M. Leblond in the same<br /> review.<br /> <br /> The Weekly Critical has opened an enquiry on<br /> “Le Roman contemporain,’ and publishes the<br /> letters of Madame Daudet, M. de Régnier, M.<br /> Boylesve, Rachilde, and M. Albert Cim on the<br /> subject.<br /> <br /> The great theatrical events of the month have<br /> been the production of the two plays, “L’Adver-<br /> saire,” by MM. Capus and E. Aréne, and “ Jeanne<br /> Vedekind,” by M. Philippi. In the latter piece<br /> Mme. Sarah Bernhardt plays the part of a mére<br /> tragique to perfection, proving once more that a<br /> true artiste can adapt herself to any réle.<br /> <br /> “L’Adversaire” is an immense success, both<br /> from a literary and dramatic point of view, and<br /> M. Guitry scores another triumph.<br /> <br /> M. Antoine has been playing “La Guerre au<br /> Village,” by M. Trarieux, which is more or less a<br /> political piece.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> en<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> M. Bour has been fortunate in securing the play<br /> by M. Jacques Richepin, “ Cadet Roussel,” as it<br /> seems likely to have a long run, and M. Richepin<br /> is also fortunate in having his piece interpreted by<br /> an artiste of M. Bour’s talent and ability.<br /> <br /> The result of the differences between M. Porel<br /> and Mme. Réjane will probably be to change the<br /> Vaudeville programme considerably, and it is<br /> rumoured that Mme. Réjane will take a theatre<br /> of her own.<br /> <br /> As regards the success of a play, judged by a<br /> long run, we have an example in M. Pierre<br /> Decourcelle’s “ Deux Gosses,” (“ Two Little Vaga-<br /> bonds.”)<br /> <br /> A short time ago the author feted the thousandth<br /> representation of this piece, and since then it has<br /> been given a hundred times more. Reckoning the<br /> representations in countries for which it has not<br /> been sold outright, the piece has been played more<br /> than ten thousand times.<br /> <br /> Mile. Héléne Réyé, who created the réle of<br /> Clandinet, and played it 750 consecutive nights,<br /> is taking the same part now that it has been put<br /> on again. She has since then created Gavroche,<br /> in “Les Misérables,” and is certainly inimitable<br /> as the Parisian street arab.<br /> <br /> There are several important plays now being<br /> rehearsed, among‘others “ Le Retour de J érusalem ”<br /> and “ L’ Absent.”<br /> <br /> Auys HaLLArD.<br /> <br /> —____——_+—&gt;—_-_<br /> <br /> “C.K. 8.” AND THE SOCIETY.<br /> <br /> —<br /> <br /> EMBERS of the Society will recollect that<br /> <br /> in the November number of Zhe Author<br /> <br /> a case was reported, in which Mr. John<br /> <br /> Long was the defendant, relating to a lost MS.,<br /> <br /> and a reply was made to some comments there-<br /> <br /> on printed in The Sphere by the writer signing<br /> himself “C. K. 8.”<br /> <br /> In the number of The Sphere for the 14th of<br /> November “CO. K. 8.” returned to the action of<br /> the Society in the case, in a statement of consider-<br /> able length, which occupied a column and a half,<br /> and contained over 1,100 words, comprising a<br /> number of inaccuracies and incorrect inferences<br /> both in fact and in law.<br /> <br /> Consequently, on November 20th the Secretary<br /> of the Society addressed to the Editor of a letter<br /> correcting some of the more material errors into<br /> which “C, K. 8.” had fallen.<br /> <br /> For brevity’s sake, minor matters, such as the<br /> statement that “C. K. S.,” who had no personal<br /> acquaintance with the publisher, happened to be<br /> in Court, whereas the case was heard in Chambers—<br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> 69<br /> <br /> where only those engaged in the suit or friends of<br /> the parties could be present—were not noticed.<br /> <br /> The letter was in the following terms :—<br /> <br /> S1r,—It is needless for me to discuss the article over the<br /> signature of “ C, K. 8.” in the issue of The Sphere of Novem-<br /> ber 14th point by point, as the statement of the case already<br /> put forward in the November number of The Author answers<br /> sufficiently the major parts of the arguments, There are<br /> some points, however, which must be corrected.<br /> <br /> 1. On the question touching the value of the plaintiff&#039;s<br /> literary productions ; she received £50 and not £30 as<br /> stated in your paper for her MS. There was ample evidence<br /> besides of acceptances and payments and of the value of<br /> her work.<br /> <br /> 2. The MS. was handed in at Mr. Long’s office to a<br /> gentleman whom the author was told was Mr. Long, and<br /> accepted for consideration without conditions. The alleged<br /> condition which you have printed in full cannot affect the<br /> arrangement, as the letter containing it was sent to the<br /> author subsequently.<br /> <br /> 3. I regret to state that you are entirely misrepresenting<br /> the facts when you say that I have made an incorrect<br /> statement of the evidence. The facts were obtained from<br /> the learned counsel who acted on behalf of the Society, and<br /> if anything the statement does not put the matter suffi-<br /> ciently in our favour. It is true that the Manager of the<br /> London Parcel’s Delivery Company stated that he did not<br /> sign for every parcel received, his reason being that people<br /> did not necessarily demand a receipt, but he produced his<br /> day sheet on which the name and address of every parcel<br /> coming into the office is entered. The date and the name<br /> of the receiving office had already been furnished by the<br /> publisher himself, and on the day sheet of the office on the<br /> date mentioned no parcel addressed to the plaintiff was<br /> entered. It is the essence of the case that the evidence<br /> produced by Mr. Long entirely failed to satisfy the learned<br /> master that the parcel was despatched, indeed his own<br /> counsel admitted this.<br /> <br /> The object of the Society is not, as you suggest, to spend.<br /> its money on the petty persecution of publishers, but one<br /> of its objects is to have the legal relations between authors<br /> and editors or publishers definitely settled in as many<br /> points as possible.<br /> <br /> I remain,<br /> Yours faithfully,<br /> (Signed) G. HERBERT THRING.<br /> <br /> Readers will gather from the Secretary’s letter<br /> the nature of the main statements he thought<br /> it expedient to notice, while any members of<br /> the Society who wish to refer to the number of<br /> The Sphere containing them can do so at the<br /> Society’s office.<br /> <br /> The Editor of Zhe Sphere has not thought fit<br /> to publish this letter, as he had, on the 24th of<br /> November, undertaken, in writing, to do. The<br /> ground he alleges is that “it is too long for publi-<br /> cation,’’ to say nothing of being rather “truculent.”<br /> He has preferred to give a partial paraphrase of<br /> it so as to suit his own argument.<br /> <br /> Of the truculence of the letter readers can judge<br /> for themselves. As to its length, it contains 388<br /> words: is therefore a third of the length of the<br /> article to which it was a reply.<br /> <br /> In his final note, published in Zhe Sphere of<br /> the 28th of November—in which the Secretary’s<br /> letter was not published—“C. K. 8.” sets out his<br /> 70<br /> <br /> indictment against the Society in the following<br /> erms :—<br /> <br /> “T urge that the Society has no business what-<br /> ever to persecute publishers over the question of<br /> the return or non-return of MSS., and, further,<br /> that the Society itself has a rule which com-<br /> pletely stultifies its action to the effect that it<br /> does not hold itself responsible for the safe return<br /> of manuscripts sent to it.”<br /> <br /> We can one suppose that in “CO. K. 8.’s” dic-<br /> tionary “persecute” is defined as equivalent to<br /> “enforce legal responsibilities,’ while his reference<br /> to the rule of the Society seems to prove that he<br /> still fails to understand the legal position and the<br /> bearing of the facts on this position. To insert<br /> into a contract conditions made subsequently at<br /> the will of either party is neither legally nor<br /> morally justifiable. :<br /> <br /> “C. K.8.” further illustrates the confusion of<br /> his mind on legal matters by referring to the case<br /> of Aflalo ». Lawrence and Bullen, as an action<br /> that has the appearance of a “legal vendetta ”—<br /> to say the least, a fantastic description of a case<br /> in which three judges decided on one side against<br /> five on the other, and which owed its carriage<br /> through three Courts to the action, not of the<br /> Plaintiff, but of the Defendants.<br /> <br /> We are convinced that the majority of the mem-<br /> bers of the Society will not grudge the expenditure<br /> which has led to a final decision on a point of<br /> law so obscure and so important to every British<br /> Author.<br /> <br /> ————_ +<br /> <br /> THE CONTRACT OF BAILMENT.<br /> <br /> ——+-—&lt;—<br /> <br /> HE question of the responsibility of editors<br /> 8 and publishers for MSS. left or sent to their<br /> offices is one that is constantly recurring,<br /> <br /> An interesting case against Mr. John Long<br /> which bears on this subject has been published,<br /> but it may be of profit to consider the matter from<br /> @ more general point of view.<br /> <br /> We have before us a letter from one editor who<br /> distinctly states that he is not responsible—we do<br /> not know on what facts he bases his deductions—<br /> and another editor referring to the case above<br /> quoted made the following statement: “It is<br /> extraordinary that an author may plant MSS, un-<br /> invited upon an editor or a publisher, actually<br /> leaving them at his offive, and that the editor or<br /> publisher should be in any way responsible for<br /> their safe return,” and goes on to say, on the<br /> authority of some lawyer (name not mentioned),<br /> “that if the publisher had not invited the delivery<br /> of the MS. he does not believe he would be legally<br /> responsible for its safe return.”<br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> This last statement is, of course, begging the<br /> question, the real point being whether the pub-<br /> lisher or editor invites MSS. from authors or not—<br /> either expressly or impliedly. What is the general<br /> rule ?<br /> <br /> Is it possible to maintain that a publisher or an<br /> editor with an advertised address does not set<br /> himself up as a mark at which authors should<br /> aim their MSS.; can it be maintained that an<br /> editor or a publisher is merely a gratuitous bailee,<br /> and that he does not receive and deal with MSS.<br /> for his own benefit, though put forward unsolicited ?<br /> Would not any editor be greatly hurt if he did not<br /> receive the opportunity of considering, with a view<br /> to publication, the MSS. of his best friend—some<br /> popular author—if the author put forward the<br /> reason that the editor shunned responsibility ?<br /> <br /> Let us reverse the argument. Is there any<br /> publisher who lives by publishing books that come<br /> to him as the result of his written orders only, or<br /> is there any editor who issues his magazine com-<br /> posed of nothing but ordered articles? In the<br /> case of the publisher the answer must be absolutely<br /> in the negative. In the case of the editor of a<br /> magazine or newspaper it may be that one, or<br /> perhaps two, out of many hundreds never print<br /> any but solicited articles. If, then, this is the case,<br /> if MSS. are sent in for the benefit of the publisher<br /> or editor as well as the author, then the publisher<br /> or editor must be more than a mere gratuitous<br /> bailee. The bailment must be considered for the<br /> benefit of both parties.<br /> <br /> Some editors and publishers try to rid them-<br /> selves of their responsibility, legal or moral, by a<br /> process of bluff, others by placing notices some-<br /> where in their papers—in some cases in fairly<br /> conspicuous positions, in others mixed up amongst<br /> the advertisements, where an author would hardly<br /> see them.<br /> <br /> The Society has taken counsel’s opinion with<br /> regard to this custom of inserting notices and the<br /> responsibilities of the editors under these notices.<br /> Counsel is of opinion that if the author knew of<br /> the notice the MS. would be considered to be sent<br /> up subject to the terms contained in that notice,<br /> but it would lie with the publisher or editor to<br /> prove that the author was cognisant of the terms.<br /> <br /> If the author was not cognisant of the notice,<br /> then the question would arise under the facts<br /> already put forward. Is a MS. sent in for the<br /> benefit of both parties or not ? Under the present<br /> custom the question is beyond doubt that the MS.,<br /> though unsolicited in express terms, is clearly sent<br /> in for the benefit of both parties. Under these<br /> circumstances the publisher or editor is more than<br /> a mere gratuitous bailee, and would be responsible<br /> <br /> accordingly.<br /> GQ. BT.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> WARNINGS TO THE PRODUCERS<br /> OF BOOKS.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> ERE are a few standing rules to be observed in an<br /> agreement. There are four methods of dealing<br /> with literary property :—<br /> <br /> I. Selling it Outright.<br /> <br /> This is sometimes satisfactory, if a proper price can be<br /> obtained. But the transaction should be managed by a<br /> competent agent, or with the advice of the Secretary of<br /> the Society.<br /> <br /> Il. A Profit-Sharing Agreement (a bad form of<br /> agreement).<br /> <br /> In this case the following rules should be attended to:<br /> <br /> Ci.) Not to sign any agreement in which the cost of pro-<br /> duction forms a part without the strictest investigation.<br /> <br /> (2.) Not to give the publisher the power of putting the<br /> profits into his own pocket by charging for advertisements<br /> in his own organs, or by charging exchange advertise-<br /> ments. Therefore keep control of the advertisements.<br /> <br /> 3.) Not to allow a special charge for ‘office expenses,”<br /> unless the same allowance is made to the author.<br /> <br /> (4.) Not to give up American, Colonial, or Continental<br /> rights.<br /> <br /> (5.) Not to give up serial or translation rights.<br /> <br /> (6.) Not to bind yourself for future work to any publisher.<br /> As well bind yourself for the future to any one solicitor or<br /> doctor !<br /> <br /> IiI. The Royalty System.<br /> <br /> This is perhaps, with certain limitations, the best form<br /> of agreement. It is above all things necessary to know<br /> what the proposed royalty means to both sides. It isnow<br /> possible for an author to ascertain approximately the<br /> truth. From time to time very important figures connected<br /> with royalties are published in Zhe Author.<br /> <br /> IY. A Commission Agreement.<br /> <br /> The main points are :—<br /> <br /> (1.) Be careful to obtain a fair cost of production.<br /> (2.) Keep control of the advertisements.<br /> <br /> (3.) Keep control of the sale price of the book.<br /> <br /> General.<br /> <br /> All other forms of agreement are combinations of the four<br /> above mentioned.<br /> <br /> Such combinations are generally disastrous to the author.<br /> <br /> Never sign any agreement without competent advice from<br /> the Secretary of the Society.<br /> <br /> Stamp all agreements with the Inland Revenue stamp.<br /> <br /> Avoid agreements by letter if possible.<br /> <br /> The main points which the Society has always demanded<br /> from the outset are :—<br /> <br /> (.) That both sides shall know what an agreement<br /> means.<br /> <br /> (2.) The inspection of those account books which belong<br /> tothe author. We are advised that this is a right, in the<br /> nature of a common law right, which cannot be denied or<br /> withheld.<br /> <br /> (3.) Always avoid a transfer of copyright.<br /> <br /> ——————_ +<br /> <br /> WARNINGS TO DRAMATIC AUTHORS.<br /> <br /> ee<br /> EVER sign an agreement without submitting it to the<br /> Secretary of the Society of Authors or some com-<br /> petent legal authority.<br /> 2. [t is well to be extremely careful in negotiating for<br /> the production of a play with anyone except an established<br /> manager.<br /> <br /> THER AUTHOR. 71<br /> <br /> 3. There are three forms of dramatic contract for plays<br /> in three or more acts :—<br /> <br /> (a.) Sale outright of the performing right. This<br /> is unsatisfactory. An author who enters into<br /> such a contract should stipulate in the contract<br /> for production of the piece by a certain date<br /> and for proper publication of his name on the<br /> play-bills.<br /> <br /> (b.) Sale of performing right or of a licence to<br /> perform on the basis of percentages on<br /> gross receipts. Percentages vary between 5<br /> and 15 per cent. An author should obtain a<br /> percentage on the sliding scale of gross receipts<br /> in preference to the American system. Should<br /> obtain a sum inadvance of percentages. A fixed<br /> date on or before which the play should be<br /> performed.<br /> <br /> (¢e.) Sale of performing right or of a licence to<br /> perform on the basis of royalties (i.c., fixed<br /> nightly fees). This method should be always<br /> avoided except in cases where the fees are<br /> likely to be small or difficult to collect. The<br /> other safeguards set out under heading (0.) apply<br /> also in this case.<br /> <br /> 4. Plays in one act are often sold outright, but it is<br /> better to obtain a small nightly fee if possible, and a sum<br /> paid in advance of such fees in any event. It is extremely<br /> important that the amateur rights of one-act plays should<br /> be reserved.<br /> <br /> 5. Authors should remember that performing rights can<br /> be limited, and are usually limited, by town, country, and<br /> time. This is most important.<br /> <br /> 6. Authors should not assign performing rights, but<br /> should grant a licence to perform. The legal distinction is<br /> of great importance.<br /> <br /> 7. Authors should remember that performing rights in a<br /> play are distinct from literary copyright. A manager<br /> holding the performing right or licence to perform cannot<br /> print the book of the words.<br /> <br /> 8. Never forget that United States rights may be exceed-<br /> ingly valuable. ‘&#039;hey should never be included in English<br /> agreements without the author obtaining a substantial<br /> consideration.<br /> <br /> 9. Agreements for collaboration should be carefully<br /> drawn and executed before collaboration is commenced.<br /> <br /> 10, An author should remember that production of a play<br /> is highly speculative: that he runs a very great risk of<br /> delay and a breakdown in the fulfilment of his contract.<br /> He should therefore guard himself all the more carefully in<br /> the beginning.<br /> <br /> 11. An author must remember that the dramatic market<br /> is exceedingly limited, and that for a novice the first object<br /> is to obtain adequate publication.<br /> <br /> As these warnings must necessarily be incomplete, on<br /> account of the wide range of the subject of dramatic con-<br /> tracts, those authors desirous of further information<br /> are referred to the Secretary of the Society.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> He<br /> <br /> WARNINGS TO MUSICAL COMPOSERS,<br /> —_1—~@—+ —.<br /> <br /> ITTLE can be added to the warnings given for the<br /> assistance of producers of books and dramatic<br /> authors. It must, however, be pointed out that, as<br /> <br /> a rule, the musical publisher demands from the musical<br /> composer a transfer of fuller rights and less liberal finan-<br /> cial terms than those obtained for literary and dramatic<br /> property. The musical composer has very often the two<br /> <br /> rights to deal with—performing right and copyright, He<br /> 72<br /> <br /> should be especially careful therefore when entering into<br /> an agreement, and should take into particular consideration<br /> <br /> the warnings stated above.<br /> <br /> ———— oo<br /> <br /> HOW TO USE THE SOCIETY.<br /> <br /> —<br /> <br /> i VERY member has a right to ask for and to receive<br /> K advice upon his agreements, his choice of a pub-<br /> lisher, or any dispute arising in the conduct of his<br /> business or the administration of his property. | The<br /> Secretary of the Society is a solicitor, but if there is any<br /> special reason the Secretary will refer the case to the<br /> Solicitors of the Society. Further, the Committee, if they<br /> deem it desirable, will obtain counsel&#039;s opinion. All this<br /> without any cost to the member.<br /> <br /> 2. Remember that questions connected with copyright<br /> and publishers’ agreements do not fall within the experi-<br /> ence of ordinary solicitors. Therefore, do not scruple to use<br /> <br /> the Society.<br /> <br /> 3. Send to the Office copies of past agreements and past<br /> accounts, with a copy of the baok represented. The<br /> Secretary will always be glad to have any agreements, new<br /> or old, for inspection and note. The information thus<br /> obtained may prove invaluable.<br /> <br /> 4. Before signing any agreement whatever, send<br /> the document to the Society for examination,<br /> <br /> 5. Remember always that in belonging to the Society<br /> you are fighting the battles of other writers, even if you<br /> are reaping no benefit to yourself, and that you are<br /> advancing the best interests of your calling in promoting<br /> the independence of the writer, the dramatist, the composer.<br /> <br /> 6. The Committee have now arranged for the reception<br /> of members’ agreements and their preservation in a fire-<br /> proof safe. The agreements will, of course, be regarded as<br /> confidential documents to be read only by the Secretary,<br /> who will keep the key of the safe. The Society now offers :<br /> —(1) To read and advise upon agreements and to give<br /> advice concerning publishers. (2) To stamp agreements<br /> in readiness for a possible action upon them. (3) To keep<br /> agreements. (4) To enforce payments due according to<br /> agreements. Fuller particulars of the Society&#039;s work<br /> can be obtained in the Prospectus.<br /> <br /> 7. No contract should be entered into with a literary<br /> agent without the advice of the Secretary of the Society.<br /> Members are strongly advised not to accept without careful<br /> consideration the contracts with publishers submitted to<br /> them by literary agents, and are recommended to submit<br /> them for interpretation and explanation to the Secretary<br /> of the Society.<br /> <br /> 8. Many agents neglect to stamp agreements. This<br /> must be done within fourteen days of first execution. The<br /> Secretary will undertake it on behalf of members. :<br /> <br /> 9. Some agents endeavour to prevent authors from<br /> referring matters to the Secretary of the Society ; so<br /> do some publishers. Members can make their own<br /> deductions and act accordingly.<br /> <br /> 10. The subscription to the Society is £1 41s. per<br /> annum., or £10 10s. for life membership.<br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> THE READING BRANCH. .<br /> <br /> —_——<br /> <br /> EMBERS will greatly assist the Society in this<br /> VI branch of its work by informing young writers<br /> of its existence. Their MSS. can be read and<br /> treated as a composition is treated by a coach. The term<br /> MSS. includes not only works of fiction, but poetry<br /> and dramatic works, and when it is possible, under<br /> special arrangement, technical and scientific works. The<br /> Readers are writers of competence and experience. The<br /> fee is one guinea.<br /> <br /> a 0<br /> <br /> NOTICES.<br /> <br /> +<br /> <br /> HE Editor of The Author begs to remind members of<br /> <br /> the Society that, although the paper is sent to them<br /> <br /> free of charge, the cost of producing it would be a<br /> <br /> very heavy charge on the resources of the Society if a great<br /> <br /> many members did not forward to the Secretary the modest<br /> 5s. 6d. subscription for the year.<br /> <br /> Communications for Zhe Author should be addressed to<br /> the Offices of the Society, 39, Old Queen Street, Storey’s<br /> Gate, 8.W., and should reach the Editor not later than<br /> the 21st of each month. :<br /> <br /> All persons engaged in literary work of any kind,<br /> whether members of the Society or not, are invited to<br /> communicate to the Editor any points connected with their<br /> work which it would be advisable in the general interest to<br /> publish.<br /> <br /> ——_+——_—____—__<br /> <br /> Communications and letters are invited by the<br /> Editor on all subjects connected with literature, but on<br /> no other subjects whatever. Every effort will be made to<br /> return articles which cannot be accepted.<br /> <br /> ——&gt; + —<br /> <br /> The Secretary of the Society begs to give notice<br /> that all remittances are acknowledged by return of post,<br /> and he requests members who do not receive an<br /> answer to important communications within two days to<br /> write to him without delay. All remittances should be<br /> crossed Union Bank of London, Chancery Lane, or be sent<br /> by registered letter only.<br /> <br /> a<br /> <br /> THE LEGAL AND GENERAL LIFE<br /> ASSURANCE SOCIETY.<br /> <br /> ——<br /> <br /> N offer has been made of a special scheme of<br /> Endowment and Whole Life Assurance,<br /> admitting of a material reduction off the<br /> <br /> ordinary premiums to members of the Society.<br /> Full information can be obtained from J. P. Blake,<br /> Legal and General Insurance Society (City Branch),<br /> 158, Leadenhall Street, B.C.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> of<br /> <br /> “<br /> 4<br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR. 73<br /> <br /> AUTHORITIES.<br /> <br /> Se En ie seh a<br /> <br /> Tue case of Aflalo and Cook v. Lawrence and<br /> Bullen has now been finally decided. Judgment<br /> was given in the House of Lords on November<br /> 13th, and is fully reported in another part of The<br /> Author.<br /> <br /> We feel sure that members of the Society will<br /> be glad that a point of Copyright Law of genuine<br /> interest to all writers has been decided. The<br /> Committee took up the question when it first came<br /> before them—after full consideration and on the<br /> advice of Counsel—as a matter of principle, the<br /> amount of money involved being small. In the<br /> Court of First Instance the plaintiffs were successful.<br /> If the case had gone against the Society it is an<br /> open question whether the Committee would have<br /> considered it sufficiently important to carry to a<br /> higher Court, but in the circumstances there was<br /> no choice, as the defendants, against whom the<br /> judgment stood, took the matter to the Court of<br /> Appeal. Here, the plaintiffs, Messrs. Aflalo and<br /> Cook, again obtained a judgment in their favour<br /> by the opinions of two judges against one. Lord<br /> Justice Romer and Lord Justice Stirling decided<br /> against the appellants, Lord Justice Vaughan<br /> Williams dissenting. The appellants were not<br /> satisfied, and determined to take the verdict of the<br /> last appeal—the House of Lords. Again the Com-<br /> mittee had no choice: they were bound to go on<br /> with the case. In the House of Lords the judges<br /> were unanimously in favour of the appellants, and<br /> the Society therefore became responsible for the<br /> costs. Apart from this incident, which is of<br /> course unfortunate, the Committee see no reason<br /> to regret their action, which will, they feel confi-<br /> dent, receive the support of the members. The<br /> ease has resulted in the elucidation of an important<br /> and difficult point of copyright law : how difficult<br /> may be judged by the fact that the matter was decided<br /> by the smallest majority possible out of eight judges<br /> before whom the case was argued, that is by five<br /> against three. This alone proves the need there<br /> was for a definite deeision, and justifies the action<br /> of those who were of opinion that it was a proper<br /> case to fight in the first instance.<br /> <br /> It may be well to add that of the many cases<br /> which have received the support of the Committee<br /> this is the first in the Superior Courts in which<br /> judgment has been given adverse to the Society.<br /> <br /> We hope in a subsequent number of The Author<br /> to give in detail the alterations that it will be<br /> necessary for members of the Society to make,<br /> owing to the decision, in their methods of marketing<br /> <br /> their literary wares.<br /> <br /> Mempers of the Society will no doubt remember<br /> that some months ago the Committee made, through<br /> a letter signed by Mr. George Meredith, their<br /> President, and the Chairman, an appeal to the<br /> public for a sum sufficient to enable them to hand<br /> over a replica of the Besant Memorial about to be<br /> unveiled in the crypt of St. Paul’s, to the London,<br /> County Council, in order that it might, under their<br /> auspices, be erected in some suitable site on the<br /> Thames Embankment.<br /> <br /> The appeal thus made has produced substantial<br /> results, but a further sum of about £40 is required<br /> to enable the proposal adequately to be carried out.<br /> There are, it is believed, many members of the<br /> Society who would be glad to see such a public<br /> recognition of an important side of Sir Walter<br /> Besant’s active life, his love of London and efforts<br /> for its improvement.<br /> <br /> A Memorial in St. Paul’s can at best be seen but<br /> rarely and by comparatively few, and this considera-<br /> tion has had weight not only with the Committee,<br /> but also with the sculptor, Mr. Frampton, who is<br /> ready to provide the duplicate at what is practically<br /> cost price.<br /> <br /> Remittances should be made payable to The<br /> Secretary, the Society of Authors, 39, Old Queen<br /> Street, Storey’s Gate, S.W.<br /> <br /> A list of subscribers will be published in a<br /> subsequent issue.<br /> <br /> WE have before us a circular sent out by the<br /> Authors’ Association, of which the Central Offices<br /> are at Darlington, and Mr. Galloway Kyle is the<br /> Secretary, inviting authors or intending authors<br /> to become members.<br /> <br /> This is the association to which reference was<br /> made in our number for April (1903). Its title<br /> easily lends itself to confusion with our Society.<br /> We therefore think it well to warn our readers<br /> against any possible mistake. &#039;<br /> <br /> The fact that a well known publisher is a Vice-<br /> President of the Authors’ Association is perhaps<br /> sufficient evidence of the distinction of aims between<br /> the two bodies.<br /> <br /> WE are glad to see that the corporation of<br /> Portsmouth have acquired the birthplace of Charles<br /> Dickens with the intention of retaining it as a<br /> permanent museum of “ the relics, manuscripts, and<br /> writings of the great author.” This is an interest-<br /> ing fact, and speaks well for the increasing popu-<br /> larity of one whose reputation as a writer was stated<br /> by common report to be fading. Though we applaud<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> 74.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> the action of the corporation in the case of Charles<br /> Dickens, we think the purchase of houses of<br /> celebrities in order to turn them into museums<br /> may in some cases lead to absurd results, and on the<br /> whole should be checked rather than encouraged.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> We have heard of many ingenious ways of<br /> advertising books in order to increase the sale: in<br /> fact not so many months ago there was considerable<br /> stir in the papers over a publisher&#039;s methods in<br /> dealing with a MS. that had come into his possession.<br /> We have heard of publishers advertising “The<br /> Third Edition,” when only twenty-seven copies<br /> have been sold, and we have heard of advertise-<br /> ments of enormous sales which the author found<br /> manifestly incorrect on receipt of the accounts, but<br /> none of the stories have touched the following,<br /> which we have taken the liberty of reprinting<br /> from the St. James’ Gazette :<br /> <br /> A Parisian author had fought for many years against<br /> poverty and ill-health, but nevertheless had produced<br /> several novels which were considered by those who had<br /> read them to be works of genius, but they had been total<br /> failures as saleable commodities. On his last work he had<br /> concentrated all his hopes of recognition and even of<br /> existence, but on publication the book showed every sign<br /> of going into the same limbo as its predecessors. The<br /> author, however, hit upon a unique way of advertising it.<br /> Acting upon the dictum that the best way to get a novel<br /> tread is to have it publicly described as unfit to read, he<br /> wrote from Marseilles a letter signed “An Indignant<br /> Republican” to the authorities in Paris violently censuring<br /> a certain work as dangerous to public morality and demand-<br /> ing the imprisonment of its author. When inquiries were<br /> made the writer and the author were found to be one and<br /> the same person, but the writer’s object was accomplished.<br /> <br /> A recent number of our valuable contemporary,<br /> Le Droit d@ Auteur, contains some interesting notes<br /> on the earliest examples of authors’ successful<br /> claims to pecuniary remuneration for their work.<br /> The first author who appears to have succeeded in<br /> getting paid for his rights was a Canon of Mans,<br /> who in 1452, having composed a “ Mystery of the<br /> Nativity, the Passion, and the Resurrection,” ceded<br /> it to the shrievalty of Paris for ten écus of gold, a<br /> little more than five guineas. In the sixteenth<br /> century French dramatic authors received three<br /> écus for each comedy. Herdy wrote seven hundred.<br /> Later Quinault received one-ninth of the money<br /> taken at the doors of the theatre, and thus set the<br /> first example of royalties.<br /> <br /> _ Oo<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> W. E. H. LECKY.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Y the death of Mr. Lecky, the Society of<br /> Authors has lost one of its most distin-<br /> guished members, and Great Britain a<br /> <br /> man of letters who was also a man of reading.<br /> He was for more than thirty years an interesting<br /> and considerable figure in cultivated London<br /> society. Though a shy man he loved company,<br /> and such society as is “quiet, wise and good.”<br /> So rudimentary and simple were his notions of<br /> enjoyment, that he was fond of dining-out. He<br /> loved the movement and the stir of life none the<br /> less, perhaps all the more, because he was personally<br /> ill-adapted for the race. His interest in his<br /> fellow-men was inexhaustible. He always wanted<br /> to know how the other half of the world lived.<br /> Although himself cast in an unfamiliar type, he had<br /> a very human heart and longed to be at one with his<br /> brother man. Hiscurious, unequal, but not wholly<br /> uninteresting book called ‘ The Map of Life,” bears<br /> witness to his desire to be treated, not as a mere<br /> spectator or critic, but as an actual combatant in<br /> the battle-fields of existence. Men of the world, as<br /> they call themselves, smiled good-humouredly and<br /> said, “ What on earth can Lecky know of life?”<br /> But ‘men of the world” are too apt to give them-<br /> selves airs in such matters. Life about town, or<br /> on the race-course, or in barracks, or in law courts,<br /> are but phases of the great Phantasmagoria, and<br /> Mr. Lecky with his anxious eyes, his brooding<br /> mind, his wide reading, his experience (gained both<br /> at home and abroad), and, above all, his sad sincerity<br /> and freedom from idol-worship, knew a great deal<br /> about life, though not enough, it may be, to draw<br /> maps.<br /> <br /> Few men will be more missed in their accustomed<br /> haunts than Mr. Lecky. He was one of those<br /> friendly men who are always liked. He was a<br /> sympathetic listener as well as an agreeable<br /> talker. He belonged to many clubs and coteries.<br /> He was welcome at all of them. You liked to see<br /> his “willowy” figure steal furtively into the<br /> room. To sit next him at dinner was always a<br /> mild, but real pleasure. Like all good and sensible<br /> men he was fond of the society of clever women,<br /> and preferred meeting them é¢e-a-téte to any other<br /> way. As an afternoon caller he had great merits.<br /> His information was varied and extensive, and he<br /> knew about many things besides history and books.<br /> He was an excellent judge of pictures, particularly<br /> Spanish and Dutch. He could handle china<br /> knowingly, and criticise furniture with severity.<br /> A deprecatory glance of his eye, an uneasy<br /> contortion of his sensitive frame, was more damning<br /> than an explosion of abuse from noisier connois-<br /> <br /> seurs.<br /> <br /> qo *<br /> ts]<br /> zg<br /> eae<br /> fon<br /> Ua<br /> ees<br /> wht<br /> 40<br /> li<br /> Stig<br /> Nil<br /> ei<br /> D3<br /> <br /> aie<br /> <br /> ~ be<br /> <br /> BL<br /> ;<br /> <br /> xt<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> Of books he had a great knowledge, and for<br /> | them he had true feeling. In talking with most<br /> men you are often amazed to discover the books<br /> _ they have not read, but Mr. Lecky’s catholicity<br /> was hard to impugn. I am speaking of English<br /> 1% books.<br /> by I well remember the first appearance of his<br /> i, “Rise and Influence of Rationalism.” Eloquence<br /> | is a great quality in literature, and the book was<br /> »; aneloquent one. It was also eminently readable<br /> | throughout; and what is more, it breathed the<br /> | spirit of the hour. Young men, and maidens of a<br /> «| Speculative turn of mind, read it with eagerness,<br /> | and discussed it at the tea-table with animation,<br /> ~ whilst their elders looked on and listened with<br /> 4 mingled alarm for the future and pride in the<br /> 4 talents of their offspring. The main note of the<br /> book was the beneficence of scepticism, the good<br /> » done to the world by the men who first had the<br /> % courage to say “J don’t believe you.’ The atmo-<br /> ~ Sphere is different to-day, and our young people<br /> . have begun once again struggling to believe in<br /> something or another, if it be only in ghosts.<br /> <br /> __ Of Mr. Lecky’s “ History ” this is not the place to<br /> speak. It has throughout one rare characteristic,<br /> » | @genuine dispassionate love of truth.<br /> <br /> In the House of Commons, Lecky was a per-<br /> .| sonality. As a learned Irishman he shared with<br /> -{ another learned Irishman, Sir Richard Jebb, an<br /> <br /> ;- unassailable position. He was always listened to<br /> | with the utmost attention, and was in my humble<br /> judgment a really admirable speaker. His<br /> _ character, of course, stood high, whilst his amiability<br /> ‘ and love of his fellow creatures were daily mani-<br /> fested by his aspect and bearing.<br /> <br /> The caricaturist made free with his figure. He<br /> would survey these productions with a melancholy<br /> smile in which there was no bitterness. “I seem<br /> to lend myself to caricature,” he once said to me.<br /> In a sense he did—but only in a restricted sense.<br /> In the nobler elements of character and indivi-<br /> duality, Mr. Lecky showed himself both to his<br /> friends and to his readers as the true man he was.<br /> The Society of Authors may well mourn his loss.<br /> <br /> AUGUSTINE BIRRELL.<br /> <br /> ——__———+—_2-—_____—_<br /> <br /> PROFESSOR THEODOR MOMMSEN.<br /> <br /> +<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> ; N the beginning of the year we were congratu-<br /> lating Professor Theodor Mommsen on having<br /> received the prize for literature granted by<br /> @ the Swedish Academy acting under the will of the<br /> ‘4 late Mr. Nobel. Now we have, with sorrow, to<br /> ©@ announce his death.<br /> : Professor Mommsen was born on the 30th of<br /> 4) November, 1817, and was, therefore, at the date<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> 15<br /> <br /> of his death, nearly eighty-six. Although born a<br /> Dane he always considered himself a German. He<br /> was, without doubt, in the varied fields in which<br /> he studied, a living force. He carried light into<br /> many of the dark places of history, and was one of<br /> the greatest names in literature that Germany has<br /> ever produced. His education commenced in the<br /> gymnasium at Altona, and ended by his graduating<br /> at the University of Kiel. It is a curious fact that<br /> although the studies and works which made him<br /> famous were in such dry subjects as philology,<br /> history, and jurisprudence, yet he began his author-<br /> ship by publishing a book of poems, with his brother,<br /> in 1839. A few years after this date he obtained<br /> a grant from the Government and spent a great deal<br /> of his time in Italy and France. This, no doubt,<br /> was the turning point in his career. From that.<br /> moment he began his wonderful study of Roman<br /> history, and of the subjects connected with the<br /> Roman national life. His painstaking research<br /> was assisted by a wonderful memory, and both<br /> these by a brilliant insight and a fine judgment.<br /> There is no doubt that on his work as a Roman<br /> historian his reputation will stand in England,<br /> To the schoolboy and the undergraduate his history<br /> was always a bugbear. It is probable, therefore,<br /> they may consider his fame and brilliancy over-<br /> rated, but it is lucky for most geniuses that their<br /> reputation does not rest on the eternal criticism of<br /> generations of schoolboys and undergraduates.<br /> <br /> Although his history of Rome is undoubtedly a<br /> wonderful production on account of the grasp of<br /> the life of the period and the character of the<br /> nation, yet those who applaud his methods do not<br /> necessarily approve his deductions. Some of them<br /> were so startling that although they struck astonish-<br /> ment in the first instance, yet after consideration<br /> could not alwaysstand the light of maturer criticism.<br /> Special reference should be made to his description<br /> of Cicero, who, with all his faults, with all his<br /> weaknesses, and with all his cowardice, was no<br /> doubt, judging from the correspondence that<br /> remains to us, the most important man of letters<br /> of his time, and judging from other historical relics<br /> one of the greatest advocates. To him Professor<br /> Mommsen will grant no good qualities. He<br /> calls him “journalist in the worst sense of the<br /> word,” “dabbler,” “short-sighted egotist,” and<br /> “statesman without insight.” Asa set off against<br /> Cicero he lauds Cesar to the skies. Every historian<br /> must have his faults. No sound critic, however,<br /> could fail to recognise his power. For this reason,<br /> during the latter years of his life, although he<br /> lived in a simple manner at his home in Charlotten-<br /> burg, he has been looked upon by the younger<br /> generation of Germany as a model to look up to<br /> and admire, and has, received constant recognition<br /> of his brilliant accomplishments.<br /> <br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> 76<br /> <br /> D<br /> ENGLISH AUTHORS AND THE UNITE<br /> <br /> STATES RIGHTS.<br /> <br /> —St<br /> <br /> P to the end of his historical survey of<br /> iti 5 on<br /> American conditions, cA CO, B. ea<br /> safe cround ; but hardly anyone converse<br /> 5<br /> <br /> : nos Wi inclined to<br /> with international ine He ee are, ad<br /> follow him further. That Hngls av bli<br /> : lass, losing place with the United States pu ~<br /> ha the points now : ee pear es<br /> <br /> : thing to remedy that ste<br /> ee ae ae lines we should oe<br /> a : » ici t it is no<br /> _ «A, OG, B.” says explicitly that<br /> oe for the British author to write oe<br /> stuff? All he has apparently to do is to “ wake<br /> up.”” In other words, he is, on the literary and<br /> artistic side, safe enough; it is only as what the<br /> Americans call a “drummer ” that he fails. Now<br /> I believe this attitude to be not only undignified<br /> but wholly wrong. Setting aside the great names<br /> in American letters, who were, i the most gel<br /> historians, essayists and poets, American author-<br /> ship is acalling of the past few years. a oe C. B.”<br /> oints out, it dates from the passing of the American<br /> a capsaht Act. It has only required a very short<br /> time for the American writer to capture and hold<br /> the attention of his fellow countrymen, and, in the<br /> nature of the case, his success has been won largely<br /> at the expense of the English author. Not of<br /> course, that the English author has suffered much<br /> pecuniarily by the passing of the American Copy-<br /> right Act; the cheques for literary work that<br /> travelled either way across the ocean in the old<br /> days were very few. Yet the broad fact remains<br /> that, where the American used to read English<br /> fiction, he now reads the work of men and women<br /> of his own nationality. The man who has been<br /> hurt by the new conditions ig certainly not<br /> the writer of the first rank—have we any such<br /> men now producing actively ?—not even the writer<br /> ofthe second rank; but, beyond doubt, the writer<br /> of the third and even lower classes. These men<br /> were worth reprinting in the United States when<br /> their eo ae nothing but paper and print ; they<br /> are not worth reprinting when they have to compete<br /> for popularity with work of equal and greater bent<br /> iat 1s written by Americans, deals with American<br /> as and is in harmony with the habit of mind of<br /> : ae and women who read it.<br /> : 18 convenient to divide authors into Classes<br /> ee arbitrary fashion that I have just ventured<br /> hi eee but it is rarely that any writer finds al]<br /> des ooks in the same class. He may ascend or<br /> pene | some of his books will be better than<br /> others. When I gay, I fear rather discourteous]<br /> third-class authors,” I mean the writers cha<br /> products die with each publishing season, and have<br /> <br /> ‘large one, and it comprises writers whose various<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> i im to longer existence.<br /> in fact, no claim to long<br /> the American publisher does not want; and he<br /> <br /> t want them for the reason that he cannot 0<br /> coe? To talk of “waking up” in offering Bi<br /> <br /> sell them. UCT in one<br /> such manuscripts, or “ persisting and insisting ”<br /> <br /> with American publishers, is to be wholly wide of<br /> the mark, Occasionally a book of this class is<br /> placed in the United States market ; but there is<br /> nearly always some special reason for its appear-<br /> ing internationally. The American may buy it<br /> because he hopes for another and better work from<br /> the same pen ; he may have a contra-account with<br /> an English publisher which he is anxious to settle<br /> —in fine, he may have a hundred different reaSons<br /> for his acceptance. But, on its merits, he does not<br /> want the book. The author may “wake him up”<br /> by every mail; he may “ persist ’’ with cablegrams ;<br /> he may “insist” in season and out of season. The<br /> facts are not altered.<br /> <br /> T’o come now to the authors of the second class,<br /> who may, not unfairly, be said to represent the<br /> best of which we are now capable. Have such<br /> authors any substantial grievance? I hardly think<br /> so. The class of which I am now speaking is a<br /> <br /> degrees of popularity differ markedly from one<br /> another, But for any work that shows, I will not<br /> say genius, but even a definite talent, either in the<br /> direction of sustained interest of narration, real<br /> psychological insight, or careful character study,<br /> there is a distinct American demand. And if that<br /> demand is not supplied from this side of the<br /> Atlantic, the fault lies with the authors them-<br /> selves, Many men who are read here widely have<br /> but a small American following ; not infrequently<br /> the converse may be said to be nearer the truth.<br /> Yet, whatever may be the hold of any individual<br /> writer on the American public,<br /> books as I have now in mind are worth reprinting<br /> and copyrighting in the States, and it is, almost<br /> without exception, possible to make the necessary<br /> arrangements. In this connection, “names” are of<br /> smaller importance than is often supposed. United<br /> States publishers are more open minded than their<br /> English brethren ; many of them are attracted<br /> by the notion of a gamble in an unknown writer’s<br /> work. But the work, with all respect to “ A.C, B.,”<br /> must be good, the publisher must haye a run for<br /> his money. With the man who has an established<br /> following, the question is what terms he can make ;<br /> with the unknown writer who has his reputation<br /> still to gain, it is whether he can make an entry<br /> at all into another circle of readers.<br /> good work and efficient handling—I do not pretend<br /> to disregard what may be called the commercial<br /> <br /> traveller aspect of the question—the result should<br /> he satisfacto<br /> <br /> Of authors of the first class, it is hardly neces-<br /> <br /> Such books<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> nearly all such ~ i<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> “ig sary to write. As “A.C, B.” says, “ Many kinds of<br /> ~4)§ literature appeal to the whole world.”<br /> “§ Granting the truth of the considerations I have<br /> “lg already set down, it follows that it is only books<br /> of the second class with which we have to concern<br /> ourselves. “‘ A.C, B.,” while impliedly admitting<br /> that an author may do wisely to make his English<br /> uf arrangements through an agent’s intermediary, is of<br /> @@ opinion that he will do better himself to attend to<br /> eid his over-sea negotiations. In this particular, I fear<br /> § experience is against him. Certainly, the course<br /> he proposes is not one that has recommended itself<br /> to those English authors who have the largest fol-<br /> lowing in theStates. In fact, one may say that it is<br /> jo@ not an infrequent experience with agents to have<br /> j proposals for the handling of work for America, while<br /> @ the author intends to control personally his English<br /> f business. Numerous as are the dangers and diffi-<br /> 3 culties attendant upon the sale of literary property<br /> of in this country, the possibilities of loss in inter-<br /> © national arrangements are far greater. I do not<br /> y wish to cast any reflection on the integrity of<br /> 4 American firms, although the agreements that are<br /> “18 offered from the other side are often and in many<br /> | respects not such as would commend themselves to<br /> any writer familiar with the practice of the best<br /> tf London houses. But the opportunity of error is,<br /> f in the nature of the case, much more frequent when<br /> _ two firms, instead of only one, have to be con-<br /> | sidered. There is the question of international<br /> copyright ; of the synchronising of dates of appear-<br /> ance, when, it may be, a book is serialised on one<br /> side of the water and not on the other; of the<br /> Canadian market, which is very often a bone of<br /> 9 contention between the English and the American<br /> ‘oq publisher. In short, it is only possible to sur-<br /> ‘a mount the difficulties inherent in the conditions<br /> Jo obtaining by unremitting care, coupled with a<br /> marked degree of expert knowledge. However<br /> cool the business head” of authors may be, there<br /> 78 are, it is safe to say, not many of them who have<br /> 4 the equipment necessary, if the task involved is to<br /> *d be grappled with successfully.<br /> A It is possible to deal with one agent here and<br /> another in the United States. But the course has<br /> little to recommend it. In the first place, neither<br /> ‘8 agent can feel the interest in his client’s affairs<br /> dé” which he would do were they entirely in his hands,<br /> _ And, in the second, the two sets of negotiations are<br /> 02 so closely interwoven, that in practice, 1b will not<br /> od be found possible entirely to separate them. For<br /> 9 example, the American agent may want instruc-<br /> ii tions or information, the purport of which will<br /> _ depend on what is being arranged with the English<br /> _ publisher ; the man who can solve the difficulty at<br /> once is the English agent, yet, were the course now<br /> under discussion to be followed, the matter would<br /> val have first of all to be referred to the author, who<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> 17<br /> <br /> on : his turn, have to consult his London<br /> ae : 18 Just conceivable that a man of some<br /> elicacy of feeling might hesitate before troubling<br /> —possibly to a considerable extent—his agent with<br /> work in which he had no pecuniary interest, But<br /> leaving that point on one side, it can easily be<br /> realised how many are the chances of confusion<br /> and loss, Further, the London agent who is in<br /> constant touch with one or more agents in New<br /> York can command a degree of attention for his.<br /> work as a whole which the individual author who<br /> only occasionally sends MSS. across the Atlantic<br /> cannot reasonably expect. The London agent<br /> represents, for the American agent, a combination<br /> of authors ; and, naturally, the affairs of a com-<br /> bination are of more consequence than those of<br /> any one person, unless, indeed, he be of consider-<br /> able eminence. And, I take it, we are not now<br /> concerned with the work of such men. Further,<br /> the London agent is by no means confined to dealing<br /> through an Americanagent ; with many American<br /> houses he is probably in close personal touch, as<br /> the result of his acquaintance with the members<br /> of the different firms. An American publisher<br /> when he is in London will certainly visit the chief<br /> London agents, while—again leaving the man of<br /> great reputation apart—it would hardly be worth<br /> his while to call upon a number of individual<br /> authors, whose work he nevertheless is probably<br /> quite ready to consider.<br /> As I understand his paper, “A.C. B.” is of opinion<br /> that agents do not, as a class, deal efficiently with<br /> the United States rights of books that are placed in<br /> their hands. Without specific instances—which I<br /> admit it would be difficult, and perhaps improper,<br /> to give—of the neglect he complains of, discussion<br /> of the point is difficult. But it may safely be said<br /> that no agent who understands his business ever<br /> loses sight of transatlantic possibilities. The notion:<br /> that he would be tempted by a peculiarly beneficial<br /> English contract to take no trouble to market 8<br /> book in America is, with all courtesy, absurd, For<br /> the better the contract that is possible here, the:<br /> better, broadly speaking, will the American ainnde<br /> ment be. The contention is interesting, ewer<br /> as it is the first time that I have heard _<br /> accused of indifference to the commercial - eo<br /> their activities ; but Tam convinced that it . _<br /> other value. To touch on a minor, point, a<br /> frequently impolitic to begin negotiations<br /> <br /> America before a contract is signed here ; with 4<br /> ar to the American publisher,<br /> <br /> me that is famili wublish<br /> the course advised may be followed 5 but, p =<br /> case of newer men, the best introduction to the<br /> <br /> American publisher is the statement that a well<br /> <br /> i ‘ the book.<br /> nglish firm has taken up ol -<br /> ee “most authors are alive to the inadvisa<br /> <br /> bility of allowing their English publishers to act<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> 78<br /> <br /> agents. From every | point of<br /> not in the author’s interests.<br /> oks which are never copy-<br /> <br /> righted in the United States, oye FED ogee<br /> bat chance is to sell an edition in sheets. -<br /> eae can and often does sell sheets of such publica-<br /> <br /> eae and I have known cases Neate ae ae -<br /> <br /> a to allow the Lon<br /> <br /> he advantage of the author<br /> <br /> paulieher to do the work. The question of the<br /> <br /> division, as betwe<br /> <br /> en author and publisher, of profits,<br /> on such ‘transactions is very<br /> <br /> often a cause of hard<br /> feeling between the two,<br /> <br /> and it is emphatically<br /> one of the points where the advice of an expert 1s<br /> most valuable.<br /> <br /> as their American<br /> <br /> view, the practice 18<br /> But there are certain bo<br /> <br /> C. F. CAZENOVE.<br /> —_———__ + __<br /> <br /> THE INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENT ON<br /> MEN OF LETTERS.<br /> <br /> —-—&lt;+—<br /> <br /> “« O you observe any traces of ‘ Faust,,”<br /> asks Shelley of a friend, “in the poem<br /> I send you? Poets—the best of them—<br /> are a very chameleonic race ; they take the colour,<br /> not only of what they feed on, but of the very<br /> leaves under which they pass.”<br /> <br /> Shelley was thinking chiefly of the influence of<br /> an author’s favourite books on his own productions,<br /> but the remark is applicable to other descriptions<br /> of leaves than book leaves, to any kind of influence<br /> with which the poet, and in a less degree the prose-<br /> writer, if a susceptible person, is habitually in con-<br /> tact. From this point of view authors may be<br /> divided into two classes—to both of which they<br /> may belong at different periods of their lives—<br /> those who can and those who cannot choose their<br /> environment. When we can be sure that a writer<br /> belongs to the former class, the environment, as an<br /> index to his inclinations, in its turn reflects light<br /> upon the characteristics of his own mind while<br /> Sometimes it raises a problem. It is easy to see<br /> why Louis Stevenson should have preferred to liv<br /> in the South Sea Islands, and apart from the<br /> qualities of the books composed th h ey<br /> fact afford insight i i ae ere<br /> <br /> 8 an insight into his nature which could<br /> eos ee are Be if his works had been peanad<br /> ane. Dut Stevenson also shows that a b<br /> may be entirely indepe oo<br /> writing hig Tae and Se b<br /> ally Scotch fiction, * Weir of Hermi cpiees<br /> (as ’ ermiston,”’ amon<br /> . a ibe of Samoa. This, in the i<br /> é sensiti thle<br /> demonstrate that, while ‘the ee Fe tO<br /> ment cannot be denied, wit fmch ee<br /> Beach of Teles hess such tales as “The<br /> presence of an overmastering iinpula es<br /> quarter.“ Weir of Bien pulse from another<br /> » Judging from his<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> ence, would seem to be of all his bookg<br /> the one which had taken the most complete<br /> possession of him, hence its superior merit,<br /> <br /> « And his own mind did like a tempest strong<br /> <br /> Come to him thus, and drive the weary wight along.”<br /> <br /> If we can easily follow Stevenson to the South<br /> Seas, there are other writers able, like him, to choose<br /> their own environment whose motives are for the<br /> present inscrutable, and consequently fail to afford<br /> light to their characters and writings. Why should<br /> Mr. Henry James, the most subtle analyst of com-<br /> plicated modern society, spend his life by preference<br /> in a little Cinque Port? When we know what<br /> secret bond attaches Mr. James to Rye, we shall<br /> know more of him than we do, and if he does not<br /> tell us himself, it will be a matter for his biographers<br /> to investigate.<br /> <br /> One of the strongest witnesses to the influence<br /> of environment is Shakespeare, when he deplores<br /> the evil influence of the profession of actor upon<br /> him, and complains that his nature is<br /> <br /> “ Subdued<br /> To what it works in, like the dyer’s hand.”<br /> <br /> (fe Observe this image,” comments Shelley, “how<br /> simple it is, and yet how animated with the most<br /> intense poetry and passion.”) There is great<br /> reason to think that Shakespeare renounced the<br /> profession of actor long before he ceased writing<br /> for the stage ; it is certain that as soon as he was<br /> able he acquired property at his native place, which<br /> he must have visited as frequently as his profes-<br /> sional engagements would allow. It is interesting<br /> to inquire how far an influence from this change is<br /> atl) in his Writings, and it may be traced<br /> with certainty. The precise date of the sonnet<br /> seas above ic doubtful, but it certainly did<br /> not long precede his acquisition of property at<br /> Stratford. Within a year or two of this oven we<br /> find him producing the most sylvan of his dramas,<br /> <br /> As You Like It,” more thoroughly pervaded with<br /> the spirit of country life than anything he had<br /> Nidan before, if we except the description of the<br /> <br /> orse in “‘ Venus and Adonis,” beginning<br /> “But lo, from forth a copse that neighbours by,”<br /> and of coursing a hare in the Same poem, beginning<br /> pote when thou hast on foot the purblind hare,”<br /> € latter, especially, ig ; :<br /> oe ) lly, a marvel of accurate<br /> a showing that Shakespeare must have<br /> 2b’ Many a coursing match. “Ve d<br /> Adonis,” being descri be hans a<br /> <br /> , us, Delng described by him ag “ the first hei<br /> of my invention,” was i oe<br /> 1 » Was probably written not ]<br /> after his departure from Stratford, when the tan<br /> <br /> Tess i : :<br /> p sion of country life would be strong with him<br /> <br /> evived by his acquisit 1<br /> <br /> quisition of a house there and<br /> <br /> hi : a<br /> &#039;8 occasional visits, they come out in full force<br /> <br /> correspond<br /> <br /> after he has it his princi ;<br /> whe pe it his principal residence there<br /> <br /> rs, culminating in the pastoral<br /> S<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> ~sescenes in “A Winter’s Tale” (1611), where<br /> ‘fp villagers and village pastimes are painted to the<br /> ‘life. Here seems a clear instance of the effect of<br /> ym@environment. It is an interesting question whether<br /> od the total neglect of the country by the artificial<br /> soe poets of a later day, such as Dryden and Pope, is<br /> eto be attributed to their metropolitan environ-<br /> ‘om ment or to the pervading atmosphere of the period.<br /> sd] Their opportunities for contemplating the face of<br /> ie¥ Nature were indeed few, but they showed no dis-<br /> ‘aoe position to profit by those which they had. How<br /> il different from Keats! who had scarcely been<br /> vec beyond Edmonton when he produced his first<br /> 0¢ poems, which nevertheless contain couplets so<br /> jaa instinct with the spirit of the country as this :<br /> <br /> ‘When a tale is beautifully staid,<br /> We feel the safety of a hawthorn glade.”<br /> <br /> Scott is a most signal instance of the power of<br /> va environment. It would hardly be fair to appeal to<br /> 4 Byron as another, for he travelled with the deliberate<br /> i intention of making poetical capital out of every-<br /> 4 thing that came in his way. He nevertheless forms<br /> sae one of a remarkable group of English poets who<br /> -ef have been deeply influenced by Italian environ-<br /> om ment. The list includes Landor, Shelley, Keats,<br /> ‘ae and both the Brownings. Of these Robert Brown-<br /> ui ing seems the most deeply influenced, doubtless<br /> sod because as a dramatist he touched Italian life at<br /> om more points than the rest. He is a magnificent<br /> 2a] instance of what improvement can be effected even<br /> ai in a great poet by transplantation, provided that<br /> ii the process is not continued so long as to pervert<br /> “{ the original bent of his genius. The greatest<br /> vil literary gift, however, that Italy ever made to<br /> 1@ England was not poetry, but Gibbon’s “ Decline<br /> vg and Fall,” conceived as, sitting by the Coliseum<br /> ‘6 on a moonlight night, he heard the barefooted<br /> ‘d friars sing vespers in the Temple of Jupiter. The<br /> af influence, however, though permanent in its effects,<br /> -@ was too transient in its application to be reckoned<br /> “8 among instances of environment ; but Gibbon has<br /> told us of amore prosaic inspiration which certainly<br /> 5 deserved the name, the benefit which the historian<br /> # who was ‘to write so fully on military matters<br /> 9% received from a spell of service in the militia.<br /> _ It sometimes happens that a great writer spends<br /> s a long life in an environment devoid of striking<br /> features, and which we nevertheless feel to have<br /> d been the best he could possibly have had. Such a<br /> 3 case was Goethe’s : he could not have been better<br /> &quot;4 suited than at Weimar, and yet Weimar can hardly<br /> 4 be thought to have supplied much aliment to the<br /> 4 genius of which he had given ample proofs 7<br /> 9 coming there. Its effect was to provide him her<br /> 4 the quiet, honourable, stable environment, wit -<br /> which his calm, polished genius could work free 2<br /> and happily, “ without haste and without rest, as<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> 79<br /> <br /> he said himself. He might have found it diff l<br /> to observe this commendable maxim if his ci seg<br /> stances had been less easy, and his s her : tae<br /> more perturbed. : OU as<br /> On the whole we can but concl ib i<br /> possible to attribute both too oe little<br /> to environment, that it always exerts some influence<br /> but rarely makes the author an entirely different<br /> oon - . Baa have been under other<br /> te » an at this influence usually<br /> in proportion to the susceptibility of his<br /> perament. Men of the highest genius are<br /> consequently in one point of view the most liable<br /> to be affected by it, but from another the least, as<br /> the force of their minds enables them to triumph<br /> over circumstances which would crush feebler<br /> natures. Milton affords a memorable instance,<br /> composing his immortal poem under a total priva-<br /> tion of sight, and under the most adverse personal<br /> and domestic circumstances. Here the environment<br /> was absolutely hostile, but his past studies and his<br /> present meditations enabled him to create for him-<br /> self another far different one, within which his life<br /> was in reality spent. “ Paradise Lost” could not<br /> have been greater if his circumstances had been of<br /> the happiest, but this is mainly owing to the ideal<br /> and spiritual character of the poem. The vast<br /> majority of writers who deal with more sublunary<br /> matters will do well to adapt, as far as may be,<br /> their environment to themselves; and, when this<br /> is not practicable, themselves to their environment.<br /> Too much, however, must not be expected from<br /> even the most favourable external situation; if a<br /> man cannot do something where he is, he is not<br /> <br /> ‘kely to do much anywhere.<br /> &gt; ee : R. GARNETT.<br /> <br /> ——_—__- &gt; &gt;—_—_<br /> <br /> OF LETTERS.<br /> <br /> ++<br /> Christmas, and the big<br /> hop was packed with<br /> hurried customers, busily choosing their ate<br /> Christmas gifts. Cards were being Lege!<br /> ae ae ae a fe and<br /> -osged much attention ;<br /> tay Anite of all sorts sold i. eee<br /> : a MO tek whe had stolen in unobserved<br /> SF ck wie a hanging ealendar, half hidden<br /> and s<br /> <br /> oe ea It wasa child<br /> <br /> ots of chattering women. Oe<br /> <br /> . ae ag ee years old, clad in ee sent<br /> <br /> abire with a battered red oh oe i<br /> ae : ye-capped W ae,<br /> <br /> worn heavy boots, toe-e PE a number of little<br /> <br /> hair done in<br /> Ft ial, tied up with cotton. She stood<br /> . 2<br /> <br /> A PATRON<br /> <br /> T was two days before<br /> country stationers §<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> 80<br /> <br /> till and quite alone, almost under the<br /> sane her eed was half a foot below it, _<br /> she could have seen nothing but the skirts tha<br /> rustled about her. After watching her for some<br /> minutes I asked her what she wanted.<br /> <br /> «4 hook,” she whispered, showing a halfpenny<br /> clutched tightly in her warm little dirty fist.<br /> <br /> ‘A book! She had come to buy a book—she<br /> alone out of the crowd! Her answer gave mea<br /> thrill of joyous optimism. She represented the<br /> new generation, the coming woman, and she<br /> wanted to buy a book. :<br /> <br /> In three minutes she was out of the shop again,<br /> <br /> blissfully hugging two cheap toy books, and, of<br /> course, perfectly unconscious that they had cost<br /> more than her own cheerfully given coin. I<br /> slipped out, too, and furtively followed her. At<br /> the first corner she stopped to examine her trea-<br /> sures, and in a few seconds was so absorbed in<br /> the contents of one that she wandered on without<br /> seeming to know where she went. The dirty<br /> street had doubtless become a paradise ; she was<br /> deaf and blind to everything but the wonderful<br /> world of pictures under her gloating eyes, and did<br /> not even notice that she had strayed from the<br /> pavement to the road. Still watching her as she<br /> dragged her heavily-shod feet by the gutter, I was<br /> suddenly roused to action by the approach of a big<br /> dray that came lumbering down upon the child,<br /> and there was only just time to drag her out of<br /> danger. She looked up at me with eyes full of<br /> dream, but spoke no word, though I walked beside<br /> = till she turned into a grimy alley to find her<br /> home.<br /> There I lost sight of her, but I shall not readily<br /> forget the tiny thing in the red cap and thick<br /> boots who brought her precious ha’penny to the<br /> bookshop instead of the sweetstuff stall. Ag a<br /> struggling writer of books in an age of free<br /> hbraries and cheap newspapers, I am not ungrate-<br /> ful to this small patron of letters for her practical<br /> encouragement, for the thrill of hope set vibrating<br /> when, 1n answer to my enquiry as to her wants she<br /> piped up, shyly but firmly : “A book.”<br /> <br /> Bless her!” With h ly<br /> to buy a book, er only copper she wanted<br /> MAL, P.<br /> <br /> oo eo<br /> SHOULD WELL-KNOWN WRITERS<br /> “FARM OUT” FICTION?<br /> N<br /> N a recent issue of The Author a correst<br /> I alluded Incidentally to the Tia event<br /> : well-known writers of fiction are said to have<br /> adopted of late years of « farming out,” as it ig<br /> called, a proportion of the work they are commis-<br /> sioned to do, and he appeared to take it for granted<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> THB AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> that all readers of Ze Author and all members of 6 2<br /> the Authors’ Society must, as a matter of course, 921<br /> agree with him that the practice is reprehensible iid;<br /> <br /> in the extreme.<br /> <br /> Now it would be interesting to know the exact |9s:<br /> reason that leads this correspondent, and presum- ann<br /> ably a section of the writing community, to look fo.<br /> upon the practice of “ ghosting” for a well-known a<br /> <br /> : : Se ul<br /> writer, or of “ ghosting,” for that matter, for any ©<br /> <br /> writer able and willing to pay a competent proxy,<br /> <br /> asa contemptible and iniquitous practice. Ask any ¥<br /> <br /> popular writer of fiction, or writer of popular fiction<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> —to be quite accurate—and he will tell you that a.<br /> <br /> every year the applications he receives for long §<br /> stories as well as for short stories increased, until f<br /> <br /> now it has come to this :—(1) He must decline to<br /> <br /> undertake to get through more than a comparatively &amp;<br /> small amount of work, and thus, in the language &amp;<br /> <br /> of the box-oflice, he must “turn good money<br /> away” ; (2) he must “scamp” a portion of the<br /> work he has agreed to do, and thus, in the long<br /> run, ruin his well-earned reputation for producing<br /> interesting stories ; (3) he must call in the aid of<br /> a proxy, in other words, “ farm out” the surplus.<br /> <br /> As the author of two stories that have appeared<br /> serially and in book form as the original work of a<br /> well-known writer, and as the writer also of a<br /> number of short stories that have appeared in<br /> magazines and elsewhere, and purport to be the<br /> original work of a certain well-known writer, I<br /> think that I may claim to speak with, at any rate,<br /> a small amount of authority on this rather interest-<br /> ing subject, and be allowed to draw attention to<br /> some of the advantages the system of “ farming<br /> fiction ” may be said to possess where the interests<br /> of the unknown writer—the ghost—the hack—the<br /> proxy—call him what you will—are at stake.<br /> <br /> i may say, to begin with, that the writers for<br /> whom I act as proxy know me sufficiently well to<br /> be aware that | am not likely ever to blackmail<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> them, and in selecting a proxy this is of course an-<br /> <br /> extremely important consideration. They also<br /> <br /> know quite well that I am able to keep my own —<br /> counsel. Now, with regard to the advantages of —<br /> <br /> the system, it is in the matter of remuneration<br /> that the proxy, so to speak, “romps in” so far<br /> ahead of the individual who writes under his own<br /> name only. For the first long story I “ ghosted ”<br /> I received £2 15s. a thousand words all the way<br /> through, one-third of the total amount being paid<br /> to me before I had written a line ; one-third when<br /> <br /> I had completed about one-half of the story ; one- —<br /> <br /> third on the day I delivered the MS. complete.<br /> Now, supposing that I had written that story on<br /> the chance of its being accepted by some news-<br /> paper, some syndicate, or some publisher, what<br /> would have happened? In the first place I should<br /> <br /> have worked hard for four whole months without<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR,<br /> <br /> “ae receiving a single shilling, and all the time I<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> | should have been worried by the thought that<br /> f perhaps I should, after all, be unable to “place”<br /> ‘ed the book, in which case those four months’ hard<br /> » work would of course have been so much time<br /> eu) absolutely wasted. At the end of the four months<br /> ite! T should have set to work to send the story either<br /> to a literary agent or to a publisher. The pub-<br /> i) lisher would have kept it for a month or six weeks<br /> at the very least, and then probably have returned<br /> / it to me with a polite but unsatisfactory note to<br /> «1 the effect that the book would not suit his house,<br /> but that it possessed merit and might be accepted<br /> «| by some other publisher. I should then have sent<br /> i it elsewhere, and when several months at least had<br /> elapsed I should—if fortune had favoured me—<br /> | have succeeded in “ placing” it. But how much<br /> ‘4 should I then have received for it? A guinea a<br /> (| thousand words, perhaps. Very likely not so<br /> “§ much. And when would the cheque have been<br /> { paid to me? Then and there, possibly. Much<br /> more likely many months later. Should I have<br /> “4 received any kudos 2? None to speak of—certainly<br /> =) not enough to compensate me for so serious a pecu-<br /> | niary loss. Personally, therefore, I look upon the<br /> well-known writer who “ farms out” his work as a<br /> sort of Heaven-sent being, and not, as some appear<br /> to consider him, a species of impostor. He satis-<br /> | fies himself; he satisfies the proxy he employs ;<br /> | he satisfies his publisher; and he satisfies the<br /> | public—for by this time the public has come to<br /> know quite well that stories and books alleged to<br /> be the work of Blank are certain to be readable.<br /> | Whether Blank himself actually writes the books,<br /> ) or whether he employs someone to write them for<br /> ‘{ him, is really of no great consequence so far as the<br /> 4 general reader is concerned. ‘The general reader<br /> looks upon Blank’s name as a sort of trade mark<br /> —nothing more. The same kind of thing goes on<br /> ‘f in trades and professions, and nobody thinks of<br /> &#039; grumbling. Not very many years ago, to give a<br /> #4 single instance, the business of one of the best<br /> vl known West End gunmakers was acquired by the<br /> 4 son of an equally famous coach-builder. The<br /> coach-builder adopted the name of the gunmaker<br /> for business purposes, and to this day probably<br /> two-thirds of this gunmaker’s customers are under<br /> _97 the impression that Blank’s guns are built by the<br /> son of the eminent gunmaker who actually worked<br /> up the business and established its world-renowned<br /> reputation. :<br /> <br /> The same remarks apply to the proxy writer of<br /> &#039; short stories. I am commissioned by ‘ that<br /> | popular and clever writer, Blank So-and-So,” to<br /> | write a magazine story of, say, 3,000 words, .<br /> / appear under his or her signature. Blank tells<br /> me the sort of story that is wanted—the sort that<br /> he or she knows I happen to be capable of pro-<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> 81<br /> <br /> ducing—and we arrange terms. Blank agrees to<br /> pay me at the rate of, say, three guineas, or perhaps<br /> four guineas, a thousand words. I allow myself<br /> perhaps a whole week, even ten days, in which to<br /> map out, write and re-write this commissioned<br /> story. I know that I shall be paid for it on the<br /> day it is delivered, so I now have no need to<br /> worry, or to wonder whether the story will ever be<br /> published, and if so, when; and how long I shall be<br /> kept waiting for my cheque. Now, had this story<br /> been written on the chance of its being accepted on<br /> its merits, I should in all probability have been<br /> obliged to send it round to five or six magazines,<br /> one after another, and perhaps at the end of a year<br /> it would still be travelling about and trying to<br /> place itself. Even if it had been accepted at once<br /> I should not have been paid more than fourteen or<br /> fifteen guineas for it. Very likely I should have<br /> been compelled to accept ten, or even less, and the<br /> cheque might still be owing, ‘the rules of this<br /> office being not to pay until the contribution has<br /> appeared.”<br /> <br /> Therefore J maintain that for the free lance not<br /> overburdened with wealth this ‘‘ ghosting” work<br /> is by far the more profitable, by far the more<br /> satisfactory in more ways than one provided, he<br /> can get the right man to commission the stories,<br /> and provided also that he is capable of turning out<br /> the sort of stuff required—I employ the word<br /> “stuff” in no derogatory sense—possibly provided<br /> also that the sight of his own production appearing<br /> under another writer’s signature will not cause him<br /> either mortification or annoyance.<br /> <br /> The life of the free lance addicted to “ ghost-<br /> ing” is, | may add, by no means devoid of humour.<br /> He is able to obtain upon all sides candid opinions<br /> of his own work, opinions which often enable him<br /> to realise his shortcomings and rectify his faults.<br /> On one occasion, I remember, one of the books<br /> I had “proxied” was sent to me for review,<br /> accompanied by a note from the editor of the news-<br /> paper—the editor is now dead—to the effect that<br /> I might as well, for. reasons which he ae<br /> “pepper this story of Blank’s a bit. I did the<br /> best 1 could to “pepper” my own work, but i<br /> admit that the task rather stuck in my throat.<br /> When I told Blank, afterwards, what I had been<br /> doing, he was immensely tickled. He said ib<br /> reminded him of “poor Gilbert’s inimitable<br /> <br /> a8<br /> humour. Panry.<br /> <br /> ———_—__1———__o___—<br /> <br /> «A Baronet in Corduroy” is ce Hee ot<br /> <br /> of riod recently pub-<br /> <br /> romance of the Queen Anne period recen)<br /> <br /> lished (Grant Richards) by Mr. Albert Lee, author<br /> of “The Frown of Majesty.”<br /> <br /> <br /> 82<br /> <br /> INTERNATIONAL COPYRIGHT.<br /> <br /> —+-—&gt;—<br /> <br /> The following cutting came to us from the<br /> correspondence column of a well-known ladies’<br /> newspaper :—<br /> <br /> Nixa.—According to the law of International Copy-<br /> right, no book can be translated into any other language<br /> without the author’s permission until ten years after the<br /> date of publication. After that lapse of time, anyone may<br /> translate the book; but within the period the author&#039;s<br /> permission is usually obtained without much difficulty by<br /> applying to him—or her—through the publisher of the<br /> book, if the author’s private address is unknown.<br /> <br /> It shows how dangerous a little knowledge<br /> may be.<br /> <br /> From the first sentence it would appear that<br /> International Copyright was universal, and that to<br /> translate a book appearing in any country on any<br /> subject within the period of ten years would be<br /> illegal without the author’s sanction. This of<br /> course is not the case. The Berne Convention<br /> of 1886 and the Additional Act of Paris, 1896,<br /> have not been signed by all the European countries,<br /> and the United States has always stood outside.<br /> <br /> On a former occasion the names of those coun-<br /> tries who were signatories have been printed in<br /> these columns. While the statements contained<br /> in the paragraph are abroad it would appear<br /> advisable to print the list again.<br /> <br /> Germany, Belgium, Spain, France, Haiti, Italy,<br /> Switzerland, Tunis, Monaco, Luxembourg, and<br /> Japan have signed both the Berne Convention<br /> and the Additional Act of Paris. Norway is a<br /> signatory to the Berne Convention, and Denmark<br /> signed both in July of this year. In addition, Great<br /> Britain has a separate Convention with Austria-<br /> Hungary. The Imperial Government signed the<br /> Berne Convention on behalf of Great Britain and<br /> all its Colonies, and the Additional Act of Paris<br /> on behalf of Great Britain and the majority of its<br /> Colonies.<br /> <br /> In the countries enumerated —and in those<br /> countries only—is it possible to retain translation<br /> rights.<br /> <br /> The paragraph quoted above goes on to say that<br /> after the lapse of ten years anyone may translate<br /> the book. ‘This was to a certain extent true under<br /> the Berne Convention, but is entirely wrong under<br /> the Additional Act of Paris. The Clause referring<br /> to this runs as follows :—<br /> <br /> “ Authors belonging to any one of the countries of the<br /> Union, or their lawful representatives, shall enjoy in the<br /> other countries the exclusive right of making or authorising<br /> the translation of their works during the entire period of<br /> their right over the original work. Nevertheless, the<br /> exclusive right of translation shall cease to exist if the<br /> author shall not have availed himself of it, during the<br /> period of ten years from the date of the first publication<br /> of the original work, by publishing, or causing to be pub-<br /> <br /> ished in one of the countries of the Union, a translation in<br /> he language for which protection is to be claimed.”<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> Accordingly, in those countries, if publication .<br /> <br /> is made within ten years, the author has copyright<br /> during the entire period of his right over the<br /> original work.<br /> <br /> It must be clearly stated, however, that none of<br /> these extensions of property covered by the Berne<br /> Convention refer to the United States. A law<br /> based on an entirely different principle carries<br /> copyright in that country.<br /> <br /> It is a mistake, therefore, to talk in this loose od<br /> It may lead [ime<br /> <br /> way of International Copyright.<br /> writers into difficulties.<br /> <br /> MAGAZINE CONTENTS.<br /> <br /> —-—&lt;—+—<br /> <br /> BLACKWOOD’S MAGAZINE.<br /> <br /> A Sketch of the Life and Adventures of the Duke De<br /> Ripperda, the Eighteenth Century Dutchman and Rene-<br /> gade. By Walter B. Harris.<br /> <br /> The Avatar of Bishwas Dass.<br /> the pen of Mr. T. Hart Davies.<br /> <br /> Voltaire. ‘<br /> <br /> Oxford Revisited.<br /> <br /> Sir William Wilcocks’ Scheme for the Irrigation of<br /> Mesopotamia by means of the River Tigris.<br /> <br /> Leopardi’s “ Village Saturday Eve.” Translated by Sir<br /> Theodore Martin.<br /> <br /> Babes of the Highway. By Oliver Locker Lampson.<br /> <br /> Outside Pets.<br /> <br /> Scolopaxiana.<br /> <br /> Musings Without Method.<br /> <br /> Sally: A Study. By Mr. Hugh Clifford,<br /> <br /> An amusing story from<br /> <br /> THE CORNHILL MAGAZINE,<br /> <br /> The Fond Adventure. Part I]. By Maurice Hewlett.<br /> <br /> Colonial Memories: Old New Zealand, I., By Lady<br /> Broome. :<br /> <br /> Whistler the Purist. By Mortimer Menpes.<br /> <br /> Mr. Whibley’s “ Thackeray.” By Andrew Lang.<br /> <br /> Lines Written in Depression. By A. D. Godley.<br /> <br /> Samuel Rawson Gardiner. By the Rev. W. H. Hutton,<br /> B.D.<br /> <br /> Though the Windows be Darkened. By John Oxenham.<br /> <br /> The Grouse and the Gun-room. By Alexander Innes<br /> Shand.<br /> <br /> Ferments and Fermentations.<br /> F.R.S.<br /> <br /> “In Loco Parentis.”<br /> <br /> By W. A. Shenstone,<br /> By Powell Millington.<br /> <br /> LONGMAN’S MAGAZINE.<br /> <br /> Nature’s Comedian (Chapters xi., xii). By W. E. Norris.<br /> <br /> A Turkish Redif. By Frances MacNab.<br /> <br /> The Suspicions of Turkentine. By Chas.<br /> Marsh.<br /> <br /> Parliament in the Making. By William Auld.<br /> <br /> An Unrecorded Incident. By “ Rimpie.”<br /> <br /> Restaurant-keeping in Paris, By M. Betham-Edwards.<br /> <br /> Billy. By May Kendall. :<br /> <br /> Taurus Intervenes. By W. H. Rainsford.<br /> <br /> Fielding<br /> <br /> At the Sign of the Ship. By Andrew Lang.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Be<br /> alt<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> THE PALL MALL MAGAZINE.<br /> <br /> Six Weeks in North-Western Rhodesia. By Lady Sarah<br /> Wilson.<br /> <br /> Blue Roses: A Fairy Tale for Impossible Women. By<br /> Netta Syrett.<br /> <br /> Simple Simon: A Story. By Caroline Marriage.<br /> <br /> Once, Always: A Poem. By Laurence Housman.<br /> <br /> The Christmas Tree: A Poem. By Rosamund Marriott<br /> ‘Watson.<br /> <br /> The Rebuilding of London: The Site of the Great<br /> Fire.<br /> <br /> The Best Man:<br /> Hilliers.<br /> <br /> The Song of Dagonet. By Ernest Rhys.<br /> <br /> Lansdowne House. By Ernest M. Jessop.<br /> <br /> No Trumps or Spades: A Complete Story. By Horace<br /> Annesley Vachell.<br /> <br /> Master Workers :<br /> By Harold Begbie.<br /> <br /> Child Awake. By Elsie Higginbotham.<br /> <br /> The Play Angel. By Maude Egerton King.<br /> <br /> Haggards of the Rock. By H. B. Marriott Watson.<br /> <br /> The New Pope: An Anecdotal Narrative. By Rev.<br /> Alex. Robertson, D.D.<br /> <br /> The Queen’s Quair: Book II. (Chapters iii., iv.) By<br /> Maurice Hewlett.<br /> <br /> Heart&#039;s Harbour: A Poem. By Mary van Vorst.<br /> <br /> The Girl Who Wasn’t Prim. By G. B. Burgin.<br /> <br /> The Vineyard. (Chapters xvi., xvii.) By “John Oliver<br /> Hobbes” (Mrs. Craigie).<br /> <br /> What makes you Sit and Sigh? A Poem.<br /> nald Lucas, M.P.<br /> <br /> The Surprise. By H. Fielding Hall.<br /> <br /> A Visit to the Island of St. Vincent and the Souffritre.<br /> By Lady Ernestine Edgcumbe.<br /> <br /> The Round Table: The Tidal Wave. By W. L. Alden.<br /> <br /> The Month in Caricature. By G. R. H.<br /> <br /> A Complete Story. By Ashton<br /> <br /> The Rt. Hon. John Morley, 0.M., M.P.<br /> <br /> By Regi-<br /> <br /> THE WorLD’s Work (BIRTHDAY NUMBER).<br /> <br /> Practical Points in the Fiscal Controversy. By J. A+<br /> Spender.<br /> <br /> Motor Cars and Men.<br /> <br /> A Record Christmas for Fruits. By Sampson Morgan.<br /> <br /> Mr. Sargent’s Famous Portraits. By Mrs. Meynell.<br /> <br /> Trusts and Labour in New York: Amazing Revelations.<br /> By Ray Stannard Baker.<br /> <br /> Mr. John Burns, M.P., on Labour, Life and Hope. By<br /> George Turnbull.<br /> <br /> The Revolution among Women who Work. By Lady<br /> Jeune.<br /> <br /> The First Garden City.<br /> <br /> Breeding Horses and Cattle.<br /> <br /> Volunteer Cyclists: A Scheme for Home Defence. By<br /> Guy Speir.<br /> <br /> The Day’s Work of an Engine Driver.<br /> <br /> A Farmers’ Trust. By H. 8. Wood.<br /> <br /> The Problem of the Incorrigible Offender.<br /> Hopkins.<br /> <br /> Irish Toys for Christmas.<br /> <br /> The Mystery of Radium. By J. A. Harker, D.Sc.<br /> <br /> The Books of the Month. (With Portraits).<br /> <br /> Among the World’s Workers : A Record of Industry.<br /> <br /> By the Editor.<br /> <br /> By Tighe<br /> <br /> 83<br /> <br /> CORRESPONDENCE.<br /> <br /> “THE ‘TIMES’ ENCYCLOPADIA.”<br /> <br /> ASSOCIATED BOOKSELLERS OF GREAT BRITAIN<br /> AND IRELAND.<br /> <br /> Secretarial Office,<br /> 1, Bathurst Street, Hyde Park,<br /> London, W.<br /> <br /> Sir,—In an advertisement of “The ‘Times’<br /> Encyclopedia” that appeared on October Ist, it<br /> is stated that after December 19th, 1903, the work<br /> will be sold<br /> <br /> “as it was before the Zimes took it in hand,<br /> by booksellers only, in the ordinary course of<br /> trade. The lowest price will then be £57<br /> (net) for the cloth binding—more than double<br /> the present price.”<br /> <br /> Again, on October 4th, it is stated that<br /> ‘now the normal price, the net catalogue<br /> price, is about to replace the temporary half<br /> price, and the normal method of sale through<br /> the agency of booksellers is about to replace<br /> the exceptional system of sale direct to the<br /> public at half price and for small monthly<br /> payments.”<br /> <br /> The natural inference from these statements is<br /> that the public would have suffered materially had<br /> the “ Encyclopedia Britannica” with its Suapple-<br /> ment remained in the hands of the publishers and<br /> been supplied through the booksellers. As such an<br /> inference is injurious to the interests of the book-<br /> sellers, we, as representing the booksellers, think<br /> it right to place the following facts before the<br /> public :<br /> <br /> (1) The “ Encyclopedia Britannica” was sup-<br /> plied to the public through the booksellers at<br /> £18 for years before the Times reprint<br /> appeared.<br /> <br /> (2) If the Supplement had been published by<br /> Messrs. A. &amp; C. Black at the same price per<br /> volume as the “Encyclopedia” itself, the<br /> published price of the Supplement would have<br /> been, in cloth £16 10s. for the eleven<br /> volumes. The Supplement would have been<br /> supplied by many booksellers for cash for<br /> about £12 7s. 6d. The total price of the<br /> “Encyclopedia” and the Supplement would<br /> therefore have been about £30 7s. 6d., very<br /> much the same price as that at which the<br /> Times has sold the work.<br /> <br /> (3) The work as supplied by the 7&#039;imes on the<br /> instalment system remained the property of the<br /> Times until the last instalment was paid: the<br /> work as supplied by the booksellers on credit<br /> <br /> <br /> 84<br /> <br /> at a very little higher rate than the Times<br /> <br /> rate would have become the property of the<br /> purchaser from the moment it was delivered.<br /> <br /> (4) The Times intimates that after December<br /> <br /> 19th, 1903 until 1919 the booksellers will not<br /> be allowed to sell the work at less than<br /> £57 (net) in cloth. This is nearly twice the<br /> “normal price” at which the booksellers<br /> would have sold it now had it been published<br /> by Messrs. Black, and much more than twice<br /> the price at which they would have sold it<br /> ten or fifteen years hence. It is not customary<br /> to sell an Encyclopaedia at a fancy price when<br /> much of it must of necessity be hopelessly<br /> out of date.<br /> <br /> (5) Judging from the excellence of the articles<br /> <br /> in the “Encyclopedia Britannica,” there is<br /> no reason to think that the excellence of the<br /> Supplement would have been less than it is<br /> had it been published by Messrs. Black ; and<br /> any unprejudiced person will admit that the<br /> production, so far as printing and binding is<br /> concerned, was better in the edition published<br /> by Messrs. Black than in the 7%imes reprint.<br /> <br /> (6) It is claimed for “The ‘Times’ Encyclo-<br /> <br /> peedia” that it “ will settle the simpler queries<br /> that present themselves in daily life.” We<br /> fail to see how this will be possible in 1919,<br /> when the last volume will be sixteen, and the<br /> first volume about forty years out of date.<br /> Yours faithfully,<br /> (Signed) Hznry W. Knay,<br /> President of the Associated<br /> Booksellers of Great Britain<br /> and Ireland.<br /> R. Bows,<br /> Chairman of Eastern Branch.<br /> T. Watson,<br /> Chairman of Northern<br /> Branch.<br /> J. PATTERSON,<br /> Chairman of North-Eastern<br /> Branch.<br /> C. J. PARKER,<br /> Chairman of Oxford Branch.<br /> A. WHEATON,<br /> Chairman of Western Branch.<br /> RospeRT MACLEHOSE,<br /> Chairman of Scottish Branch.<br /> ALEXANDER Dickson,<br /> Chairman of Belfast Branch.<br /> Witiram M‘Grr,<br /> <br /> Chairman of Dublin Branch.<br /> November 5th, 1908.<br /> <br /> Oe<br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> A Book Lover’s LAMENT.<br /> <br /> Sir,—Can you, or any member of the Society,<br /> tell me the author and publisher of a book called<br /> ‘“‘ John Lackland,” which appeared, I think, about<br /> a year ago.<br /> <br /> Ever since then I have been trying to get it<br /> from one of the libraries in my country town, but<br /> in vain. The librarians have written up to Mudie,<br /> or some other London purveyor of literature, over<br /> and over again without being able to procure the<br /> book, and I do not see it on any list now. As it<br /> was well reviewed as a work of note, I cannot<br /> understand why it should be so difficult to obtain<br /> from a library, and the fact raises a question : Are<br /> not we poor book-lovers in the provinces utterly at<br /> the mercy of the great distributors? They can<br /> send us just what they choose and withhold the<br /> books we should like to read. It is only by almost<br /> superhuman efforts that I can get anything I want,<br /> and I have been agitating nearly all this year for<br /> « John Lackland.” Is it any wonder that good<br /> books die without even being read by any but<br /> reviewers, or that we readers in the country forget<br /> their names when we never see them, or hear of<br /> them after the first month ?<br /> <br /> Surely the great question to-day is of the dis-<br /> tribution of books. Publishers must often be in<br /> despair, to say nothing of authors who have,<br /> perhaps, spent years in writing that which nobody<br /> can get at!<br /> <br /> A Boox Lover at Bay.<br /> <br /> Tur PuBLISHER’S READER<br /> <br /> Str,—May I be permitted to supplement the<br /> experience (as a Publisher’s Reader) of your corre-<br /> spondent “H. B.” with my own? TI read MSS.<br /> for a very prominent young publisher indeed,<br /> giving my employer, on printed form supplied, an<br /> outline of each story, a general criticism of style<br /> and treatment, advice as to commercial possibilities<br /> of the books, at a remuneration of 2s. a MS.<br /> <br /> But, with the Daily Mail article signed “ Stan-<br /> <br /> hope Sprigg,” I fear that one ought not to place :<br /> <br /> undue importance on the statements made. We<br /> must remember that every man of every degree,<br /> nowadays, be he peer or publisher, or even a literary<br /> agent who is (or has been) on the staff of a famous.<br /> journal, must most strenuously exert himself in<br /> order to get an honest living.<br /> <br /> I am, sir, your obedient servant,<br /> F. W. R., The Author
489 Author, Vol. 14 Issue 04 (January 1904)<a href="/items/browse?advanced%5B0%5D%5Belement_id%5D=49&advanced%5B0%5D%5Btype%5D=is+exactly&advanced%5B0%5D%5Bterms%5D=%3Cem%3EThe+Author%3C%2Fem%3E%2C+Vol.+14+Issue+04+%28January+1904%29"><em>The Author</em>, Vol. 14 Issue 04 (January 1904)</a><a href="/items/browse?advanced%5B0%5D%5Belement_id%5D=51&advanced%5B0%5D%5Btype%5D=is+exactly&advanced%5B0%5D%5Bterms%5D=Publication">Publication</a>1904-01-01-The-Author-14-4<a href="/items/browse?advanced%5B0%5D%5Belement_id%5D=76&advanced%5B0%5D%5Btype%5D=is+exactly&advanced%5B0%5D%5Bterms%5D=1904-01-01">1904-01-01</a><a href="/items/browse?advanced%5B0%5D%5Belement_id%5D=89&advanced%5B0%5D%5Btype%5D=is+exactly&advanced%5B0%5D%5Bterms%5D=14">14</a>485–11219040101Che Hutbor.<br /> <br /> (The Organ of the Incorporated Society of Authors.<br /> <br /> FOUNDED BY SIR<br /> <br /> Monthly.)<br /> <br /> WALTER BESANT.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Vou. XIV.—No. 4.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> TELEPHONE NUMBER :<br /> 374 VICTORIA.<br /> <br /> TELEGRAPHIC ADDRESS :<br /> AUTORIDAD, LONDON.<br /> <br /> 1<br /> <br /> NOTICES.<br /> <br /> —_ &gt;<br /> <br /> OR the opinions expressed in papers that are<br /> signed or initialled the authors alone are<br /> responsible. None of the papers or para-<br /> <br /> graphs must be taken as expressing the opinion<br /> of the Committee unless such is especially stated<br /> to be the case.<br /> <br /> Tuer Editor begs to inform members of the<br /> Authors’ Society and other readers of 7he Author<br /> that the cases which are from time to time quoted<br /> in The Author are cases that have come before the<br /> notice or to the knowledge of the Secretary of the<br /> Society, and that those members of the Society<br /> who desire to have the names of the publishers<br /> concerned can obtain them on application.<br /> <br /> +<br /> <br /> List of Members.<br /> <br /> Tue List of Members of the Society of Authors<br /> published October, 1902, at the price of 6d., and<br /> the elections from October, 1902, to July, 1903, as<br /> a supplemental list, at the price of 2d., can now be<br /> obtained at the offices of the Society.<br /> <br /> They will be sold to members or associates of<br /> the Society only.<br /> <br /> a<br /> <br /> The Pension Fund of the Society.<br /> <br /> THE investments of the Pension Fund at<br /> present standing in the names of the Trustees are<br /> as follows.<br /> <br /> This is a statement of the actual stock; the<br /> <br /> VoL, XIV.<br /> <br /> JANUARY Ist, 1904.<br /> <br /> [Price SIXPENCE.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> money value can be easily worked out at the current<br /> price of the market :—<br /> <br /> Be £1000 0 0<br /> <br /> Wiocal Uioans 26s 500 0 0<br /> <br /> Victorian Government 8 % Consoli-<br /> dated Inscribed Stock ............... oot 19 18<br /> OY Eo oes nss pete 201 9 8<br /> Mota. ...0.2...3. £1,993 9 2<br /> <br /> Subscriptions from October, 1903.<br /> £ s. a.<br /> Noy. 13, Longe, Miss Julia. : - 0 5.0<br /> Dec. 16, Trevor, Capt. Philip 0 5 0<br /> <br /> Donations from October, 1908.<br /> <br /> 4<br /> <br /> Oct. 27, Sturgis, Julian é ; oo<br /> Nov. 2, Stanton, V.H. .<br /> <br /> Nov. 18, Benecke, Miss Ida.<br /> <br /> Nov. 28, Harraden, Miss Beatrice<br /> <br /> Dec. Minniken, Miss<br /> <br /> The following members have also made subscrip-<br /> tions or donations :—<br /> <br /> Meredith, George, President of the Society.<br /> Thompson, Sir Henry, Bart., F.R.C.S.<br /> Rashdall, The Rev. H.<br /> <br /> Guthrie, Anstey.<br /> <br /> Robertson, C. B.<br /> <br /> Dowsett, C. F.<br /> <br /> There are in addition other subscribers who do<br /> not desire that either their names or the amount<br /> they are subscribing should be printed.<br /> <br /> ourFaAe<br /> nooo So<br /> ooo oo<br /> <br /> &lt;&gt; 6<br /> <br /> FROM THE COMMITTEE.<br /> <br /> —<br /> <br /> Ar the meeting of the Committee held on<br /> Monday, December 7th, twenty members and asso-<br /> ciates were elected, bringing the total number of<br /> elections for the current year to just over 200.<br /> <br /> Among the subjects discussed and dealt with<br /> were financial matters, the unveiling of the<br /> memorial to Sir Walter Besant (which took place<br /> 86<br /> <br /> on the 11th of December), cheap postage on maga-<br /> zines to the Colonies, and finally the article signed<br /> “ Proxy” in the December number of Ze Author.<br /> The Committee decided that a paragraph should<br /> be inserted in the next number of Ze Author<br /> condemning the practice described by “ Proxy.”<br /> Sir Gilbert Parker sept in his resignation as<br /> a member of the Committee, owing to the heavy<br /> pressure of his Parliamentary and other work. In<br /> doing so, he wished the Society all prosperity.<br /> <br /> ot<br /> <br /> Cases.<br /> <br /> Srxcz the publication of the last number of The<br /> Author seventeen cases—an unusually large num-<br /> ber—have been taken in hand by the Secretary on<br /> behalf of members, and, in addition, two County<br /> Court cases have been authorised by the Chairman<br /> of the Society.<br /> <br /> The seventeen cases may be divided as follows :—<br /> <br /> Hight cases for money or for money and accounts,<br /> three cases for accounts only, five cases for the<br /> return of MSS., and one case for the proper settle-<br /> ment of a contract. So far, only one case has<br /> been settled. The MS. has been received by the<br /> Secretary and returned to the author. ‘There is no<br /> reason to believe that the other cases will not<br /> <br /> terminate satisfactorily, but at this time of the year<br /> it is difficult to get money out of those people who<br /> <br /> desire to withhold it. In a future issue no doubt<br /> satisfactory conclusions will be chronicled.<br /> <br /> Of the cases referred to in previous numbers<br /> there are five still incomplete.<br /> <br /> ‘As two of the matters in contention have to do<br /> with the United States it is possible that they may<br /> be still further delayed. The length of time that<br /> a letter takes to reach the United States is not the<br /> only cause of delay. It is often, unfortunately, the<br /> fact that distance appears to make the offender<br /> callous to his obligations.<br /> <br /> Two of the cases will have to be abandoned<br /> owing to technical and other reasons which prevent<br /> the enforcing of the author’s just rights. The<br /> <br /> fifth case is still in negotiation, and is proceeding<br /> satisfactorily.<br /> <br /> —— +<br /> <br /> December Elections.<br /> 17, Newburgh Road,<br /> Acton.<br /> <br /> Braintree House, Cob-<br /> ham, Surrey.<br /> <br /> Ashe, Leslie<br /> Cartwright, Miss A. M. .<br /> <br /> Corkran, Miss Alice<br /> Laurence, Lionel<br /> Maudsley, Athol<br /> <br /> Twyford, Winchester.<br /> Needham, R. W. Bradshaw<br /> <br /> Land Tax, Somerset<br /> House, W.C.<br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> Orr, Mrs. Mount Eagle Lodge<br /> Brosna, Co. Kerry<br /> Treland.<br /> <br /> 19, Chesham Place,<br /> 5.W.<br /> <br /> 21, Inglewood Road,<br /> West Hampstead,<br /> N.W.<br /> <br /> Care of Messrs. Power,<br /> Drury &amp; Co., Madeira<br /> <br /> 16, Dorset Square,<br /> N.W.<br /> <br /> Colinton, Midlothian.<br /> <br /> Pauncefote, The Hon.<br /> Maud : ‘<br /> <br /> Pierson, C. Harvard<br /> <br /> Ramsey, Miss Lilian<br /> Sheringham, H. T.<br /> <br /> Skae, Miss Hilda<br /> <br /> “‘ Stephen Walthair ”<br /> <br /> Syrett, Miss Netta . 3, Morpeth Terrace,<br /> Ashley Place, 8.W.<br /> <br /> Saltwood, Hythe, Kent.<br /> <br /> Ladies’ Army and Navy<br /> Club, Burlington<br /> Gardens, W.<br /> <br /> Stigand, Mrs.<br /> “Tiger Rose ”<br /> <br /> Urwick, Edward<br /> Vaughan, Capt. A. O. Aberdovey, N. Wales.<br /> <br /> _One member does not desire the publication<br /> either of his name or address.<br /> <br /> 1<br /> <br /> Pension FunpD.<br /> <br /> In order to give members of the Society, should<br /> they desire to appoint a fresh member to the<br /> Pension Fund Committee, full time to act, it has<br /> been thought advisable to place in 7he Author a<br /> full statement of the method of election under the<br /> scheme for administration of the Pension Fund.<br /> Under that scheme the Committee is composed of<br /> three members elected by the Committee of the<br /> Society, three members elected by the Society at<br /> the General Meeting, and the chairman of the<br /> Society for the time being, ex officio. The three<br /> members elected ‘at the general meeting when the<br /> fund was started were Mr. Morley Roberts, Mr.<br /> M. H. Spielmann, and Mrs. Alec Tweedie.<br /> <br /> According to the rules it is the turn of Mr.<br /> M. H. Spielmann to resign his position on the Com-<br /> mittee. In tendering his resignation he submits<br /> his name for re-election.<br /> <br /> The members have power to put forward other<br /> names under Clause 9, which runs as follows :—<br /> <br /> “ Any candidate for election to the Pension Fund Com-<br /> mittee by the members of the Society (not being a retiring<br /> member of such Committee) shall be nominated in writing<br /> to the secretary, at least three weeks prior to the general<br /> meeting at which such candidate is to be proposed, and<br /> the nomination of each such candidate shall be subscribed<br /> by, at least, three members of the Society. A list of the<br /> candidates so nominated shall be sent to the members of<br /> the Society with the annual report of the Managing Com-<br /> mittee, and those candidates obtaining the most votes at<br /> <br /> the general meeting shall be elected to serve on the Pension<br /> Fund Committee.” :<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR. 87<br /> <br /> In case any member should desire to refer to<br /> the list of members, a copy complete, with the<br /> exception of those members referred to in the note<br /> at the beginning, can be obtained at the Society’s<br /> office.<br /> <br /> It would be as well, therefore, should any of the<br /> members desire to put forward candidates, to take<br /> the matter within their immediate consideration.<br /> The general meeting of the Society has usually<br /> been held towards the end of February or the<br /> beginning of March. It is essential that all<br /> nominations should be in the hands of the<br /> secretary before the 31st of January, 1904.<br /> <br /> — se 7<br /> <br /> SERIAL ISSUE—AUTHORS AND<br /> PUBLISHERS OR EDITORS.<br /> <br /> ee<br /> Afialo and Cook v. Lawrence and Bullen.<br /> <br /> OW that the case of Aflalo and Cook v.<br /> Lawrence and Bullen has been finally<br /> settled by the judgment of the House of<br /> <br /> Lords, it is necessary to consider its bearing on<br /> authors’ property and the methods employed for<br /> the sale of that property.<br /> <br /> There is no need to set forth at length the<br /> 18th Section. Members can refer to the last<br /> number of The Author.<br /> <br /> But it is necessary to remember three points.<br /> <br /> Firstly, employment.<br /> <br /> Secondly, that the work shall have been com-<br /> posed in such employment on the terms that the<br /> Copyright shall belong to the proprietor.<br /> <br /> Thirdly, payment for such work.<br /> <br /> Where. these three points are proved the copy-<br /> right will belong absolutely to the proprietor, etc.,<br /> of the Encyclopzedia and will belong to the pro-<br /> prietor, etc., of the review, magazine, or other<br /> periodical work, subject to the provisoes at the<br /> end of the section.<br /> <br /> It has been decided that the second of the three<br /> points set out above may be inferred, and need not<br /> be actually set forth in an express contract.<br /> <br /> The question, however, according to the judges<br /> in the House of Lords is one of fact and each case<br /> must be decided on its own evidence.<br /> <br /> In order that it may be possible to ascertain what<br /> deductions are likely to be made from the evidence,<br /> it will be necessary to look, firstly, into each decided<br /> ease and to notice the inference drawn ; secondly,<br /> whether such inference is growing wider in scope<br /> or more restricted ; thirdly, whether more in favour<br /> of the proprietor or the original owner of the<br /> property, the author.<br /> <br /> The Lord Chancellor stated “‘ The case is covered<br /> <br /> by authority,” and that he thought it impossible,<br /> after the decision arrived at about half a century<br /> ago and confirmed by the decision of the Court of<br /> Appeal, to give any judgment except one in favour<br /> of the appellants.<br /> <br /> The recent case is thus stated to be covered by<br /> authority. }<br /> <br /> Firstly then, it is necéssary to consider the<br /> authorities and the inferences drawn from them,<br /> before considering this special case and the further<br /> inferences that may be drawn from it.<br /> <br /> The authorities which to the Four Law Lords<br /> and Lord Justice Vaughan Williams appeared to<br /> decide the case in one way, and which to Mr.<br /> Justice Joyce, Lord Justice Stirling, and Lord<br /> Justice Romer seemed to suggest the opposite<br /> decision, were Sweet v. Benning and Lamb v.<br /> vans.<br /> <br /> In Sweet v. Benning various members of the Bar<br /> furnished reports of cases to the plaintiffs, the pro-<br /> prietors of the Jurist. They were reports merely.<br /> The barristers employed selected the cases they<br /> thought fit to report and composed the head notes<br /> and short summaries. They were paid for their<br /> work. The arrangements were oral and nothing<br /> was said about copyright. The property in dispute<br /> on this occasion could hardly be called original,<br /> except so far as the head notes and the abridge-<br /> ment of the product of other people’s brains may<br /> show originality. The case was decided in the<br /> Court of Common Pleas, and the inference was<br /> drawn that the copyright belonged to the proprietors<br /> of the Jurist.<br /> <br /> In Lamb vy. Evans the plaintiff employed and<br /> paid for persons to canvass for advertisements<br /> and arrange them under appropriate headings in a<br /> trade directory. Here again the work in question<br /> could hardly be called literary work of a high and<br /> original order.<br /> <br /> Lord Justice Lindley, in giving judgment, stated<br /> that the burden of proof that the copyright belonged<br /> to the plaintiff was on the plaintiff, and the statute<br /> did not say the kind of evidence which had to be<br /> adduced for the purpose of proving this. If there<br /> is no express agreement the question is, ‘ What is<br /> the inference to be drawn?’ and the inference<br /> was drawn that the copyright belonged to the<br /> plaintiff.<br /> <br /> It is worth noticing that in both these cases the<br /> <br /> ersons claiming the copyright were suing pirates<br /> and the defendants’ objections were technical only.<br /> And farther that the head notes in question could<br /> only have been published by the authors in a form<br /> which would compete with the publication for<br /> which they had been written. In both cases it<br /> would have been unbusinesslike to assume that<br /> the authors intended to reserve a copyright which<br /> could only be useful for a rival publication.<br /> 88<br /> <br /> These were two cases that may be classed under<br /> Encyclopedias.<br /> <br /> The facts of Aflalo and Cook v. Lawrence and<br /> Bullen were fully set forth in last month’s Author,<br /> and the inference drawn from these facts was that<br /> the copyright belonged to the proprietor of the<br /> Encyclopedia.<br /> <br /> Does this judgment extend the former judgments,<br /> as to the inferences that may be drawn from the<br /> facts, and is such extension in favour of the<br /> publisher or author? On the whole it must be<br /> held to extend them considerably, and in favour<br /> of the publisher or proprietor.<br /> <br /> It would have been thought, that it is the<br /> publisher’s business to know the law and make<br /> his bargains accordingly.<br /> <br /> Authors, especially young authors, are often quite<br /> inexperienced in the legal aspect of the case, and<br /> much more likely than a publisher to enter into<br /> bargains the full nature and consequences of which<br /> they do not understand. It would have been no<br /> hardship to the publisher to secure the copyright<br /> by express provision in his contract.<br /> <br /> The decision is revolutionary and must compel<br /> some of the well-known writers on copyright to<br /> alter their deduction from Sweet v. Benning and<br /> The Bishop of Hereford v. Griffin in the next edition<br /> of their works.<br /> <br /> The evidence of employment was complete.<br /> that point there was no need for argument. There<br /> <br /> On<br /> <br /> was evidence of payment. Of that there can be<br /> no dispute. But one essential point must be con-<br /> sidered—how far that payment could be reckoned<br /> substantial for the copyright of the literary pro-<br /> perty in question, when compared with the ordinary<br /> literary prices of an expert writer on any given<br /> subject.<br /> <br /> Would Mr. Aflalo, for instance, for a sum of<br /> £500, sell the idea of the Encyclopedia, give up<br /> two years work and devote himself to the editor-<br /> ship of it, writing without further fee, 7,000 words<br /> and contributing all the unsigned articles that<br /> might be required ? This would be poor pay for<br /> the employment of the technical knowledge that<br /> Mr. Aflalo possesses, and it is hardly likely that for<br /> so small a fee he would care to sell the copyright<br /> of his work. Again, Mr. Cook contracted to do a<br /> certain amount of work at £2 per thousand words.<br /> Anyone with Mr. Cook’s reputation as a fisherman,<br /> and with his great technical knowledge, would not<br /> be likely to sell his work to any magazine or<br /> periodical, for a fee so small if he was not to hold<br /> some subsequent rights; but the Court inferred<br /> that Mr. Cook did so, and it is impossible not to<br /> consider that the inference drawn in this present<br /> case widens enormously the field of inference as<br /> compared with the former cases. In this case you<br /> get highly technical knowledge, the result of years<br /> <br /> THER AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> of work and study of particular kinds of sport.<br /> You get that knowledge set out in original form<br /> and paid for at a peculiarly low price. Is it possible<br /> that in the next case which may be brought before<br /> the Courts under the 18th section from less con-<br /> clusive facts, a still wider inference may be drawn<br /> —more salutary to the publisher, more disastrous<br /> to the author ?<br /> <br /> Their Lordships did not seem to consider that<br /> the position of literary property nowadays is vastly<br /> different from what it was fifty years ago, and that<br /> therefore as the circumstances have changed, it is<br /> impossible to make the same deductions.<br /> <br /> It is clear that in the future authors should be<br /> exceedingly careful of the circumstances in which<br /> they contribute to Encyclopeedias,reviews,magazines<br /> or periodical works, and some further points must<br /> be put forward.<br /> <br /> In this judgment very little was said of the<br /> question of employment, as the employment was<br /> clear and undisputed, but it is quite possible that<br /> this question may be raised at some future date<br /> and that the author’s position may be further<br /> endangered. Mr. MacGillivray in his able work<br /> on Copyright is inclined to think, from the cases<br /> which have been already heard, that the employ-<br /> ment must be antecedent, and so far, this deduction<br /> appears to be satisfactory. There is no decision<br /> on the subject, and the point does not appear to<br /> have been actually argued. It is to be hoped,<br /> however, that it may never be held that the<br /> publication of a work submitted unsolicited to a<br /> magazine proprietor and published by him without<br /> any definite contract, will be sufficient to show<br /> employment by the proprietor, of the contributor.<br /> But this point has never been decided, and authors<br /> should be exceedingly careful that they do not<br /> allow themselves to depend on the broken reed<br /> of the 18th section.<br /> <br /> If such publication can amount to employment<br /> the second deduction that the copyright should<br /> belong to the proprietor would be the merest step<br /> farther, and the author would find himself in<br /> difficulties, even though, possibly, he had received<br /> an entirely inadequate price for such sacrifice.<br /> Evidence, unfortunately, is constantly coming<br /> forward that the Bench and English juries have<br /> very little appreciation of the real value of literary<br /> productions.<br /> <br /> That the danger is a serious one may be seen<br /> from the fact that a great deal was made in the —<br /> present case of the amount of money the proprietors<br /> were sinking in the venture, but this is an obviously<br /> unfair argument, unless, at the same time, the<br /> return the publishers hoped for or actually realised<br /> had also been stated. No one would object to<br /> spend £50,000 to-day if he obtained £100,000 at<br /> the end of six months, or thought he could.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR. 89<br /> <br /> It seems certain that if only the amount<br /> ventured by the publisher in the production of a<br /> magazine, review, or encyclopedia is large enough,<br /> it must follow as a matter of course, according to<br /> these lines of argument, that the employment will<br /> be on the terms that the copyright shall belong to<br /> the proprietor. No thought appears to have been<br /> given to the opposite view that the publisher is a<br /> man of business, and, as such, quite capable of<br /> protecting himself from any danger of being<br /> deprived of the full benefit of the literary wares<br /> which he desired to buy, and that the price paid<br /> to the author may be entirely inadequate to cover<br /> the sale of copyright. The idea which seems to<br /> have influenced the Law Lords was that if the<br /> copyright in the articles had not passed to the<br /> publishers, the authors might all have joined<br /> together and republished their articles as a rival<br /> encyclopedia, but surely the law of England would<br /> be strong enough to stop such an unfair act of<br /> derogating from their own grant, and in any event<br /> the idea is a far fetched one. A much more<br /> pertinent consideration would be that under the<br /> present decision publishers might commission and<br /> pay for articles for an encyclopedia over which they<br /> announced their intention of spending large sums,<br /> and then bring out the articles as cheap popular<br /> books at large profit to themselves, or publish in<br /> other remunerative manner before they finally<br /> collected them into the encyclopedia,<br /> <br /> That this idea is not imaginary may be shown<br /> by the case of some publishers who purchase a<br /> work with a view to book production, and then try<br /> to sell the serial rights in a magazine, to the great<br /> annoyance of the author, who may, through his<br /> carelessness or ignorance, have left himself<br /> defenceless.<br /> <br /> Lord Shand, in his remarks, constantly mentioned<br /> the word “magazine” in addition to “encyclo-<br /> pedia.” There seems no doubt, therefore, that in<br /> his mind, the same inference might be drawn in the<br /> case of a magazine proprietor, as in the case of the<br /> proprietor of an encyclopedia. He also referred to<br /> the publisher as conceiving the creation of the<br /> magazine which he publishes as his undertaking<br /> for his profit. In this case, however, the concep-<br /> tion of the work was the Plaintiff’s, Mr. Aflalo’s.<br /> <br /> There is no need to consider at length the<br /> judgments of those learned Judges of the Court of<br /> First Instance and the Court of Appeal, when<br /> verdicts were given in favour of the plaintiffs, but<br /> in considering the present verdict an endeavour has<br /> been made to show the increasing dangers that<br /> surround authors ; and the members of the society<br /> should be warned when, in future, they contribute<br /> to an encyclopedia, review, or magazine, whether<br /> they have been employed by the proprietor, or<br /> whether they send in their work on their own<br /> <br /> initiation, to be careful to state in a covering letter<br /> the terms on which they are willing to dispose of<br /> it. They should also be careful to keep a copy of<br /> that letter, so that in any action it will lie with<br /> the publishers to prove that the terms of the letter<br /> have been subsequently varied.<br /> <br /> The terms which the letter should contain must,<br /> of course, depend upon the magazine for which the<br /> author is writing and his position as a writer. It<br /> is dangerous to sell serial rights without any<br /> limitation.<br /> <br /> Members will, no doubt, recollect the article that<br /> appeared in The Author, where the serial rights in<br /> an essay were sold to an American magazine, and<br /> the author was astonished to find that his work<br /> was being reprinted in a periodical in England.<br /> <br /> There has been no decision in the Law Courts<br /> to determine the exact definition of serial rights,<br /> but the custom of the trade has been sufficiently<br /> established to show that a conveyance of these<br /> rights does not in any way convey the copyright,<br /> but merely conveys the right to produce articles in<br /> serial form—that is, in a review, magazine, or<br /> other paper of periodical issue.<br /> <br /> In further explanation it must be remembered<br /> that the Courts have decided that an annual is a<br /> periodical issue, and that some magazines print<br /> long stories in one issue. When an author, there-<br /> fore, sells his serial rights, either to a magazine<br /> which undertakes to print his work in one issue,<br /> or to an annual, he should be careful that he gets<br /> an adequate price, as a single serial issue may have<br /> some effect in spoiling the circulation of the story<br /> in book form. This remark, however, does not<br /> apply to short stories.<br /> <br /> Dealing then, with the ordinary sale of a work<br /> in serial form, the price per thousand words that<br /> the author is willing to accept should be distinctly<br /> stated, and the exact limitation of the serial rights<br /> he is willing to sell, z.e, if possible, they should be<br /> limited to one issue of a given magazine or<br /> periodical. The author must remember that it<br /> may be possible for him to obtain second serial<br /> rights from other papers or to sell the further serial<br /> use in other countries.<br /> <br /> A fact incidental to this matter must not be<br /> omitted. It is the custom of many of the popular<br /> magazines of the day, when no contract has been<br /> made in the first instance, to forward cheques to<br /> their contributors, with notices stamped on the<br /> back that the endorsement of the cheque is an<br /> acknowledgment of the transfer of the copyright.<br /> This custom is a distinct danger to authors, for<br /> although the endorsement of such a cheque will<br /> not in any way vary any eapress contract that<br /> may have been entered into before publication,<br /> yet it might be evidence of an implied term in a con-<br /> tract if the cheque was endorsed without dispute.<br /> <br /> <br /> 90<br /> <br /> Since the decision which has been given in the<br /> case of Aflalo and Cook vy. Lawrence and Bullen,<br /> it is especially dangerous, as the slightest evidence<br /> may afford a chance of drawing a deduction<br /> disadvantageous to the author.<br /> <br /> If a publisher desires to obtain special terms or<br /> the copyright, he has merely to say so beforehand,<br /> and the author will know his exact position. It<br /> is not fair that the purchaser should endeavour to<br /> incorporate into a contract terms which never<br /> existed in the mind of the author when the contract<br /> was made.<br /> <br /> Finally, by way of repetition, it cannot be too<br /> strongly impressed on the minds of all members,<br /> (1) that a letter should be sent with the “ copy’;<br /> (2) that if no letter be sent with the “ copy ” an<br /> express agreement should be made before publica-<br /> tion; and (8) that in no circumstances, whether<br /> a letter has been sent with the “copy,” whether<br /> an express contract has been made before publica-<br /> tion, or whether no contract has been made at all,<br /> should an author sign a cheque that is issued to<br /> him on the lines stated above.<br /> <br /> Clearness and finality in contract is essential<br /> to a good understanding between authors and<br /> publishers or editors. If the two latter, instead of<br /> abusing the methods of the Society, endeavoured<br /> to work on more businesslike lines the wheels<br /> would run much smoother for all parties. In<br /> book production a clear understanding is now<br /> nearly always the rule—a doubtful contract the<br /> exception.<br /> <br /> The time, perhaps, may come when the same<br /> remark may be applied to the contract for serial<br /> rights.<br /> <br /> G. H.T-<br /> <br /> ——&gt;—_¢ —____—--<br /> <br /> OUR BOOK AND PLAY TALK.<br /> <br /> —<br /> <br /> E are glad to say that our Vice-Chairman’s<br /> latest book, “The &amp; Becketts of Punch,”<br /> has scored a success. These “ Memories<br /> <br /> of Father and Sons,” within the compass of one<br /> volume, make interesting reading. We should<br /> like to quote at length from its pages, but lack<br /> of space allows of one extract only. Referring<br /> (page 236) to the Dramatic Authors’ Society,<br /> Mr. d Beckett says the circuit system of Mr.<br /> Crummles was the order of the day when it was<br /> organised.<br /> <br /> “Every theatre in the country belonged to it, and was<br /> assisted according to its means of payment. It was the<br /> duty of each subscriber to pay so much a night, and then<br /> send up the bill of the evening’s performance to the Sec-<br /> retary of the Dramatic Authors’ Society, who entered the<br /> amount to the credit of the member. Thus, say Smith had<br /> written a one-act farce, Snooks a two-act comedy, and<br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> Larkins a one-act burlesque, the amount would be divided<br /> into fourths, of which Snooks would take one half, to the<br /> quarters apportioned to Smith and Larkins. . .. This<br /> system worked very well while the remuneration of the<br /> dramatist remained at £100 an act, which was the regu-<br /> lation sum in the mid-Victorian era. But all this was<br /> changed when Dion Boucicault introduced the system of<br /> percentages. The moment that a dramatist’s remuneration<br /> depended upon the takings of the house his fortune was<br /> made. It was very much the royalty system applied to<br /> plays. . . . There was an immediate revolution. Tom<br /> Robertson, W. 8. Gilbert, and the present editor of Punch<br /> naturally wished to get something better than a few<br /> shillings a night for their newest plays in the provinces,<br /> and a resolution was passed giving them the necessary<br /> powers of reservation. The provincial managers com-<br /> plained that all the newest London pieces were out of the<br /> provincial market, and asked what was the use of being<br /> assessed for old and unattractive plays. So by degrees<br /> the Society disappeared.”<br /> <br /> Mr. a Beckett has another book in hand which<br /> will be published early in 1904, dealing with his<br /> career entirely outside Bouverie Street.<br /> <br /> Sir F. C. Burnand’s two volumes of ‘“ Records<br /> and Reminiscences,” with numerous illustrations<br /> and facsimile letters (Methuen), is another inte-<br /> resting book recently published. It has been<br /> widely reviewed and much quoted. It has been<br /> read (or will be read), no doubt, by all our members.<br /> <br /> The annual annotated volume of “Statutes of<br /> Practical Utility” passed in 1903, which will<br /> shortly appear under the editorship of Mr. J. M.<br /> Lely (Sweet and Maxwell, Stevens and Sons), will<br /> contain, with 17 other Acts selected from the 47<br /> passed, the Motor Car Act, the Poor Prisoners<br /> Defence Act (both of these two being fitted out<br /> with extra notes), the London Education Act, the<br /> Employment of Children Act, the County Courts<br /> Act, the Pistols Act, the Finance Act, and the<br /> Housing of the Working Classes Act. Some<br /> interesting Departmental Regulations, e.g., those<br /> of the Local Government Board under the Motor<br /> Car Act, as well as the Cremation and Midwives<br /> Rules under Acts of 1902, will also be included ;<br /> and in the Preface attention will be called to the<br /> desirability of some Parliamentary action being<br /> taken to prevent, so far as preventible, the recur-<br /> rence of obscurities in legislation. Acts relating<br /> to Scotland or Ireland only are not printed in this<br /> collection.<br /> <br /> Sixpenny reprints are, happily, not limited to<br /> fiction. In those issued thus far by Messrs. Watts<br /> and Co. on behalf of the Rationalist Press Associa-<br /> tion, there is included Herbert Spencer’s masterly<br /> treatise on “Education,” of which some 40,000<br /> <br /> copies have been sold in that form. Messrs. Watts’<br /> <br /> next book in this cheap series will be Edward<br /> Clodd’s “Story of Creation,” published by arrange-<br /> ment with Messrs. Longmans, the first issue to<br /> consist of 30,000 copies.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> oA<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> AY<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> Mr. Herbert Bentwich, LL.B., who published<br /> a short time ago a pamphlet entitled “ A Plea for<br /> a General School of Law,” is now taking up<br /> seriously a long projected work on “ International<br /> Copyright.” :<br /> <br /> The publication by Messrs. Isbister &amp; Co. of<br /> Mr. G. S. Layard’s novel, at present entitled<br /> “ Dolly’s Governess,” has been postponed until the<br /> spring of next year. Mr. Layard is now engaged<br /> upon “ The Life of Kate Greenaway,” in collabora-<br /> tion with Mr. M. H. Spielmann. Any information<br /> not already furnished concerning the deceased<br /> artist and lover of children should be sent to Mr.<br /> Layard at Bull’s Cliff, Felixstowe.<br /> <br /> “Home Life under the Stuarts,” by Elizabeth<br /> Godfrey (Grant Richards), is about to be followed<br /> by a study of social life during the same period,<br /> 1603—1649. This will describe art and literature,<br /> amusements, the literary coterie, travelling, friend-<br /> ship, the religious life, and kindred topics. It will<br /> be uniform with the preceding volume, which in<br /> fact it completes, and will be illustrated.<br /> <br /> Messrs. H. Sotheran &amp; Co. (37, Piccadilly, W.)<br /> are prepared to supply “ Kilboylan Bank,” by Mrs.<br /> E. M. Lynch. It is an Irish story illustrating the<br /> working of that humble form of finance—Agri-<br /> cultural Co-operative Credit. The book should<br /> prove useful at the present time, when the new<br /> Irish Land Act is turning many peasants into<br /> proprietors.<br /> <br /> Captain G. E. W. Hayward, whose two articles<br /> entitled ‘‘ Cosas de Espaia” appeared in the Feb-<br /> ruary and June numbers of Blackwood, is now<br /> completing a one volume novel which he hopes to<br /> see published in the spring.<br /> <br /> The Baroness de Bertouch is at work on her<br /> *“ Life of Father Ignatius,” which Messrs. Methuen<br /> have accepted and will publish early in 1904. In<br /> order that the work might be done under the<br /> supervision of Father Ignatius himself, the<br /> authoress has spent nearly a year at Llanthony in<br /> the guest-house of the monastery.<br /> <br /> Mr. Leslie Cope Cornford, author of “ Captain<br /> Jacobus,” &amp;c., &amp;c., has just completed a story<br /> dealing with a phase of eighteenth century life.<br /> It is to be published in 1904.<br /> <br /> Mr. Bertram Mitford’s new novel, “ The Sirdar’s<br /> Oath,” will be published by Messrs. F. V. White<br /> and Co. some time in January. The scene is laid<br /> on the northern border of India and the action<br /> deals with the tribesmen inhabiting that locality.<br /> The story has been running serially during this<br /> year through several British and Colonial news-<br /> papers under the title of “ Raynier’s Peril.”<br /> <br /> Miss Theodora Wilson Wilson’s new novel,<br /> “Ursula Raven,” is now running through the<br /> Daily News as a serial. The scene of the story<br /> 4s laid in Westmoreland, and the chief interest<br /> <br /> 91<br /> <br /> lies in the description of a struggle against<br /> monopoly.<br /> <br /> Mrs. Finnemore will publish shortly through<br /> Messrs. Hurst and Blackett, a story entitled<br /> “Tally.” It is of domestic interest, the period<br /> being the early years of last century. It is a<br /> shorter story than “A Man’s Mirror”? (Cassell,<br /> October, 1908) and quite different in character.<br /> <br /> Mrs. Finnemore is at present busy upon a story<br /> which she hopes to have completed early in 1904.<br /> The setting is the Welsh hills—Mrs. Finnemore’s<br /> own neighbourhood, a solitary and wild bit of<br /> country between the Berwyns and the sea.<br /> <br /> “An Oath in Heaven” is the title of a new<br /> novel by Mr. John Ryce. It is published by<br /> Messrs. James Clarke &amp; Co. at 6s.<br /> <br /> Mr. Algernon Rose’s handbook for wind-instru-<br /> mentalists entitled “Talks with Bandsmen,” a<br /> thousand copies of which have been sold in this<br /> country, has been pirated for serial purposes by the<br /> Dominant, a musical paper of New York.<br /> <br /> The Rt. Hon. Joseph Chamberlain has accepted<br /> a copy of Mr. Algernon Rose’s book “ On Choosing<br /> a Piano” (Scott), one chapter of which deals<br /> with the fiscal question as it regards pianoforte<br /> manufacturers in this country.<br /> <br /> We hear that a new and enlarged edition of Mr.<br /> Reynolds-Ball’s Guide to the Winter Resorts of<br /> the Mediterranean will be published very soon.<br /> A new and useful feature will be a supplement<br /> containing articles on the principal Colonial and<br /> other extra European winter resorts, such as the<br /> Canaries, the West Indies, and the Cape High-<br /> lands.<br /> <br /> Miss Florence M. King (Jfaud Carew), who has<br /> been prevented by unavoidable causes from writing<br /> anything for some time, is engaged on a new<br /> children’s book.<br /> <br /> “Songs of Summer,” by Mr. C. Whitworth<br /> Wynne, has been published by Mr. Grant Richards.<br /> <br /> Mrs. Caroline A. White’s book “Sweet Hamp-<br /> stead and its Associations ” is now in asecond and<br /> revised edition. It is dedicated to the Conser-<br /> vators of the Heath and to all who love sweet<br /> Hampstead for its own sake. The volume is<br /> well illustrated. Messrs. Elliot Stock are its<br /> publishers.<br /> <br /> For the benefit of those among our readers who<br /> saw the review in the Guardian (December 2nd) of<br /> “A Queen of Nine Days,” by Miss Edith C. Kenyon,<br /> suggesting that she had not written the book<br /> herself, but only supplied a modern rendering, we<br /> give her reply, which appears in the same journal<br /> (December 9th) :—<br /> <br /> S1z,—In allusion to your review of “A Queen of Nine<br /> Days” in this week&#039;s Guardian, will you kindly allow me<br /> to say that I wrote the whole of the book, and the idea<br /> that it was written by one of Lady Jane’s gentlewomen is<br /> only a part of the story. Moreover, if your reviewer reads<br /> 92<br /> <br /> history, he will find that Lady Jane was singularly humble<br /> and truth loving, and, like all great souls, in advance of her<br /> eo EpitH C. KENYON.<br /> <br /> “High Treason” (The Primrose Press: 64d.<br /> nett) is Mr. Allen Upward’s latest contribution<br /> to the Romance of Politics series. In his preface<br /> Mr. Upward says: “Many of the incidents, I<br /> think, will be fresh in the memory of most news-<br /> paper readers, though the connection here traced<br /> between them may not be perceived. For others,<br /> I can produce my authorities, should the truth of<br /> these pages be challenged. ;<br /> <br /> Except for articles in papers and magazines, Mr.<br /> Clive Holland’s chief work during the past year<br /> bas been the writing of two plays. One is a<br /> comedy (founded on his two Japanese novels,<br /> “My Japanese Wife” and ‘‘Musme”), written in<br /> collaboration with an American playwright, Miss<br /> Florence Hopkins ; the other a modern comedy of<br /> French and English life, written by himself. _<br /> <br /> The former will probably see the light first in<br /> New York; the latter will, Mr. Holland hopes, be<br /> produced in London.<br /> <br /> The Franciscan Friars of the Collegio di San<br /> Bonaventura at Quaracchi, near Florence, who are<br /> their own printers and publishers, have just brought<br /> out the first critical edition ever attempted of the<br /> writings of Saint Francis of Assisi. The rights of<br /> <br /> translation into English have been assigned to M.<br /> Carmichael.<br /> <br /> We understand that Mr. Sidney Lee will deliver<br /> a lecture (January 26th) on “Shakespeare” to<br /> the members of the British Empire Shakespeare<br /> <br /> Society. He will also deliver a lecture early in<br /> the year at the Royal Institution, on “Shakespeare<br /> as Contemporaries knew Him.”<br /> <br /> Mr. W. L. Courtney is to deliver two lectures on<br /> “Comedy, Ancient and Modern,” at the Royal<br /> Institution, on the afternoons of February 6th and<br /> 13th. Mr. Alfred Austin and Mr, Henry Arthur<br /> Jones are also to lecture at the same famous Institu-<br /> tion in Albemarle Street.<br /> <br /> i<br /> <br /> AMERICAN NOTES.<br /> <br /> re<br /> <br /> MONG the six books now most in demand<br /> throughout the States I note that only one,<br /> Sir A. Conan Doyle’s “Adventures of<br /> Gerard,” is a work that is not of American author-<br /> ship. This is significant of the growing nationalisa-<br /> tion of our literature. The best English books<br /> still come to us, and are no doubt read and appre-<br /> ciated ; but they are no longer, as they once were,<br /> our exclusive models, and they take, generally<br /> speaking, but a secondary place in the market.<br /> Yet no great star can be said to have risen above<br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> our horizon of late ; nor has any American work of<br /> such wide appeal as Mr. Morley’s “ Life of Glad-<br /> stone” been issued on this side. The advance is<br /> rather horizontal than vertical, to say truth.<br /> <br /> As if to atone for the loss of Frank Norris’s<br /> promise, Mr. Jack London has sprung up and<br /> attained something like distinction already. But<br /> the merits of his “Call of the Wild” must be too<br /> well known to readers of Zhe Author to require<br /> comment from me at this time of day. He has<br /> no doubt a great future before him. But Mr.<br /> London’s book stands second in the list of “ big<br /> sellers.” At the top is a spirited tale of the<br /> Civil War by Mr. John Fox, junior. The scene<br /> of “The Little Shepherd of Kingdom Come”<br /> is the border state of Kentucky, and its most im-<br /> portant character, John Morgan, the raider ;<br /> though Grant is introduced. The book naturally<br /> challenges comparison with Winston Churchill’s<br /> «The Orisis.”<br /> <br /> Another civil war story—not so good, though,<br /> as Mr. Fox’s—is Frederick Palmer’s “ The Vaga-<br /> bond,” which contains some well described war<br /> scenes, notably a vivid account of the battle of<br /> Bull Run.<br /> <br /> Among the established favourites in historical<br /> fiction Mr. Chambers has added to his record “ The<br /> Maids of Paradise,” who are not houris, but<br /> damsels of a Breton village. The period is that of<br /> the Franco-German War. Brittany is also the<br /> scene of Margaret Horton Potter&#039;s ‘‘ Castle of<br /> Twilight”; but in this case it is the old-world<br /> feudal province. Cyrus Townsend Brady has<br /> deserted the historical field and broken new<br /> ground in “A Doctor of Philosophy”; but his<br /> success can scarcely be described as unqualified.<br /> <br /> Two notable novels of modern life, each by a<br /> woman, treat of university society. Miss Anna<br /> McClure Sholl, in “The Law of Life,” recounts<br /> the struggle of a Puritan conscience with femi-<br /> nine instinct, and also raises the difficult problem<br /> of the relations of a university towards a meddling<br /> and not too scrupulous benefactor. The author is<br /> generally supposed to have had Cornell in her<br /> mind—not that the circumstances exist there.<br /> “he Millionaire’s Son,” by Mrs. Robeson Brown,<br /> is also concerned with a moral conflict, in this case<br /> between the wish to carry on the paternal business —<br /> and an overpowering scholarly bent inherited from<br /> a grandfather.<br /> <br /> James Lane Allen has once more exhibited his.<br /> fine sense for style; but “The Mettle of the —<br /> Pasture,” like “The Reign of Law,” falls far —<br /> below the high standard attained by the book ~<br /> which gave him fame.<br /> <br /> The strangely-named “ Silver Poppy” (it is the —<br /> title of the heroine’s first novel) by Arthur<br /> Stringer, is a striking but imperfectly-conceived —<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> tale of love and literature in New York. The<br /> latter, represented by the American woman, gets<br /> the better of the former in the person of an Eng-<br /> lish journalist.<br /> <br /> Thomas Dixon’s “The One Woman” has<br /> attained popularity rather on account of its subject<br /> —socialism and sex—than its literary merits,<br /> which are of the sensational order.<br /> <br /> George Barr McCutcheon has made an ambitious<br /> experiment in “The Sherrods,” which has been<br /> the fictional attraction of the Bookman during the<br /> greater part of the year. Other novelists who have<br /> fully maintained their reputations are Mr. Stewart<br /> White with “The Forest,” Charles Major in<br /> “A Forest Hearth,’ and Mrs. Wharton in ‘“ The<br /> Sanctuary.”<br /> <br /> Of the older hands, I remark that Kate Douglas<br /> Wiggin figures among the big sellers with her<br /> “Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm.” Mr. Marion<br /> Crawford has written another story of Roman<br /> life ; and Mr. Howells, in “Letters Home,” has<br /> handled with great skill the difficult instrument<br /> of epistolary fiction. é<br /> <br /> A slight but well-nigh perfect piece of work is<br /> Miss Alice Brown’s ‘‘ Judgment,” in which justice<br /> and mercy in the person of a husband and wife are<br /> most artistically contrasted; and a word of praise<br /> should be given to Mrs. Tilia W. Peattie’s pretty<br /> collection of tales called ‘“‘ The Edge of Things.”<br /> <br /> We pass to more solid literature, after remarking<br /> that Mormonism has found a novelist in the author<br /> of “The Spenders,” who has dealt with the subject<br /> in his “Lions of the Lord”; and the multi-<br /> millionaire his exposer in Mr. David Graham<br /> Phillips, whose “Master Rogue” is to be com-<br /> mended to the perusal of anyone in danger of<br /> becoming one.<br /> <br /> In biographical publications this fall has been<br /> rather prolific. The two outstanding books in this<br /> department have been, of course, the posthumous<br /> recollections of Richard Henry Stoddard and the<br /> autobiography of Senator Hoar ; but there are others<br /> scarcely inferior to them in interest. Stoddard,<br /> whose work was finished for him by Mr. Ripley<br /> Hitchcock, and introduced by his life-long friend,<br /> Edmund Clarence Stedman, has something interest-<br /> ing to say of most of his literary contemporaries,<br /> not a few of whom he knew intimately. Lowell,<br /> Bryant, Poe, N. P. Willis, and especially Bayard<br /> Taylor, the translator of “ Faust,” are celebrities<br /> who cross his pages ; but probably the chief interest<br /> of them lies in the account of his own boyhood and<br /> early struggles.<br /> <br /> Senator Hoar’s “ Autobiography of Seventy<br /> Years” covers a somewhat similar period in the<br /> political world. The eminent Republican was at<br /> <br /> Harvard under Channing, made his first public<br /> speech, in 1850, at Worcester, Mass., as a substitute<br /> <br /> 93<br /> <br /> for Judge Allen, and in 1880 presided over the<br /> party convention at which Garfield was nominated<br /> for the Presidency. A great admirer of Grant, he<br /> gives a pointed description of his unconciliatory<br /> manners. Always a strong partisan, he explains<br /> to his readers that he has never given a vote<br /> against his conscience and justifies his adhesion<br /> to Imperialism.<br /> <br /> Searcely less important than the works I have<br /> just glanced at is General John B. Gordon’s<br /> “‘ Reminiscences of the Civil War,” which presents<br /> various aspects of the great struggle from the<br /> Confederate view-point, but in a thoroughly im-<br /> partial spirit and in a most entertaining, simple<br /> style. The writer held important commands at<br /> the first battle of Bull Run, at Antietam, and<br /> Gettysburg ; was largely responsible for the sur-<br /> prise at Cedar Creek; and was with Lee in the<br /> last despairing efforts of the South. The General<br /> thinks that the war strengthened the American<br /> character ; and his geniality pervades a book which<br /> is equally instructive and amusing, abounding, as<br /> it does, in good stories. “My Own Story, with<br /> Recollections of Noted Persons,” by John Townsend<br /> Trowbridge, contains anecdotes of some of the great<br /> New England writers, such as Holmes, Emerson,<br /> Bronson Alcott, and Walt Whitman, and some<br /> curious evidence as to the undoubted influence of<br /> the Concord sage upon the author of ‘“ Leaves of<br /> Grass.”<br /> <br /> Not the least remarkable of autobiographic<br /> works is Miss Helen Keller’s story of her wonder-<br /> ful education, partly told in her own words, partly<br /> in those of the gifted teacher whose genius and<br /> patience enabled her, with her imperfect senses, to<br /> stand at least on a level with normally-endowed<br /> mortals. In this connection it may also be men-<br /> tioned that the daughters of Dr. Howe, the famous<br /> teacher of the blind and deaf mutes, have recently<br /> published an account of how he educated Laura<br /> Bridgman.<br /> <br /> Another book has been written upon Thomas<br /> Jefferson ; and a personage nearer our own day,<br /> Henry Ward Beecher, has found a biographer in<br /> Dr. Lyman Abbott.<br /> <br /> An admirable survey of American literature<br /> appeared early in the fall from the pen of<br /> Professor William P. Trent.<br /> <br /> “American Tariff Controversies,” by Edward<br /> Stanwood, is a work which will, no doubt, be<br /> studied by others besides the author’s countrymen.<br /> It merits attention from the thorough and com-<br /> prehensive manner in which the subject is treated.<br /> <br /> Consternation must have been experienced in<br /> some quarters after the perusal of a little book<br /> with the seemingly harmless title of “The Home:<br /> its Work and Influence”; for the author, Mrs.<br /> Charlotte Perkins Gilman, has dared to belittle<br /> 94<br /> <br /> the domestic virtues, to maintain that cooking<br /> should not be done at home, and to brand with<br /> the fearful accusation of arrogance the mother<br /> who undertakes the sole training of her own<br /> child.<br /> <br /> The veteran author, Thomas Bailey Aldrich,<br /> has given fresh delight to the reading public by<br /> his quaintly - named “Ponkapog Papers”; and<br /> Mark Twain has republished in a revised form<br /> that ancient favourite “The Jumping Frog.”<br /> Mr. Clemens has also been turning his attention<br /> to those tiresome people, the votaries of “ Christian<br /> Science.”<br /> <br /> ‘A new science, called “ Anthropo-Geography,”<br /> would seem to have arisen, and its first American<br /> exponent is Miss Ellen Semple in her “ American<br /> History and its Geographic Conditions.”<br /> <br /> In the purely historical field we have had two<br /> new books on the Civil War, the one by Mr. Birk-<br /> beck Wood and Colonel Edwards, the other by Dr.<br /> Guy Carleton Lee, in addition to E. Benjamin<br /> Andrews’s supplement to his “ History of the last<br /> Quarter Century.”<br /> <br /> A highly interesting work, which takes us some<br /> considerable way further back, is Thomas A. Jan-<br /> vier’s “The Dutch Founding of New York.”<br /> <br /> Reuben Gold Thwaites has done good service<br /> by his careful editing of a reprint of Father Louis<br /> Hennequin’s “ New Discovery” (1698) ; and he is<br /> now engaged upon an edition of the “ Original<br /> Journals of Lewis and Clark.” He has also pub-<br /> lished a volume of historical essays in western<br /> history. a.<br /> <br /> Three new volumes of the extensive work of<br /> Emma Helen Blair and James Alex Robertson<br /> upon the “Philippine Islands” have appeared ;<br /> and Arthur Howard Noll has written more upon<br /> the history of Mexico. Mr. Francis Johnson’s<br /> compilation, “ Famous Assassinations of History,”<br /> ranges from Philip of Macedon to the late King<br /> and Queen of Servia, and is a veritable bath of<br /> international gore. -<br /> <br /> Among curious nondescript works I notice the<br /> anonymous “ Wanted—A Wife,” by “ A Bachelor,”<br /> just issued by Daniel V. Wien, of New York.”<br /> It is not surprising to learn that two editions of<br /> this were quickly disposed of.<br /> <br /> The Poe revival still continues. The latest<br /> evidence is Mr. Sherwin Cody’s critical edition<br /> executed for A. C. McClurg &amp; Co.<br /> <br /> Some unpublished extracts from Emerson’s<br /> private journals are to see the light in the<br /> Atlantic Monthly during next year. They will be<br /> welcome, though one has heard a great deal of the<br /> philosopher-poet of late. But it is really to be<br /> hoped that the last has now been heard of Mistress<br /> Margaret Fuller and her egregious love-letters.<br /> <br /> Two meritorious contributions to philosophical<br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> study have appeared in America during the past<br /> year. Dr. William Turner’s “History of Philo-<br /> sophy” comes from Boston; Mr. Arthur Stone<br /> Dewing’s more popular “ Introduction to the History<br /> of Modern Philosophy ” from Philadelphia. Pro-<br /> fessor J. Laurence Laughlin has issued a first<br /> instalment of the extensive work which he con-<br /> templates upon the “Principles of Money.” He<br /> is a strenuous upholder of the policy of adherence<br /> to a gold standard. He has evolved a new theory-<br /> of credit. Other economical works which may<br /> be of interest to students are Miss Breckridge’s<br /> “Legal Tender” and Professor William A. Scott’s<br /> “Money and Banking.”<br /> <br /> Photogravure portraits of the Presidents adorn<br /> the new edition which Messrs. Harper are bringing<br /> out of President Woodrow Wilson’s ‘‘ History of<br /> the American People.”<br /> <br /> Our obituary list is neither long nor important.<br /> It contains the names of Colonel Richard Henry<br /> Savage, best known as the author of “ My Official<br /> Wife,” who just lived to see in print his last book,<br /> “Monte Christo in Khaki”; of Mrs. Elizabeth<br /> Cherry Waltz, a hard-working journalist who wrote<br /> the humorous “ Pa Gladden” stories; of General<br /> Edward McGrady, the historian of South Carolina ;<br /> and of James Robert Gilmore, founder of the Con-<br /> tinental Monthly, editor of the ‘Cyclopedia of<br /> American Biography,” and author of several novels<br /> of Southern life published under the pseudonym<br /> “ Edmund Kirke.” The last was a personal friend<br /> of Lincoln and Greeley, as well as the intimate of<br /> Longfellow and Holmes.<br /> <br /> PARIS NOTES.<br /> <br /> 1<br /> <br /> HE Academy prizes were distributed at the<br /> fe annual meeting at the close of the year. A<br /> prize for his poem on “ Victor Hugo ” was<br /> awarded to M. Depont. The Toirac prize fell to<br /> M. Donnay for his play, “L’Autre Danger.”<br /> Madame Bentzon received the Née prize, and M.<br /> Boissier spoke in the highest terms of her work,<br /> and at the same time indulged in a side-thrust at<br /> certain novels which have recently been published.<br /> “On ge souvient,’’ he said, “ que sa réputation a<br /> commence par des romans qui ont eu ce privilege<br /> rare d’obtenir un grand succés, sans rien cotter a<br /> la dignité de son caractere. . . . Le prix Née, que<br /> nous donnons 2 Mme. Béntzon, nous |’avions<br /> décerné, il y a deux ans, 8 Mme. Arvéde Barine.<br /> L’ Académie a tenu a rapprocher ces deux poms: ils<br /> sont l’honneur des femmes de France. Ils mon-<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> trent, une fois de plus, qu en littérature il n’y a<br /> pas de privilége pour un sexe, et qu’une femme,<br /> quia du talent, n’a pas besoin de se mettre en<br /> révolte, de former des ligues et de s’armer en<br /> guerre contre la société pour obtenir la renommée,<br /> quand elle la mérite.”<br /> <br /> M. Boissier spoke highly of the novels by Henry<br /> Bordeaux, Claude Ferval, Plessis, Yunga, Moreau,<br /> and de Comminges. He then mentioned the<br /> authors of various works of education, history and<br /> biography, terminating with M. Pierre de Nolhac,<br /> who received the Gobert prize for his admirable<br /> series of works on Versailles and its historical<br /> personages.<br /> <br /> France is the country par excellence where art<br /> and literature are appreciated and encouraged.<br /> <br /> After the Academy prizes came those awarded<br /> annually by the Société des Gens de Lettres to<br /> talented writers.<br /> <br /> Among the names of the authors to whom this<br /> year’s prizes have been given are: MM. Camille<br /> Lemonnier, Georges d’Esparbes, Louis de Robert,<br /> Junka, Dalsem, Champol and Pascal. Women<br /> writers also come in for their share of the awards.<br /> Mme. Brada, Mme. de Peyrebrune, Mlle. Maugeret<br /> and Mme Lafon, have received prizes varying from<br /> £20 to £12.<br /> <br /> Some excellent articles have appeared in many<br /> of the French reviews and papers on Herbert<br /> Spencer, who was greatly appreciated in France.<br /> <br /> In a book recently published by M. Gabriel<br /> Compayré there are some interesting pages on the<br /> life and works of Spencer.<br /> <br /> A French journalist in London, writing to one<br /> of the principal papers here, was struck with the<br /> evident lack of appreciation of the great philosopher<br /> in England. He says that ninety-nine out of<br /> every hundred of Herbert Spencer’s compatriots<br /> ignore not only the works of the great man who<br /> has just passed away, but even his name. He<br /> goes on to say that it is one of the characteristics<br /> of the English people that they are not attracted<br /> by the works of their greatest writers, their greatest<br /> thinkers and their greatest savants.<br /> <br /> The first book published by M. René Bazin,<br /> since his election to the Academy, is entitled<br /> “Récits de la Plaine et de la Montagne.” Itis a<br /> most charming description of travels in various<br /> countries, with anecdotes and stories which add<br /> greatly to the interest of the volume. There are<br /> chapters entitled : “Journal de Route au bord du<br /> Rhone” ; “Une Excursion de Chasse en Hol-<br /> lande”; “Histoire de Dindons”; “ Dans la<br /> banlieue de Londres”; “ Le Palefrenier du Prince<br /> de Galles” ; “ Un Village de Savoie” ; “ La Forét<br /> de Méria”; “La Vallée d’Aoste” and “Le<br /> Registre d’un Ouré.”<br /> <br /> A book by M. André Fontaine, entitled “ Con-<br /> <br /> 95<br /> <br /> férences inédites de |’ Académie Royale de Pein-<br /> ture et de Sculpture,” is well worth reading. In<br /> the days of Colbert, lectures were given by the<br /> French Academicians on the merits and faults of<br /> celebrated pictures. Discussions were held on<br /> subjects connected with art, for the benefit of the<br /> students of the Ecole des Beaux Arts, the other<br /> Academicians and artists generally.<br /> <br /> M. Fontaine has collected some of these lectures<br /> and published a volume of them. The most<br /> interesting are those by de Champaigne and Le<br /> Brun, on the question of the primary importance<br /> of drawing or colour in a picture.<br /> <br /> There are others on the merits and faults of<br /> many celebrated pictures by Raphael, Titien,<br /> Poussin and other artists.<br /> <br /> “ Mélanges de Littérature et d’Histoire ” is the<br /> title of a most entertaining book by M. A. Gazier,<br /> on various subjects. Among other articles there<br /> is one on Pascal and Mile. de Roannés, another on<br /> the Abbé de Prades, and a letter from Voltaire<br /> giving some interesting details about his sojourn<br /> and his private affairs at Potsdam. There is also<br /> an account, which reads like a novel, of an<br /> extraordinary woman who lived alone for several<br /> years in the mountains of the Pyrenees. She<br /> belonged to a noble family, but at the age of<br /> fifteen, to avoid marrying, escaped from her own<br /> people and lived as a servant.<br /> <br /> There are other interesting studies in the volume<br /> on the subject of Moliére, and the probability that<br /> the Prince de Conti served as the model for<br /> “Tartuffe.”<br /> <br /> Among the new books are “ Le Second Rang<br /> du Collier,’ by Mme. Judith Gautier; “ Caglios-<br /> tro,” by M. d’Alméras ; “ Propos Littéraires,” by<br /> M. Faguet ; “ L’Empire du Milieu,” by Elisée et<br /> Onésime Reclus, and among the illustrated books<br /> specially intended for New Year’s gifts are<br /> “T’Epopée Biblique,” with fifty engravings from<br /> Gustave Doré’s works; “ La Lune Rousse,” by<br /> Champol ; “ L’Année frangaise: Un héros par<br /> jour,” by Ponsonailhe ; “ Aux pays de la Priére,”<br /> by Henri Guerlin, and “La vieille France qui<br /> s’en va,” by Charles Géniaux.<br /> <br /> A book which should be specially interesting to<br /> the English has just been written by M. Henry<br /> d’Allemagne. ‘The title is “Sports et Jeux<br /> d’adresse,” and all games and sports are traced to<br /> their origin, with a series of coloured illustrations<br /> to show the modifications our present games have<br /> undergone.<br /> <br /> The question is once more being raised whether<br /> actors shall be admitted as Academicians to the<br /> Institute of France.<br /> <br /> M. Mounet Sully, by presenting himself for<br /> election, opens a debate which will be followed<br /> everywhere with the keenest interest.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> 96<br /> <br /> “Le Retour de Jérusalem” is one of the finest<br /> pieces that M. Maurice Donnay has written. The<br /> idea upon which the play appears to be based is<br /> that there exists between the Jewish and the<br /> Aryan races a gulf which cannot be bridged over,<br /> and that any attempt to unite them must prove a<br /> failure. oe<br /> <br /> In this play Michel Aubier is a Christian, and<br /> Judith de Chouzay a Jewess, who has adopted the<br /> Catholic religion in order to marry the Viscount<br /> de Chouzay. Michel, too, is married, but imagin-<br /> ing that they are in love with each other, he and<br /> Judith leave their respective homes in order to<br /> unite their destinies. They discover, when too<br /> late, their mistake. Their ideas, their principles<br /> and their habits are so totally different that in the<br /> end they decide to separate. Such in brief is the<br /> piece, which as a psychological study is most<br /> fascinating. The dialogue is brilliant, as in all<br /> M. Donnay’s plays, and the character of Michel an<br /> excellent portrait of the modern Frenchman.<br /> Mme. Le Bargy, M. Dumény, and Mlle. Mégard<br /> interpret their réles to perfection.<br /> <br /> The first night of M. Sardou’s new play “La<br /> Sorciére,’ has been one of the great theatrical<br /> events of the month. At the close of the dress<br /> rehearsal, Madame Sarah Bernhardt received an<br /> ovation, and many of the principal artistes and<br /> dramatic authors came forward to offer their<br /> congratulations.<br /> <br /> It is with the greatest pleasure that everyone<br /> sees M. Bour at last in a suitable theatre. The<br /> piece he is now giving, “Cadet Roussel,” by<br /> M. Jacques Richepin, is, thanks to his excellent<br /> interpretation, so great a success that M. Bour has<br /> been compelled to move to the Porte St. Martin.<br /> Some two years ago, in the famous play<br /> “ Alleluia,” M. Bour made his mark, and with a<br /> small company of artistes started the International<br /> Thédtre for the production of plays from all<br /> languages.<br /> <br /> In every piece M. Bour had great success, and<br /> his removal to a larger theatre, on the Boulevards,<br /> will probably make him a formidable rival for M.<br /> Antoine.<br /> <br /> La Renaissance Latine has some very interesting<br /> articles in the December number. Among others:<br /> “« Les Idées littéraires de Nietzsche,” by M. Emile<br /> Faguet ; some letters to the “Bon Ange,” from<br /> Mirabeau; “ L’Esprit romain et l’Art francais,” by<br /> M. Mauclair, and “La Crise méridionale en<br /> Italie.”<br /> <br /> Anys HALLARD.<br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> THE CONTRACT OF BAILMENT. ©<br /> <br /> —<br /> <br /> TYNHE point which “ G. H. T.” has raised, under<br /> the above heading, in the December number<br /> of The Author, is of great practical interest<br /> <br /> to authors, editors, and publishers; and it is<br /> <br /> eminently desirable that it should be settled.<br /> <br /> “G. H.T.” has put the author’s view. Leaving<br /> <br /> the publisher to speak for himself, I propose to say<br /> <br /> a word on behalf of the editor, merely premising<br /> <br /> that, being myself, in a humble way, also a writer,<br /> <br /> I have no bias against the author’s just claims.<br /> <br /> “q. H. T.’s” arguments are cautiously worded,<br /> as becomes one in his responsible position. But I<br /> think it fair to assume, that he regards an editor to<br /> whom unsolicited MSS. are sent, in the course of<br /> post or by mere messenger, as responsible for<br /> the safety, perhaps even for the return, of the MSS. ;<br /> and this, whether or not the editor has given<br /> public notice disclaiming such responsibility. In<br /> the nature of things, such notice must be indirect ;<br /> it is clearly impossible for an editor to serve per-<br /> sonal notice on every inhabitant of the British<br /> Isles, nor would it, I think, be contended, by any<br /> serious advocate, that he is bound to spend money<br /> in advertising his intentions in the Press.<br /> <br /> It seems to me that “G. H. T.’s” argument is,<br /> to begin with, seriously damaged by the very title<br /> with which he heads his article. As he justly<br /> asserts, bailment is, or at least implies, a contract.<br /> Now a contract, in every system of law with which<br /> I am acquainted —certainly in English law—<br /> requires the co-operation of at least two persons.<br /> One person cannot make a contract ; there must<br /> be the mutual consent of two minds. If I throw<br /> a book in at a man’s window, my act may be<br /> a trespass ; it certainly cannot, of itself, constitute<br /> a contract—of bailment or anything else. The<br /> most favourable interpretation that can be put<br /> upon it is, that it is an offer to sell or lend the<br /> book, which the person into whose house it is<br /> thrown may or may not accept, at his option.<br /> This construction has been put by Courts of Justice,<br /> over and over again, on the act of leaving unsolicited<br /> goods at a house ; and scathing remarks have been<br /> made by judges upon those enterprising persons<br /> who have tried to found a legal claim on such<br /> proceedings.<br /> <br /> “GQ, H. T.” seems, therefore, to me, to miss a<br /> vital point when he says that the question is: “Is<br /> an MS. sent in for the benefit of both parties or<br /> not?” It is not sufficient that the MS. should be<br /> sent for the benefit of both parties; it must also be<br /> accepted for the benefit of both parties.<br /> <br /> And I think that “G@. H. T.” would not care to<br /> argue, that the mere fact of opening an envelope<br /> containing an MS. is an acceptance. How can the<br /> <br /> person to whom a sealed envelope is addressed<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> possibly tell the nature of its contents, until he<br /> opens it? It may contain an article which he has<br /> commissioned, and is anxiously expecting. The<br /> difference between mere receipt and acceptance is<br /> well known to all lawyers, certainly to “G. H. ie<br /> himself.<br /> <br /> But I gather that “G. H. T.” proposes to get<br /> over this difficulty by the bold argument, that the<br /> mere founding of a periodical constitutes, in law,<br /> an offer to accept for consideration any article<br /> which any one may choose to send in. Some<br /> editors do, undoubtedly, make this offer, in express<br /> terms, qualified, however, as a rule, by a disavowal<br /> of liability. Whether such a disavowal would be<br /> deemed legally inconsistent with the general offer,<br /> is a point which I do not care to argue. My point<br /> is, that when no such offer is made by an editor,<br /> &amp; fortiori, when an_ editor expressly warns con-<br /> tributors against sending him their MSS. without<br /> previous communication, no such offer can be<br /> implied from the mere founding of the periodical.<br /> An impresario who opens a theatre does not, surely,<br /> undertake to give every actor who offers his services<br /> a trial ; the proprietor of a private picture gallery<br /> does not offer to admit, or even to examine, the<br /> work of every artist who chooses to send in a<br /> picture. If the theatre or the gallery were public<br /> property, maintained by the State or by public<br /> subscription, the case might be different.<br /> <br /> Ifthe claim of contract be untenable, “G. HLT s?<br /> argument comes to this : that there is a duty upon<br /> an editor, simply as such, or, as the jurist would<br /> say, a duty m rem, to accept for consideration<br /> every MS. sent to him. This is also a startling<br /> argument. Duties in rem are familiar to our law ;<br /> but it is a well-known principle, that such duties<br /> are of a negative character only—v.e., they are<br /> duties to abstain from doing acts which may result<br /> in harm or damage to the public or one’s neigh-<br /> pours. Duties in rem of a positive character—<br /> ie., to do some act at the request of all and sundry,<br /> or at peril of responsibility, arise only from the<br /> express provisions of statute law; and I do not<br /> recollect any Act of Parliament which imposes upon<br /> editors the duty of reading and returning, or of<br /> safeguarding, unsolicited MSS.<br /> <br /> The only exception to this rule which is known<br /> to me, is the duty cast upon a man who harbours<br /> dangerous substances, or embarks upon an under-<br /> * taking peculiarly likely to cause harm, to take all<br /> precautions against the happening of such harm.<br /> But I do not think that “G. H. T.” would be<br /> cynic enough to urge that the founding of a<br /> periodical was an undertaking of such a nature,<br /> <br /> To descend from purely legal argument to the<br /> argument from common sense. Ts it unreasonable<br /> to expect that an author, or his literary agent,<br /> should make himself personally acquainted. with<br /> <br /> 97<br /> <br /> the contents of a periodical to which he proposes<br /> to contribute? If he neglects to do so, how can<br /> he possibly tell whether his proposed contribution<br /> is likely to be at all suitable in matter, style, or<br /> length ? Is not an editor entitled to resent such<br /> neglect as savouring of contempt, or, at least, of<br /> laziness, and indifference to the claims upon his<br /> time? Is he bound to pay a clerk for the express<br /> purpose of returning MSS. which are utterly unsuit-<br /> able for his pages? What would be thought of<br /> the man who wrote to the curator of a library:<br /> “ Herewith I send you a highly intelligent monkey.<br /> If he is not suitable for your shelves, kindly give<br /> him a carefully selected meal, and despatch him by<br /> the 9.55 to Norwich, carriage paid” ? Would<br /> not the librarian be entitled to regard the sender<br /> of the monkey as a troublesome lunatic? If the<br /> author, and, still more, the literary agent—who is<br /> supposed to be a man of business—does not take<br /> the trouble to acquaint himself with the conditions<br /> on which alone the editor has expressed himself as<br /> willing to treat, he has but himself to thank if the<br /> busy editor regards him as a nuisance.<br /> <br /> In conclusion, I may venture to doubt whether<br /> the periodical which is fed entirely, or almost<br /> entirely, by commissioned articles, is not already<br /> more common than “G. H. T.” is inclined to<br /> allow, and whether it is not likely to be still more<br /> common in the future. An organ founded for a<br /> definite purpose, (widely announced in the Press),<br /> drawing its financial support from people interested<br /> in that purpose, and relying on an organised staff,<br /> can hardly win success by any other means. Nor<br /> am I prepared to admit, that such an organ is any<br /> less worthy a product of the Republic of Letters<br /> than the miscellany which aims merely at the<br /> amusement of the leisure hour,<br /> <br /> An EDITOR.<br /> <br /> ———__+ +<br /> <br /> LITERARY, DRAMATIC, AND MUSICAL<br /> PROPERTY.<br /> <br /> +<br /> English “Serials” in the American Market.<br /> <br /> CORRESPONDENT tells us that “serials”<br /> which have appeared in England, and are<br /> copyright both in England and the United<br /> States, even in the journals generally conceded to<br /> buy the best class of serial fiction, do not command<br /> good prices in the United States market. £50 is<br /> a very outside price, and £30 is considered a price<br /> above the average, the general price being £15 to<br /> £20 for the serial use of from 80,000 to 100,000<br /> words, The truth is that the market is severely<br /> limited, owing to the fact that most of the United<br /> States publishers, who go in for this kind of work,<br /> <br /> <br /> 98<br /> <br /> prefer to furbish up and bring up to date, with the<br /> aid of cheap literary hacks, serials which appeared<br /> years ago, and present them, thus “ modernised,” as<br /> new stories to their readers. If this processshould<br /> continue, in the year 2000 the curious may be able<br /> to discover in United States fiction ‘“ Ivanhoe,”<br /> “Vanity Fair,” or “Oliver Twist,” in distorted<br /> form, altered and arranged to suit the decadent<br /> palate of the future American. Comment on this<br /> sort of action is superfluous.<br /> <br /> a So oe.<br /> <br /> MAGAZINE CONTENTS.<br /> <br /> ——+~&lt;— —<br /> BLACKWOOD’s MAGAZINE.<br /> <br /> John Chilcote, M.P. By Katherine Cecil Thurston.<br /> <br /> A Nation at Play: The Peril of Games.<br /> <br /> Silk o’ the Kine: A Tale of the Isles. By Alfred Noyes.<br /> <br /> The Trader of Last Notch. By Perceval Gibbon.<br /> <br /> To. the “Whole Hog”: An Allegorical Ode. By<br /> Dum-Dum.<br /> <br /> Some Big Lost Norway Salmon. By Gilfrid W. Hartley.<br /> <br /> “Sally”: A Study. By Hugh Clifford, C.M.G.<br /> <br /> Heraldry.<br /> <br /> The Appearances at the Black Knoll.<br /> <br /> Herbert Spencer : A Portrait.<br /> <br /> A Turkish Farm.<br /> <br /> The Military Book-shelf.<br /> <br /> Richard Cobden.<br /> <br /> Musings without Method.<br /> <br /> The Earl of Stair.<br /> <br /> THE CORNHILL MAGAZINE.<br /> <br /> The Sea-Born Man. By Mrs. Woods.<br /> <br /> The Truants (Chapters i.—iii.). By A. E. W. Mason.<br /> <br /> Charles Dickens and the Guild of Literature and Art.<br /> By the late Sir John R. Robinson.<br /> <br /> Colonial Memories: Old New Zealand, Il. By Lady<br /> Broome.<br /> <br /> No. 10 Downing Street. By the Right Hon. Sir<br /> Algernon West, G.C.B.<br /> <br /> Blackstick Papers, No, 8. By Mrs, Richmond Ritchie.<br /> <br /> Alms for Oblivion. By Richard Garnett, C.B., LL.D.<br /> <br /> Theodore Hook. By Viscount St. Cyres.<br /> <br /> In a Viceregal City. By Mrs, Archibald Little,<br /> <br /> Historical Mysteries (1.). The Mystery of Kaspar<br /> Hauser, the Child of Europe. By Andrew Lang.<br /> <br /> A Nineteenth Century Philosopher. By F. J. H.<br /> Darton.<br /> <br /> The Young Fisher. By Stephen Gwynn.<br /> <br /> The Ingenuity of Mr. Clinton Bathurst. By T. Baron<br /> Russell.<br /> <br /> LONGMAN’S MAGAZINE,<br /> <br /> Nature’s Comedian :(Chapters xiii., xiv.). By W. E.<br /> Norris.<br /> <br /> Marine Steam Turbines. By Robert Cromie.<br /> <br /> The King’s Nose. By Margaret Armour.<br /> <br /> Some Scouts—but not Scouting. By Captain A. 0,<br /> ‘Vaughan.<br /> <br /> Lament for Fionavar. By Eva Gore-Booth.<br /> <br /> Humours of Eastern Travel. By Louisa Jebb.<br /> <br /> The Brown Puppy. By Ellen Ada Smith.<br /> <br /> Rahel Varnhagen : The German Sibyl of the Nineteenth<br /> Century. By Mary Hargrave.<br /> <br /> At the Sign of the Ship. By Andrew Lang.<br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> PALL MALL MAGAZINE,<br /> <br /> The Children of the Potteries. By the Duchess of<br /> Sutherland.<br /> <br /> The Sensations and Emotions of Aerial Navigation. By<br /> A. Santos Dumont.<br /> <br /> The Guest of the Admiral: The Mediterranean Fleet at<br /> Home. By Arnold White.<br /> <br /> An Episode in a Country House: A Story. By<br /> Frances Harrod (Frances Forbes Robertson).<br /> <br /> A Song. By Lady Lily Greene.<br /> <br /> On the Trail of the Opal. By P. F. 8. Spence (Alex-<br /> ander Macdonald).<br /> <br /> The Lady and the Property: A Story. ByMarie van Vorst.<br /> <br /> Literary Geography : The Bronté Country. By William<br /> Sharp.<br /> <br /> A Matter of Honour: A Story. By R. Neish.<br /> <br /> The Queen’s Quair: Book II., Chapters V., VI. By<br /> Maurice Hewlett.<br /> <br /> Master Workers : X. Sir Oliver Lodge. With portraits.<br /> By Harold Begbie.<br /> <br /> Captives: A Poem. By V. V.<br /> <br /> The Wilderness: A Story. By H. B. Marriott-Watson.<br /> <br /> The Vineyard: Chapters XVIII, XIX. By John<br /> Oliver Hobbes (Mrs. Craigie).<br /> <br /> Benjamin’s Mess: A Story. By Eden Phillpotts.<br /> <br /> Sunrise: A Poem. By E, Nesbit.<br /> <br /> The Round Table :—A Famous Doctor and his Friends.<br /> By Ernest Rhys. Nursery Pictures: ‘Little Jack<br /> Horner.” By S. H. Sime. A Critic Criticised: Mr,<br /> Sidney Lee and the Baconians. By G. Stronach.<br /> <br /> The Month in Caricature. By G. R. H.<br /> <br /> THE WORLD’S WorRK.<br /> <br /> The March of Events: An Illustrated Editorial Record<br /> and Comment.<br /> The Old Year.<br /> The Fiscal Battlefield,<br /> A Step in Civilisation.<br /> Another Little War ? ;<br /> Radium and the Beginnings of Matter.<br /> The Fiscal Issue Joined. By J. St. Loe Strachey (Editor<br /> of the Spectator).<br /> Motorists under the New Act. By Henry Norman, M.P.<br /> A British Industry Really Ruined. By Edwin Sharpe<br /> Grew.<br /> Producing a Pantomime. (Illustrated.)<br /> A Modern London, Office Building. (illustrated.)<br /> Milking Cows by Electricity. (Illustrated.)<br /> The Steam Turbine. (Illustrated.) By Robert Cromie<br /> and Frederick E. Rebbeck,<br /> The. Pressing Question of our Canals. By Edwin<br /> Clements.<br /> The Working of a London Bank. By J. E. Woolacott.<br /> The Lady Chef.<br /> The Wonders of Modern Surgery. (illustrated.) By<br /> C. W. Saleeby, M.B., Ch. B.<br /> Three New Schools. (Illustrated.) By Eustace Miles, M.A.<br /> Scientific Pheasant Farming. (lllustrated.) By W.<br /> Bovill.<br /> <br /> The Work of a Japanese Craftsman, (lllustrated.) By .<br /> <br /> Herbert G. Ponting.<br /> <br /> Municipal Loans for Small Investors. (Illustrated.). By<br /> Edouard Charles.<br /> <br /> British Trade with France.<br /> <br /> The Derwent Valley Waterworks.<br /> <br /> The Making of an American Newspaper.<br /> <br /> The World of Women’s Work.<br /> _ Fresh Eggs and Poultry. illustrated.) “Home<br /> Counties.”<br /> <br /> The Work of the Book World.<br /> <br /> Among the World’s Workers : A Record of Industry.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> WARNINGS TO THE PRODUCERS<br /> OF BOOKS.<br /> <br /> —— +<br /> <br /> ERE are a few standing rules to be observed in an<br /> agreement. There are four methods of dealing<br /> with literary property :—<br /> <br /> I. Selling it Outright.<br /> <br /> This is sometimes satisfactory, if a proper price can be<br /> oltained. But the transaction should be managed by a<br /> competent agent, or with the advice of the Secretary of<br /> the Society.<br /> <br /> II. A Profit-Sharing Agreement (a bad form of<br /> agreement).<br /> <br /> In this case the following rules should be attended to:<br /> <br /> C1.) Not to sign any agreement in which the cost of pro-<br /> duction forms a part without the strictest investigation.<br /> <br /> (2.) Not to give the publisher the power of putting the<br /> profits into his own pocket by charging for advertisements<br /> in his own organs, or by charging exchange advertise-<br /> ments. Therefore keep control of the advertisements.<br /> <br /> (3.) Not to allow a special charge for “office expenses,”<br /> unless the same allowance is made to the author.<br /> <br /> (4.) Not to give up American, Colonial, or Continental<br /> rights.<br /> <br /> (5.) Not to give up serial or translation rights.<br /> <br /> (6.) Not to bind yourself for future work to any publisher.<br /> As well bind yourself for the future to any one solicitor or<br /> doctor !<br /> <br /> Ill. The Royalty System.<br /> <br /> This is perhaps, with certain limitations, the best form<br /> of agreement. It is above all things necessary to know<br /> what the proposed royalty means to both sides. It isnow<br /> possible for an author to ascertain approximately the<br /> truth. From time to time very important figures connected<br /> with royalties are published in Zhe Author.<br /> <br /> IY. A Commission Agreement.<br /> <br /> The main points are :—<br /> <br /> (1.) Be careful to obtain a fair cost of production.<br /> (2.) Keep control of the advertisements.<br /> <br /> (3.) Keep control of the sale price of the book.<br /> <br /> General.<br /> <br /> All other forms of agreement are combinations of the four<br /> above mentioned.<br /> <br /> Such combinations are generally disastrous to the author,<br /> <br /> Never sign any agreement without competent advice from<br /> ‘the Secretary of the Society.<br /> <br /> Stamp all agreements with the Inland Revenue stamp.<br /> <br /> Avoid agreements by letter if possible.<br /> <br /> The main points which the Society has always demanded<br /> from the outset are :—<br /> <br /> (1.) That both sides shall know what an agreement<br /> means.<br /> <br /> (2.) The inspection of those account books which belong<br /> fo the author. We are advised that this is a right. in the<br /> nature of a common law right, which cannot be denied or<br /> withheld.<br /> <br /> (3.) Always avoid a transfer of copyright.<br /> <br /> ————_+—~&gt;»<br /> <br /> WARNINGS TO DRAMATIC AUTHORS.<br /> ———9<br /> “AT EVER sign an agreement without submitting it to the<br /> Secretary of the Society of Authors or some com-<br /> petent legal authority,<br /> 2. {t is well to be extremely careful in negotiating for<br /> the production of a play with anyone except an established<br /> manager,<br /> <br /> 99<br /> <br /> 3. There are three forms of dramatic contract for plays<br /> in three or more acts :—<br /> <br /> (a.) Sale outright of the performing right. This<br /> is unsatisfactory. An author who enters into<br /> such a contract should stipulate in the contract<br /> for production of the piece by a certain date<br /> and for proper publicatioa of his name on the<br /> play-bills.<br /> <br /> (4.) Sale of performing right or of a licence to<br /> perform on the basis of percentages on<br /> gross receipts. Percentages vary between 5<br /> and 15 per cent. An author should obtain a<br /> percentage on the sliding scale of gross receipts<br /> in preference to the American system. Should<br /> obtain a sum in advance of percentages. A fixed<br /> date on or before which the play should be<br /> performed.<br /> <br /> (c.) Sale of performing right or of a licence to<br /> perform on the basis of royalties (i.c., fixed<br /> nightly fees). This method should be always<br /> avoided except in cases where the fees are<br /> likely to be small or difficult to collect. The<br /> other safeguards set out under heading (0.) apply<br /> also in this case,<br /> <br /> 4. Plays in one act are often sold outright, but it is<br /> better to obtain a small nightly fee if possible, and a sum<br /> paid in advance of such fees in any event. It is extremely<br /> important that the amateur rights of one-act plays should<br /> be reserved.<br /> <br /> 5. Authors should remember that performing rights can<br /> be limited, and are usually limited, by town, country, and<br /> time. This is most important.<br /> <br /> 6. Authors should not assign performing rights, but<br /> should grant a licence to perform. The legal distinction is<br /> of great importance.<br /> <br /> 7, Authors should remember that performing rights in a<br /> play are distinct from literary copyright. A manager<br /> holding the performing right or licence to perform cannot<br /> print the book of the words.<br /> <br /> 8. Never forget that United States rights may be exceed-<br /> ingly valuable. ‘hey should never be included in English<br /> agreements without the author obtaining a substantial<br /> consideration.<br /> <br /> 9. Agreements for collaboration should be carefully<br /> drawn and executed before collaboration is commenced.<br /> <br /> 10. An author should remember that production of a play<br /> is highly speculative: that he runs a very great risk of<br /> delay and a breakdown in the fulfilment of his contract.<br /> He should therefore guard himself all the more carefully in<br /> the beginning.<br /> <br /> 11. An author must remember that the dramatic market<br /> is exceedingly limited, and that for a novice the first object<br /> is to obtain adequate publication.<br /> <br /> As these warnings must necessarily be incomplete, on<br /> account of the wide range of the subject of dramatic con-<br /> tracts, those authors desirous of further information<br /> are referred to the Secretary of the Society.<br /> <br /> oe<br /> <br /> WARNINGS TO MUSICAL COMPOSERS.<br /> to<br /> <br /> ITTLE can be added to the warnings given for the<br /> assistance of producers of books and dramatic<br /> authors. It must, however, be pointed out that, as<br /> <br /> a rule, the musical publisher demands from the musical<br /> composer a transfer of fuller rights and less liberal finan-<br /> cial terms than those obtained for literary and dramatic<br /> property. The musical composer has very often the two<br /> rights to deal with—performing right and copyright. He<br /> <br /> <br /> 100<br /> <br /> should be especially careful therefore when entering into<br /> an agreement, and should take into particular consideration<br /> the warnings stated above.<br /> <br /> — ee<br /> <br /> HOW TO USE THE SOCIETY.<br /> <br /> +<br /> <br /> a. VERY member has a right to ask for and to receive<br /> advice upon his agreements, his choice of a pub-<br /> lisher, or any dispute arising in the conduct of his<br /> <br /> business or the administration of his property. The<br /> <br /> Secretary of the Society is a solicitor, but if there is any<br /> <br /> special reason the Secretary will refer the case to the<br /> <br /> Solicitors of the Society. Further, the Committee, if they<br /> <br /> deem it desirable, will obtain counsel’s opinion. All this<br /> <br /> without any cost to the member.<br /> <br /> 2. Remember that questions connected with copyright<br /> and publishers’ agreements do not fall within the experi-<br /> ence of ordinary solicitors. Therefore, do not scruple to use<br /> the Society.<br /> <br /> 3. Send to the Office copies of past agreements and past<br /> accounts, with a copy of the book represented. The<br /> Secretary will always be glad to have any agreements, new<br /> or old, for inspection and note. The information thus<br /> obtained may prove invaluable.<br /> <br /> 4, Before signing any agreement whatever, send<br /> the document to the Society for examination.<br /> <br /> 5, Remember always that in belonging to the Society<br /> you are fighting the battles of other writers, even if you<br /> are reaping no benefit to yourself, and that you are<br /> advancing the best interests of your calling in promoting<br /> the independence of the writer, the dramatist, the composer.<br /> <br /> 6. The Committee have now arranged for the reception<br /> of members’ agreements and their preservation in a fire-<br /> proof safe. The agreements will, of course, be regarded as<br /> confidential documents to be read only by the Secretary,<br /> who will keep the key of the safe. The Society now offers :<br /> —(1) To read and advise upon agreements and to give<br /> advice concerning publishers. (2) To stamp agreements<br /> in readiness for a possible action upon them. (3) To keep<br /> agreements. (4) To enforce payments due according to<br /> agreements. Fuller particulars of the Society’s work<br /> can be obtained in the Prospectus.<br /> <br /> 7. No contract should be entered into with a literary<br /> agent without the advice of the Secretary of the Society.<br /> Members are strongly advised not to accept without careful<br /> consideration the contracts with publishers submitted to<br /> them by literary agents, and are recommended to submit<br /> them for interpretation and explanation to the Secretary<br /> of the Society.<br /> <br /> 8. Many agents neglect to stamp agreements This<br /> must be done within fourteen days of first execution. The<br /> Secretary will undertake it on behalf of members.<br /> <br /> 9. Some agents endeavour to prevent authors from<br /> referring matters to the Secretary of the Society; so<br /> do some publishers. Members can make their own<br /> deductions and act accordingly.<br /> <br /> 10. The subscription to the Society is £1 1s. per<br /> annum, or £10 10s. for life membership.<br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> THE READING BRANCH.<br /> <br /> — ++<br /> <br /> EMBERS will greatly assist the Society in this<br /> branch of its work by informing young writers<br /> of its existence. Their MSS. can be read and<br /> <br /> treated as a composition is treated by a coach, The term<br /> MSS. includes not only works of fiction, but poetry<br /> and dramatic works, and when it is possible, under<br /> special arrangement, technical and scientific works. The<br /> Readers are writers of competence and experience. The<br /> fee is one guinea.<br /> <br /> + 2 ——_—_<br /> <br /> NOTICES.<br /> <br /> —<br /> <br /> HE Editor of The Author begs to remind members of<br /> <br /> the Society that, although the paper is sent to them<br /> <br /> free of charge, the cost of producing it would be a<br /> <br /> very heavy charge on the resources of the Society if a great<br /> <br /> many members did not forward to the Secretary the modest<br /> 5s. 6d. subscription for the year.<br /> <br /> Communications for Zhe Author should be addressed to<br /> the Offices of the Society, 39, Old Queen Street, Storey’s<br /> Gate, §.W., and should reach the Editor not later than<br /> the 21st of each month.<br /> <br /> All persons engaged in_ literary work of any kind,<br /> whether members of the Society or mot, are invited to<br /> communicate to the Editor any points connected with their<br /> work which it would be advisable in the general interest to<br /> publish.<br /> <br /> ————_+ + —_<br /> <br /> Communications and letters are invited by the<br /> Editor on all subjects connected with literature, but on<br /> no other subjects whatever. Every effort will be made to<br /> return articles which cannot be accepted.<br /> <br /> —<br /> <br /> The Secretary of the Society begs to give notice<br /> that all remittances are acknowledged by return of post,<br /> <br /> and he requests members who do not receive an<br /> <br /> answer to important communications within two days to<br /> <br /> write to him without delay. All remittances should be —<br /> crossed Union Bank of London, Chancery Lane, or be sent ©<br /> <br /> by registered letter only.<br /> <br /> ———__+—_+—__—_<br /> <br /> THE LEGAL AND GENERAL LIFE<br /> ASSURANCE SOCIETY.<br /> <br /> ot<br /> <br /> N offer has been made of a special scheme of.<br /> <br /> Endowment and Whole Life Assurance,<br /> <br /> admitting of a material reduction off the<br /> <br /> ordinary premiums to members of the Society<br /> Full information can be obtained from J. P. Blake,<br /> <br /> 5<br /> <br /> 158, Leadenhall Street, E.C.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Leval and General Insurance Society (City Branch), —<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> ae a<br /> <br /> ne<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> AUTHORITIES.<br /> <br /> —————<br /> <br /> WE see in an extract from the Westminsier<br /> Gazette that the Société des Gens de Lettres has<br /> recently inherited two legacies, one of them<br /> valued at 35,000 francs, and the other, consisting<br /> of real property, estimated to produce 18,000 francs<br /> when realised. Both these legacies will go to sup-<br /> port the Pension Fund of the Société.<br /> <br /> The Société des Gens de Lettres is a wealthy<br /> society owing to the fact that it has certain rights<br /> over the works of members who belong to it, and<br /> <br /> can obtain financial support from the sale of these -<br /> <br /> rights.<br /> <br /> An arrangement of this kind would, of course, be<br /> impossible under the constitution of our Society,<br /> but no doubt, as time goes on, the capital at the<br /> back of the Society will be increased by grateful<br /> members either during their lifetime by donations<br /> or after their death by legacies, till the time<br /> will at length come when neither the Society<br /> nor the Society’s Pension Fund will need further<br /> assistance.<br /> <br /> The Société des Gens de Lettres, it is stated,<br /> has at the present time 145 pensioners, but the<br /> value of the pensions are only £12 a year, and are<br /> awarded as a matter of right to the members of<br /> the Société in order of seniority whenever funds<br /> permit. Many of the more wealthy authors who<br /> are members waive their rights to the pensions to<br /> which they are entitled.<br /> <br /> Mr. J. R. Kewry, of “ The London Directory,”<br /> has been interviewed by a correspondent of a daily<br /> paper. He made one point referring to copyright<br /> which was amusing as well as instructive.<br /> <br /> Infringement of copyright in a directory is<br /> often exceedingly hard to prove, as the facts con-<br /> tained in its pages are, as a rule, open to all<br /> parties ; and as long as anyone acting bond fide<br /> goes to the original source for information so long<br /> may he make use of that information in any way<br /> that seems fit to him.<br /> <br /> We do not refer to the question of the peculiar<br /> form in which the information may be conveyed to<br /> the public, this is another and difficult branch of<br /> copyright ; for instance, in the case of the “A. B. C.<br /> Railway Guide,” there is a certain copyright, not<br /> in the matter, but in the form.<br /> <br /> Mr. Kelly tells how on one occasion a certain<br /> merchant came to his office and said he had been<br /> asked to advertise in a new directory that was<br /> guaranteed a circulation of 15,000 copies. Mr.<br /> Kelly was naturally interested, and looked at the<br /> Copy which the merchant brought with him.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> 101<br /> <br /> He referred to one name in the directory, and<br /> seeing the manner in which it had been spelt he<br /> was at once aware that the contents had been<br /> stolen from his own book, as he had himself in-<br /> vented the name and inserted it. Mr. Kelly’s<br /> firm started a prosecution and won the day, and<br /> all copies of the pirated book were ordered to be<br /> destroyed.<br /> <br /> We quote Mr. Kelly’s own words.<br /> <br /> “TI shall never forget the ferocious question put<br /> to me in cross-examination by the defendant’s<br /> counsel. ‘ What,’ he cried, ‘do you stand there,<br /> Mr. Kelly, and confess that you, a gentleman of<br /> honour and position, were actually laying a trap ?’<br /> ‘You have to lay traps to catch vermin,’ I took<br /> the liberty of replying.”<br /> <br /> The counsel, no doubt, felt the rebuke.<br /> <br /> This calls to mind another story of copyright<br /> infringement, where the result was equally satis-<br /> factory to the real owner. We believe it occurred<br /> to Mr. Gambier Boulton, the well-known photo-<br /> grapher of wild animals, but cannot at the moment<br /> verify the statement. The hero of the story,<br /> whoever he was, had, with considerable difficulty,<br /> after watching for many days, photographed one<br /> of the lions at the Zoological Gardens in the act of<br /> yawning. On this photograph great time and<br /> trouble had been expended, and he was, in conse-<br /> quence, very proud of the result. Not long after-<br /> wards he found the photograph reproduced in a<br /> magazine, and brought an action for infringement.<br /> The magazine contributor defended the case, and<br /> stated that the photograph was original and was<br /> not a copy. The reply from the plaintiff was<br /> conclusive.<br /> <br /> “It is a curious point,” he said, “that both<br /> lions we have photographed should have had a<br /> cancer on their tongues.”<br /> <br /> The Court gave a verdict for the plaintiff.<br /> <br /> THE Nobel Prize for literature has this year<br /> been assigned to the great Norwegian author,<br /> Bjornstjerne Bjornson.<br /> <br /> There was a report current that this would be<br /> <br /> - the case, and we think the Stockholm Committee<br /> <br /> amply justified in their selection. Mr. Bjornson<br /> was born on the 8th of December, 1832, and is,<br /> therefore, now in his seventy-second year.<br /> <br /> Though a constant traveller, he spends most of<br /> his summer on a little farm which he has purchased<br /> in the heart of Norway.<br /> <br /> His works are well known in this and all<br /> English-speaking countries, and many of them<br /> have been translated. He is not only a novelist,<br /> but a dramatist and a poet.<br /> <br /> <br /> 2,<br /> <br /> 102<br /> <br /> «Tye Amalgamated Press,” Limited, according<br /> to the papers which have given reports of the<br /> annual meeting, is in a flourishing condition.<br /> <br /> Mr. Alfred C. Harmsworth stated that the<br /> company, after writing off £25,000 for depreciation,<br /> had £266,000 to divide as dividends, and further<br /> if this is not aslip of the pen) had made a nett<br /> profit of £180,000 out of “With the Flag to<br /> Pretoria.”<br /> <br /> These figures are exceedingly interesting to all<br /> members of the profession of authorship.<br /> <br /> If the publishers have made these enormous<br /> profits, no doubt the authors employed have<br /> received their fair and just remuneration at the<br /> same time. We have much pleasure, therefore, in<br /> congratulating the author of “ With the Flag to<br /> Pretoria”? on the small fortune which he must<br /> <br /> have acquired.<br /> <br /> —————<br /> <br /> On December 10th, in the Guildhall Library,<br /> the bust of Geoffrey Chaucer was unveiled. It<br /> was presented by Sir Recinald Hanson, and was<br /> the work of Mr. George Frampton, R.A.<br /> <br /> Many distinguished men were present, either<br /> writers or those who take an interest in literature.<br /> <br /> The ceremony of unveiling was undertaken by<br /> Dr. Furnivall, the Chaucer scholar and founder of<br /> the Chaucer Society.<br /> <br /> Mr. Alfred Austin, the Poet Laureate, seconded<br /> a resolution thanking Sir Reginald Hanson for the<br /> gift.<br /> That the work should have been placed in the<br /> Guildhall Library has a point of interest beyond<br /> the literary. Chaucer was not only a poet, but a<br /> commercial man and a diplomatist. He was<br /> despatched to Genoa in 1372 as the representative<br /> of England in order to bring about a commercial<br /> treaty with that city. The members of the Corpora-<br /> tion have therefore every reason to look upon him<br /> as one of themselves.<br /> <br /> We have much pleasure in printing on another<br /> page a_ short article referring to the sale of<br /> the MS. of “Paradise Lost,” and Mr. Sidney<br /> Lee’s letter which appeared in The Times of<br /> December 14th.<br /> <br /> ‘A matter so important to all lovers of literature<br /> cannot be too often placed before the public. It is<br /> hoped, with the help of Mr. Lee and many others<br /> who prize English literature and its connections,<br /> <br /> that it will be possible to save the MS. from being<br /> taken out of England.<br /> <br /> We feel sure that any National movement for<br /> its purchase will obtain the ready support of all<br /> Members of the Society.<br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> SHOULD WELL-KNOWN WRITERS<br /> “FARM OUT” FICTION ?<br /> <br /> ———<br /> From THE COMMITTEE.<br /> <br /> L the first of the notices which are regularly<br /> inserted on the first page of Zhe Author it is<br /> announced that “ For the opinions expressed<br /> <br /> in the papers that are signed or initialled the<br /> authors alone are responsible. None of the papers<br /> or paragraphs must be taken as expressing the<br /> opinion of the Committee, unless such is especially<br /> stated to be the case.”<br /> <br /> The Committee had considered, and their atten-<br /> tion has now been called by more than one<br /> member of the Society to, an article on pages<br /> 80 and 81 of the December number, signed<br /> “Proxy,” and entitled, “Should Well-known<br /> Writers ‘Farm-out’ Fiction ?”<br /> <br /> The correspondents appear to assume, Or to<br /> imagine that others might assume, that the pub-<br /> lication of this article may, in the absence of<br /> editorial comment, be taken to imply that the<br /> Committee think the view put forward in it is<br /> worthy to be taken seriously.<br /> <br /> By many readers of Zhe Author the article<br /> was regarded as an ironical jew @esprit, but it<br /> has been accepted by others as a bond fide de-<br /> fence of an existing practice, and it is undoubtedly<br /> open to this interpretation.<br /> <br /> The Committee, therefore, to avoid possible<br /> misunderstanding, feel it their duty to say that,<br /> in their opinion, such practices as are described<br /> and defended by “Proxy” are gravely discredit-<br /> able to those concerned, and constitute a gross<br /> fraud both on the publisher and the public.<br /> <br /> In thus expressing their opinion on the points<br /> raised in “ Proxy’s” article, the Committee, it may<br /> be well to add, must not be understood to condemn<br /> such forms of co-operation as are frequently<br /> resorted to in works involving extensive research,<br /> or where, in other branches of literature, the<br /> co-operation is acknowledged in such a manner<br /> that no purchaser can reasonably complain of<br /> having been misled.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Tur Editor has received from Members of the<br /> Society a number of letters which would more<br /> than fill the space reserved for correspondence in<br /> the present number, commenting on “ Proxy’s”<br /> article. Having before their receipt been in-<br /> structed to insert the note from the Committee<br /> printed above, which meets most of the points<br /> raised by his correspondents, he has, with the<br /> Commitiee’s approval, refrained from publishing<br /> <br /> any selection from these letters in the current<br /> <br /> number.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> aeuneey<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> HERBERT SPENCER, 1820—1903.<br /> <br /> an ep<br /> <br /> . HE suns go swiftly out, and I see no suns to<br /> follow; nothing but a universal twilight<br /> of the semi-divinities.” So wrote Robert<br /> <br /> Louis Stevenson, apropos of the deaths of Renan,<br /> Browning, and Tennyson, and his plaint has echo<br /> among those who have sat at the feet of departed<br /> masters in scienceand philosophy—Darwin, Huxley,<br /> Spencer. For thoughts of a vanished day rather<br /> than of a coming dawn are uppermost ; thoughts<br /> restrained only by the knowledge that the influence<br /> of these teachers, men of lofty aims and unsullied<br /> life, is a part of our imperishable heritage, and<br /> that, consciously or not, we are swayed by it to<br /> further, as at our poor best we may, their high<br /> emprise.<br /> <br /> The obituary notices of Herbert Spencer have<br /> familiarised us with the outlines of his career. No<br /> eventful one, such as comes to men of action, yet<br /> full of incident in struggle bordering on the heroic,<br /> in unflinching purpose and large accomplishment.<br /> Son of a Derby schoolmaster, he was educated<br /> partly at home, partly by an uncle; then came<br /> nine years of civil engineering, with little heart in<br /> the work, and, ultimately, escape into journalism.<br /> In 1850, while sub-editing the Hconomist, Spencer<br /> published “ Social Statics,” wherein ‘“ the conditions<br /> essential to human happiness are specified, and the<br /> relation of them to a general law of development<br /> indicated.” In this last phrase the keynote of his<br /> life-work is struck. One chapter of the book<br /> contains hints of the great doctrine with which<br /> Spencer’s name is associated for all time, while<br /> throughout the book there is present the feeling<br /> that, in the words of Hume, “all sciences have a<br /> relation, greater or less, to man.”<br /> <br /> Neither in the moral nor the material sphere is<br /> their special creation. All that has been achieved,<br /> whether in discovery, invention, or speculation<br /> which research has confirmed, is the fruitage of the<br /> unhasting, unresting past. And the conception<br /> of the universe, as in some way the product of<br /> mechanical processes, is not modern. Ages before<br /> Spencer made clear to us the unity of the cosmos,<br /> there had been approaches to that supremely<br /> ennobling conception. But, save through a voice<br /> crying here and there as in a wilderness, the spirit<br /> of enquiry, born in Ionia five centuries before<br /> Christ, was stifled for two thousand years by creeds<br /> that would brook no rival and permit no ques-<br /> tioning. As late as the middle of the eighteenth<br /> century, Buffon, covertly hinting at a possible<br /> common ancestor of the horse and ass, and of the<br /> ape and man, adds, with an eye on the Sorbonne,<br /> that since scripture teaches the contrary, the thing<br /> cannot be. But the timid suggestion bore fruit in<br /> <br /> 103<br /> <br /> the bravely enounced theories of Lamarck and<br /> Darwin’s distinguished grandfather, the poetical<br /> Lichfield doctor. A succession of workers in the<br /> fields of geology, palzeontology and biology brought<br /> a body of evidence in support of those theories<br /> which ultimately demolished the tenacious belief<br /> in the fixity of species. Among these there can in<br /> this brief paper be reference only to Von Baer, the<br /> formulator of the “ Law of Development ” manifest<br /> in the fundamental likenesses between the embryos<br /> of the higher animals and man, because Spencer<br /> tells us that, becoming acquainted with this ‘ Law ”<br /> in 1852, he at once saw its bearing on the theory<br /> adumbrated in “Social Statics.’ So far as organic<br /> evolution was concerned, the master-key to the<br /> causes of the origin of the millions of species of<br /> plants and animals was lacking, but this was to be<br /> supplied six years later by Darwin and Wallace.<br /> Thus were all things being made ready for the<br /> advent of a man with the penetrating insight of<br /> genius, and with the saving and indispensable<br /> sense of relation, who should, by his skill in syn-<br /> thesis, demonstrate the interaction, unity and con-<br /> tinuity of all phenomena, and their subservience<br /> to one process which, if it operates anywhere,<br /> operates everywhere—the process known as Evolu-<br /> tion. In the fulness of time he came. He had<br /> bad health ; he was poor ; he was almost unknown,<br /> therefore little heeded. In January, 1858, six<br /> months before the meeting of the Linnean Society<br /> at which Darwin and Wallace’s memorable paper<br /> “On the Perpetuation of Varieties and Species by<br /> Natural Selection” was read, Spencer wrote out<br /> his scheme of the ‘Synthetic Philosophy ” which,<br /> it is interesting to note, was submitted to his father<br /> for comment. In 1860 the prospectus of the pro-<br /> posed series of volumes was issued, and secured a<br /> sufficient response from friends to warrant a venture<br /> whose risks Spencer could not afford to run unaided.<br /> Not till he was forty did he sce the inception<br /> of a plan which he had nurtured when writing<br /> in his twenty-second year a series of letters on<br /> “The Proper Sphere of Government’”’ in the<br /> Nonconformist.<br /> <br /> The Synthetic Philosophy comprehended all<br /> phenomena in this formula: ‘ Evolution is an<br /> integration of matter and concomitant dissipation<br /> of motion during which the matter passes from an<br /> indefinite, incoherent homogeneity to a definite,<br /> coherent heterogeneity, and during which the<br /> retained motion undergoes a parallel transforma-<br /> tion.” The method followed is the inductive, the<br /> established premise being the “persistence of<br /> force ” involving endless cycles of ceaseless change,<br /> resulting in redistribution of matter and motion,<br /> whereby adyance is made from the like to the<br /> unlike, from the simple to the complex; for<br /> example, the vapours and unstable stuff of the<br /> <br /> <br /> 104<br /> <br /> universe slowly condensing into sun and solar<br /> systems, life emerging on our planet (of which<br /> alone we have knowledge) along physical and<br /> psychical stages till the transcendent genius of<br /> man appears. Postulating the inscrutableness of<br /> the Power which underlies all phenomena, and<br /> ever quickening the sense of wonder begotten by<br /> the stupendous spectacle of evolution and dissolu-<br /> tion, Spencer advanced along the lines of his great<br /> argument, from statements of the general in<br /> «First Principles” to application of the special<br /> in the “ Principles of Biology,” with its details of<br /> development of plants and animals ; in the<br /> “Principles of Psychology,” wherein the story<br /> passes from life to mind in the development of<br /> gelf-consciousness from blurred, undetermined feel-<br /> ing in the lowest responsive organism ; and finally,<br /> in the “ Principles of Sociology,” wherein is traced<br /> the evolution of family, tribal and allied relations,<br /> of religion and its ceremonies, of politics and<br /> institutions—in brief, of all the apparatus of<br /> human life, individual and collective, with large<br /> insistence on the basis of ethics as not supernatural,<br /> but social. So we have, first, the imorgantc, or<br /> evolution of the not-living ; second, the organic,<br /> or evolution of the living ; (Spencer sees in mind<br /> and matter only “two phases of one cosmical pro-<br /> cess”); and third, the superorganic, or evolution<br /> into social groups, with their institutions, beliefs,<br /> and customs. No break in the series is recognised ;<br /> the keynotes of evolution are unity and continuity.<br /> Science knows no finality ; but, recognising that<br /> revisions here and there will be needed as know-<br /> ledge advances, it is difficult to believe that the<br /> main structure raised by the genius of Spencer<br /> will not abide. It was his rare privilege to see in<br /> old age the fulfilment of the plan of his early<br /> manhood, and whatever of impermanence may<br /> attach to his work, his place as one of the greatest<br /> of the world’s master-builders in the intellectual<br /> and spiritual domain is secure. A concluding word<br /> or two about Spencer’s style and personality. The<br /> one has been called cumbersome, lacking in ease<br /> and grace ; but massive thought demands dignified,<br /> masculine diction, and the careful reader will<br /> quickly find that in clearness and definiteness the<br /> style is perfectly adapted to the subject-matter.<br /> In some of the minor works, notably those on<br /> “Education” and the delightful “Study of<br /> Sociology,” we find abundance of felicitous and<br /> familiar illustration. As for the man, his carefully-<br /> guarded health led to some degree of fussiness and<br /> fidgetiness, while a certain aloofness kept company<br /> with a frigid manner under which, nevertheless,<br /> there beat a kindly heart, ever moved by the needs<br /> and troubles of his friends.<br /> <br /> Tt was in 1894 that our Society had the dis-<br /> tinction of adding to its member-roll the name of<br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> a man to whom all titular dignities were repellent,<br /> and whose adhesion to any movement was never<br /> given without deliberation.<br /> <br /> EDWARD CLODD.<br /> <br /> &lt;&gt; —______<br /> <br /> THE MS. OF MILTON’S “ PARADISE LOST.”<br /> <br /> ——&gt;——<br /> <br /> R. SIDNEY LEE sent to The Times a<br /> <br /> letter on this subject which appeared on<br /> <br /> Dec. 14. We reprint his communication<br /> <br /> with some slight changes and omissions which we<br /> have his authority for making.<br /> <br /> Mr. Lee wrote :—“ It is to be hoped that every<br /> one who has the reputation of this country at heart<br /> and is in a position to bring influence to bear on<br /> its rulers will take note of Mr. Churton Collins’<br /> <br /> warning and spare no endeavour to prevent the<br /> <br /> passing into ownership beyond the seas of the<br /> original MS. press copy of the First Book of<br /> Milton’s ‘ Paradise Lost.’ The peril is very real.<br /> Unless strenuous efforts be made, the chances<br /> against the keeping of the document at home are<br /> overwhelming. If no public pressure be exerted,<br /> there is an obvious likelihood that this literary<br /> treasure will follow the recent fortunes of the only<br /> known copies of the original edition of Malory’s<br /> ‘Le Morte d’Arthur’ and of many another of our<br /> early literary masterpieces, and henceforth adorn<br /> the private library of some American citizen of<br /> wealth and enterprise.”<br /> <br /> “The occasion demands exceptional exertion. The<br /> nation’s prestige owes an immense debt to its<br /> literary achievements, and to no literary achieve-<br /> ment (save to Shakespeare’s greatest tragedies) does<br /> it owe more than to Milton’s ‘ Paradise Lost.’<br /> No autograph MS. of the poem has ever existed,<br /> for Milton in his blindness was not able to write,<br /> but the copy which he sent to the licenser for the<br /> press with his own characteristic corrections of the<br /> spelling is the nearest possible approach to his<br /> original MS. This MS. of a portion of Milton’s<br /> epic is, in effect, one of the nation’s title-deeds to<br /> poetic and intellectual renown. Is it unreasonable<br /> to expect that the Government will recognise its<br /> obligation, now that the opportunity presents itself,<br /> to convert this national title-deed to fame into a<br /> national heirloom, and secure it in perpetuity for<br /> the British Museum ?”<br /> <br /> “ Experience does not admit of doubt as to the<br /> answer that, were similar circumstances to arise in<br /> foreign countries, this question would receive from<br /> foreign Governments. It is difficult to believe<br /> that, with so potent an incentive to action as is<br /> offered by the forthcoming sale, the Treasury will<br /> hesitate to provide the necessary increase of grant<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> whereby the national library may become the final<br /> home of Milton’s MS.”<br /> <br /> “The sale is announced to take place ‘early in<br /> the spring.’ Apparently, no precise day has yet<br /> been fixed. The Trustees of the British Museum<br /> and other public bodies will thus have time<br /> wherein to approach the Government, and learn<br /> their intentions. Probably, to meet all eventu-<br /> alities, it would be safest at once to form privately<br /> a guarantee fund, whose members would undertake,<br /> in the case of the failure of an application to the<br /> Government, to defray the cost of securing the MS.<br /> for the British Museum. Disclosure of details as<br /> to the amount likely to be required would defeat<br /> the purpose of the fund.”<br /> <br /> The owner of the MS. has just announced<br /> through the auctioneers that he will dispose of it<br /> to the highest bidder at public auction on January<br /> 25th.<br /> <br /> A scholarly account of the textual interest<br /> attaching to the MS. appeared in The Times<br /> Literary Supplement of Dec. 18th. Some news-<br /> paper correspondents may have attached an unduly<br /> high value to the MS., but the opposing statement<br /> made by Dr. Furnivall in The Times of Dec.<br /> 19th, that it is a valueless scrivener’s copy, is<br /> incorrect. No extravagant sum ought to be<br /> offered for the document, because it is not an<br /> author’s autograph MS. But it is eminently<br /> desirable that every attempt should be made to<br /> secure it for the national collection. We should be<br /> glad to hear from any who would co-operate in<br /> efforts in that direction.<br /> <br /> ——————<br /> <br /> A NEW BOOK ON COPYRIGHT.<br /> <br /> —_—<br /> <br /> E have read with interest a little book just<br /> V published by A. H. Bullen, entitled<br /> “ Copyright Law,” by Henry A. Hinkson.<br /> The book is a very small one to deal with so<br /> large and difficult a subject. In this point lies its<br /> main fault, It is written clearly and plainly with-<br /> out any unnecessary legal argument, and is mainly<br /> a statement of the facts and the results of the<br /> working of the law.<br /> So far the book is admirable. The faults are<br /> very few and far between and the blunders slight.<br /> It is a matter of some doubt whether a little<br /> knowledge is not in the case of copyright a<br /> dangerous thing, and whether a text book for the<br /> young author and young writer is not more likely<br /> to lead him into difficulties than to improve his<br /> knowledge of how to deal with his property.<br /> We must, however, thank Mr. Hinkson for his<br /> well-endeavoured effort and congratulate him on<br /> the result.<br /> <br /> 105<br /> <br /> Without desiring to be hypercritical, it is<br /> necessary to draw attention to one or two small<br /> errors.<br /> <br /> For instance, on page 49, when dealing with<br /> the 18th Section—that most difficult of all Sections<br /> —the author states that after twenty-eight years<br /> the copyright reverts to the author. This state-<br /> ment is, of course, incorrect, the words of the Act<br /> being “the right of publishing in separate form<br /> shall revert to the author.” Now the right of<br /> publication and the copyright are two distinct<br /> things, and the legal distinction cannot be too<br /> accurately maintained or too frequently insisted<br /> upon.<br /> <br /> When dealing with International Copyright he<br /> includes Montenegro among the Signatories to the<br /> Berne Convention. Though Montenegro was origin-<br /> ally a Signatory, she has since withdrawn.<br /> <br /> With regard to Artistic Copyright he again falls<br /> into error. He states: “‘ Before publication the pro-<br /> prietor has a common law right in his picture<br /> engraving or drawing,” and seems to draw the<br /> deduction that copyright runs from the publica-<br /> tion of the “picture engraving or drawing.”<br /> If he studies the Act more closely and the<br /> books which have been written endeavouring to<br /> explain that Act, he will see that the copyright<br /> in a “picture engraving or drawing” begins on<br /> the making thereof and not from the publication.<br /> This is one of the difficult points in the Artistic<br /> as distinct from the Literary Copyright Law.<br /> <br /> However, the book is accurately and carefully<br /> written, and so far as it is possible for any legal<br /> copyright amateur to gain satisfaction from a small<br /> work, so far will he be able to derive assistance<br /> from Mr. Hinkson’s “Copyright Law.”<br /> <br /> A NOVELIST ON HIS ART.*<br /> <br /> —_<br /> <br /> T is always a melancholy task to criticise the<br /> i work of a man of great talent who has died<br /> before the full fruition of his gift, and the<br /> melancholy is deepened when the work in question<br /> is not of such a kind as to deserve unrestricted<br /> praise. No one, I think, even of those to whom<br /> his peculiar powers make the least appeal, will deny<br /> that in “ The Octopus ” and “ McTeague ” the late<br /> Mr. Frank Norris manifested extraordinary promise<br /> and discovered fresh territory ; no one, again, of<br /> his most fervent worshippers could honestly affirm<br /> that his work is faultless. A rough and careless<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> * «The Responsibilities of the Novelist,’ by Frank<br /> Norris. (Grant Richards.)<br /> <br /> <br /> 106<br /> <br /> style, sometimes effective, often wounding, is the least<br /> delightful characteristic of “The Responsibilities<br /> of the Novelist.” Its author allowed the force of his<br /> convictions to express itself in noise ; he was so<br /> certain of the truth of his theories that he forgot<br /> what a traitor to truth didacticism may prove<br /> unless it is allied with subtle restraint. He has<br /> none of the fine shades of persuasion.<br /> <br /> Yet if the style is marred by such redundant<br /> expressions as “I tell you ” and such elementary<br /> errors as “Macbeth and Tamerlane réswmé the<br /> whole spirit of the Elizabethan age,” and “ Violet le<br /> Due’s ‘ Dictionaire du Mobilier,’” there are, at any<br /> rate, many fine and honest, if not hugely original,<br /> judgments on the art of the novelist. Mr. Norris<br /> realised that the artistic temperament is not a<br /> thing that one can put on and take off, like a hat<br /> or an air of virtue, but that it is the very spring<br /> and essence of life.<br /> <br /> “You must be something more than a novelist if you<br /> ean, something more than just a writer. There must be<br /> that nameless sixth sense in you... . the thing that<br /> does not enter into the work, but that is back of it; the<br /> thing that would make of you a good man as well as a<br /> good novelist.”<br /> <br /> Something of this kind has been said before, but<br /> Mr. Norris was an independent thinker, and that<br /> he should have come to the same conclusion as his<br /> predecessors is a great tribute to their common<br /> theory. Sincerity is the watchword of his essays<br /> which deal most intimately with the novelist’s art;<br /> he denounces the vulgar trick of cramming the<br /> public with garbage that has neither life nor<br /> beauty, and reiterates the importance of studying<br /> the ordinary aspects of existence, aspects as full of<br /> romantic possibility as any age when men loved<br /> and fought in doublet and hose. This truth he<br /> illustrates from American history. But here, too,<br /> he rushes wildly where a more careful thinker<br /> would pause. He is wonderfully optimistic con-<br /> cerning the public taste, and believes that in the<br /> end the plain people, the burgesses, the grocers,<br /> will prefer “Walter Scott to G. P. R. James,<br /> Shakespeare to Marlowe, Flaubert to Goncourt.”<br /> Why, in the name of logic, Shakespeare to Marlowe?<br /> A damning comparison of the “ Aigina Marbles”<br /> with the frieze of Pheidias would be about as<br /> pertinent. Did Mr. Norris really imagine that<br /> Marlowe was the G. P. R. James of the Elizabethan<br /> era, just as a recent writer on Sicily termed one of<br /> the three greatest Attic dramatists the Henry<br /> Arthur Jones of Greece? Faults of taste of this<br /> kind mar the excellence of his book, which will<br /> nevertheless have a value as containing the sincere<br /> if hasty conclusions of one whose premature<br /> death is mourned by all who care for honesty in<br /> literature.<br /> <br /> Sr. J. Le<br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> G. P. v. SPECIALIST.<br /> <br /> a<br /> <br /> HAVE noticed recently a recrudescence of the<br /> old discussion as to whether specialists or<br /> general practitioners should be called in to<br /> <br /> express opinions on the corpus vile of fiction,<br /> whether experts or ordinary readers are the proper<br /> persons to review books in the Press ; and, on the<br /> principle, perhaps, that fools may hit when wiser<br /> men may miss, I venture to shoot my bolt with my<br /> betters, protesting in advance that common sense<br /> has before now been known to be covered by the<br /> cap and bells, and that responsibility is more<br /> frequently an obstacle to the utterance of truth<br /> than irresponsibility.<br /> <br /> I wish that in these conversational debates the<br /> disputants would take the preliminary trouble to<br /> define their terms ; even if they did, there would<br /> be small likelihood of their bringing their argu-<br /> ments to aconclusion, but without such preliminary<br /> labour there is no possibility of their doing so.<br /> What is an expert? Let it be observed that I do<br /> not ask who is an expert: to do so would be to<br /> represent myself as unfamiliar with “ Who’s who ?”<br /> at this instant reflecting my blushes, due to my not<br /> being mentioned therein ; but what do these leaders<br /> of light and learning mean by experts, and reviews,<br /> and half-a-hundred other things which they<br /> discuss so frequently and at such length? What<br /> distinction do they make between a criticism and a<br /> review, and for whose benefit do they contend that<br /> books are reviewed in the Press at all? The<br /> looseness with which they employ the terms is<br /> surely the reason of half the pother.<br /> <br /> Literature is an art, not a profession, and the<br /> author has discharged his primary function when<br /> he has brought his work to perfection and knows<br /> that he can do no more with it: that, so far as he<br /> can make it so, it is a finished thing. But from<br /> another point of view that is only the end of the<br /> beginning. In due course the book is made public,<br /> and then it is the publisher who is immediately<br /> concerned, and trade considerations properly come<br /> into the matter. He advertises the fact that he<br /> has a book to sell; if he is clever he advertises it<br /> in a variety of ways, but generally, of course, by<br /> the simple expedient of inserting notices of it<br /> in newspapers, in consequence of seeing which<br /> people may be induced to buy. The publisher&#039;s<br /> primary business is to make money for himself,<br /> and he would not be a business man if on the one<br /> hand he did not spend money with the object<br /> of making more, and if on the other he did not<br /> seek to get some advertisement of his wares for<br /> next to nothing. In the former case he spends<br /> upon advertising as much as he thinks the book<br /> will bear, and to the latter end he sends out<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> ile<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR. 107<br /> <br /> “review copies,” asking for the favour of an<br /> editorial notice, a notice, or a review, and for a<br /> copy of the issue of the paper containing any such<br /> notice. I never remember having seen the word<br /> ‘criticism ” used by any publisher on any such<br /> occasion; at the present moment twenty-seven<br /> volumes await attention from me, and the word<br /> “criticism” does not occur in one of the accom-<br /> panying printed slips from the publishers; it is<br /> notice, not criticism, they desire.<br /> <br /> The editor again does not desire to procure it as<br /> a general rule. Times are such that he consults<br /> the wishes of his readers by giving them reviews<br /> instead of criticism, and for that purpose he<br /> employs reviewers and not critics, general prac-<br /> titioners not specialists ; and this not only because<br /> they are less expensive and more easily come by,<br /> but because they are the better men for the job. In<br /> all this part of the matter, art is not even being<br /> considered : it is business pure and simple between<br /> the publisher, the editor, and the public. The first<br /> wants the cheap advertisement ; the second wants<br /> copy dealing with one of the myriad subjects<br /> interesting some of his regular readers and wants<br /> cheap copy—let those who deny that reviewing is<br /> poorly paid work quote figures ; the third want—<br /> what ?—notice or criticism ?<br /> <br /> So far as fiction is concerned I am convinced<br /> they do not want criticism. They want to know<br /> what a book is about, and only one thing more—<br /> whether it is interesting. One may prate about<br /> art until the ceiling falls. That a book is interest-<br /> ing is the first, the middle, and the last point of<br /> importance to the great public: it is the one thing<br /> the publisher’s reader watches for, the editor<br /> watches for, the publisher watches for. A novelist<br /> may write a story the plot of which is moth eaten,<br /> the characters in which are conventional almost to<br /> the point of absurdity, the style of which is faulty<br /> and, from the point of view of art, deplorable ; if<br /> it is interesting the publisher’s reader would forfeit<br /> his appointment by declining it, the editor would<br /> be confronted with a similar possibility by commit-<br /> ting a similar blunder, and the publisher would<br /> rage furiously at losing a good thing. Immortality<br /> is an abstraction, but temporal supremacy is practi-<br /> cal politics ; but the mind that is set upon things<br /> above is commonly indifferent, if not actually<br /> blind, to things below. The analogy has point.<br /> <br /> Criticism has been defined as the exercise of<br /> judgment in the province of art and literature, and<br /> the critic as a person who is possessed of the<br /> knowledge necessary to enable him to pronounce<br /> right judgments upon the merit or worth of such<br /> works as come within this province. Matter,<br /> manner, and the quality of giving pleasure, or in<br /> other words: the power of appealing to the imagina-<br /> tion, are the three characteristic qualities of<br /> <br /> literature—the principles; construction of plot,<br /> metre, diction, and such other lesser elements as<br /> are governed by canons, are the rules ; and criticism<br /> tends in an increasing degree to disregard rules<br /> and concentrate its attention upon principles.<br /> The expert critic cannot, however, be expected to<br /> do other than act as a resistant force to this<br /> tendency ; it is his function to maintain a high<br /> standard of merit in performance, and to insist<br /> upon the importance of the rules: he is the champion<br /> of art, and the artist’s well-greaved friend ; but the<br /> training and scholarship which make him what he<br /> is are obstacles in the way of his being a practically<br /> useful reviewer of fiction for the daily, or even<br /> weekly, Press. A dissertation upon principles and<br /> rules in the “literary column” of a daily paper,<br /> with a considered judgment upon the merits of a<br /> novel as tested thereby, is not wanted by anybody<br /> except the author. The expert critic’s knowledge<br /> and reverence for principles and rules make him<br /> intolerant of any work where they are not observed<br /> and incapable of finding anything interesting in it :<br /> his place is the quarterly reviews : the daily papers<br /> have no use for him.<br /> <br /> Is that a matter for regret to authors? Only<br /> in part, it seems to me. At that stage in his<br /> development what he needs is notice, as wide as<br /> possible, in order that his books may sell ; utili-<br /> tarian considerations legitimately affect him too.<br /> Moreover, if what he has produced be art, in<br /> the true sense of the word, he must know that<br /> everything is very well as it is. No interesting<br /> book has ever yet been written that has failed<br /> to find its way to the world: that is one truth ;<br /> another is that fame has never yet been withheld<br /> when it has been deserved. With the author who<br /> cannot comfort himself with the belief that if he<br /> deserves fame he will win it, and who finds a griev-<br /> ance in the thought that it may be posthumous, it<br /> is not easy to be patient. If he is of such<br /> comparative importance that he is made the subject<br /> of considered criticism as distinct from mere<br /> review, he must still remember that contemporary<br /> criticism can only be provisional: appeal to<br /> posterity, by whom the judgment may be reversed,<br /> is not only permissible, but inevitable. It is with<br /> posterity only that the final judgment lics. What<br /> matters most to the author in the present is<br /> review.<br /> <br /> It is of fiction that I have spoken because it<br /> is in connection with fiction that the old discussion<br /> has been revived; and so far as fiction is con-<br /> cerned, let me record my vote by plumping in<br /> favour of the general practitioner. Consideration<br /> of the question in connection with other depart-<br /> ments of literature may be left to another time<br /> and to another mind.<br /> <br /> V. E. M.<br /> <br /> <br /> 108<br /> <br /> THE UNVEILING OF THE MEMORIAL TO<br /> SIR WALTER BESANT.<br /> <br /> oo<br /> <br /> HE memorial to our late chairman and<br /> founder, Sir Walter Besant, was unveiled<br /> in the crypt of St. Paul’s Cathedral by<br /> <br /> Lord Monkswell on December 11th. It will be<br /> remembered by many members of the Society that<br /> the memorial, arelief in bronze, admirably executed<br /> by George Frampton, R.A., was commissioned and<br /> mainly subscribed for by the members of the<br /> Society, and that it was hung in the sculpture-<br /> room at Burlington House last May. The position<br /> of the memorial is now in the crypt of St. Paul’s,<br /> on the wall, between that to the memory of Charles<br /> Reade and the brass of John M. Smith. On the<br /> tablet, beneath the portrait, is this inscription :<br /> <br /> NovEListT,<br /> HisToRIAN OF LoNnpDoN,<br /> SECRETARY OF THE PALESTINE Exploration FUND<br /> ORIGINATOR OF THE PEOPLE’S PALACE,<br /> AND<br /> FouUNDER OF THE SOCIETY OF AUTHORS.<br /> <br /> Tuts MoNUMENT IS ERECTED<br /> BY<br /> His GRATEFUL BRETHREN IN LITERATURE.<br /> <br /> Born 14th August, 1836; Died 9th June, 1901.<br /> <br /> The ceremony of unveiling was short. Mr.<br /> Douglas Freshfield, the Chairman of the Com-<br /> mittee of the Society, regretted that Mr. George<br /> Meredith, our President, was too ill to appear.<br /> Hence it fell upon him to call upon Lord Monks-<br /> well to unveil the memorial. Many Members had<br /> already seen the memorial in the Academy, and<br /> approved it. To them the act of unveiling was<br /> but a formality. No better man could have been<br /> asked to unveil the memorial than Lord Monks-<br /> well, the Chairman of the London County Council ;<br /> and, perhaps, here, in the quiet corner of the<br /> crypt beneath the Cathedral of London, and<br /> London’s roar, was the best place for a lasting<br /> monument to one who had given the best years of<br /> his life to London and to London’s good. He did<br /> his best to enlighten the darkness of the lives of the<br /> masses, entered keenly into a thorough investiga-<br /> tion of the sweating system, and gave the people<br /> new sources of intellectual or, at any rate,<br /> intelligent recreation.<br /> <br /> Dean Gregory and Canon Newbolt read a short<br /> dedication service, and Lord Monkswell unveiled<br /> the memorial. Certainly, it looks infinitely better<br /> in its present position than it did in Burlington<br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> House. The sombre light, the grey walls, the<br /> impressive silence of the great crypt, seeming to<br /> stretch away in an endless vista of arched halls<br /> and chambers and echoing passages, are in quiet<br /> harmony with the soft-toned bronze of the relief.<br /> <br /> Lord Monkswell, unveiling the memorial, spoke<br /> of Sir Walter Besant as one who, though a<br /> foreigner to London by birth, and largely by<br /> education, yet knew London and loved it, as no<br /> one else in the world knew London. Its streets<br /> and its lanes, its docks and its river were to him<br /> an open book. He was a social reformer, a man<br /> of ideas, sound feasible ideas, and no mere<br /> dreamer. With this side of him, the County<br /> Council thoroughly sympathised. Like Dickens,<br /> Besant preached social reform. But Dickens was<br /> a destructive element. His giant pen seized upon<br /> the demons of wickedness and thrust their names<br /> and their fames into the mouths of all. Besant<br /> sought the same demons, but his craft was to do<br /> more than to show them up. It was to destroy<br /> them and replace them by other organisations in<br /> which the demoniac spirit was absent. And in<br /> part he was successful. From his ideas—romantic<br /> ideas in “All Sorts and Conditions of Men,” an<br /> impossible story—Besant’s own criticism—sprung<br /> the People’s Palace, situate in the heart of White-<br /> chapel, the centre of the working life of thousands<br /> and tens of thousands of Londoners.<br /> <br /> Besant was not a vain man. He was not a<br /> jealous man. But his admiration was for all that<br /> was good, that was healthy. His sympathies were<br /> thorough-going and cosmopolitan. One of his<br /> last acts was to join himself to the Atlantic Union,<br /> a union to entertain Americans and Canadians<br /> and Colonials who visited England. He was a<br /> good man if ever there was a good man; a lovable<br /> man if ever there was one.<br /> <br /> The greater part of the organic work of this<br /> Atlantic Union is, by the way, now in the hands<br /> of Miss Celia Besant.<br /> <br /> Among those present at the ceremony were<br /> Lady Besant, her two daughters, Misses Celia and<br /> Ailie Besant, her second son—her eldest son,<br /> Captain Eustace Besant, is still serving in South<br /> Africa—Mr. Douglas Freshfield, Chairman of the<br /> Managing Committee of the Society, Mr. Edgar<br /> Besant, Sir Walter’s youngest brother, to whom,<br /> by the way, we owe the origin of “The Golden<br /> Butterfly,” Prof. Bonney, Mr. Hall Caine, Sir<br /> Martin Conway, Mr. George Frampton, R.A., Mr.<br /> A. H. Hawkins, Colonel Lamb, of the Salvation<br /> Army, in which Sir Walter Besant was greatly<br /> interested, and many others.<br /> <br /> SaaS AE_cith Se<br /> ®<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR. 109<br /> <br /> . THE SAMUEL PEPYS CLUB.<br /> <br /> ee a<br /> <br /> HIS new Literary Club was founded on May<br /> 26th, 1903, in commemoration of the two-<br /> hundredth anniversary of the death of its<br /> <br /> patron—saint or sinner, shall we say, or merely style<br /> him the father-confessor of our frail humanity, and<br /> the elub’s pater benignus, Samuel Pepys ?<br /> <br /> The founders were Mr. Henry B. Wheatley, Sir<br /> Frederick Bridge, Mr. D’Arcy Power, and Mr. George<br /> Whale, who, on the aforesaid anniversary, after the<br /> manner of Englishmen with a great project in hand,<br /> did solemnly dine together, and initiate the club.<br /> A general meeting was duly held on July 8th, when<br /> the number of members was fixed at seventy. This<br /> number came rapidly together by a kind of rare<br /> chemical affinity, and there are already many can-<br /> didate atoms that feel the potent attraction, and<br /> only await a vacant place in the new body cor-<br /> porate. The objects of the club, besides that of<br /> doing honour to the author of the most human of<br /> human documents, are: First, to dine together,<br /> with or without guests, three times a year, on or<br /> about the anniversaries of certain important events<br /> in the life of Samuel Pepys ; and, secondly, to read<br /> and discuss papers concerning Pepys and his time,<br /> with power to add to such objects as occasion may<br /> arise.<br /> <br /> The inaugural dinner was held on Tuesday,<br /> December 3rd, 1903, in the Hall of the Cloth-<br /> workers’ Company, of which Pepys was Master in<br /> 1677, Mr. Henry B. Wheatley, editor of the most<br /> complete edition of the Diary, and the club’s first<br /> President, occupying the chair, with the Master of<br /> the Clothworkers, Mr. Snow, on his right hand;<br /> while behind them shone the historic plate of the<br /> Company. Among the valuable pieces there dis-<br /> played the most interesting to the club and its<br /> guests were the cup and cover of silver gilt, and<br /> the gilt ewer and basin, or rose-water dish, pre-<br /> sented to the Company by Pepys during his Master-<br /> ship. ‘The members of the club assembled in force<br /> on this occasion, and brought many distinguished<br /> guests.<br /> <br /> The toasts proposed from the chair, after the<br /> usual ones of ‘The King” and “ The Queen and<br /> Royal Family,” were “The Immortal Memory of<br /> Samuel Pepys” and “The Clothworkers’ Company,”<br /> the latter responded to by the Master.<br /> <br /> The toast of “Our Visitors” was proposed by<br /> Mr. George Whale, and responded to by Sir<br /> William Collins.<br /> <br /> “The Club” was proposed by Viscount Dillon,<br /> and responded to by Mr. Edmund Gosse.<br /> <br /> Sir Alexander Binnie afterwards, in a most<br /> interesting speech, directed the attention of the<br /> club to some localities in London either mentioned<br /> <br /> by Pepys or suggesting memories of him. Indeed,<br /> the speeches, taken all round, were singularly<br /> interesting in substance, and well - delivered.<br /> Perhaps the note most frequently sounded was<br /> that of homage to Pepys’s many-sided humanity,<br /> his immense aptitude for work, and happy energy<br /> in both work and play. This was but a just<br /> tribute to the man, whose sterling qualities are<br /> even now scarcely appreciated as they deserve by<br /> the general public. Anyone who is in a position<br /> to estimate the actual work he did as Clerk of the<br /> Acts, and Secretary to the Admiralty, can hardly<br /> fail to give him a place among the great English-<br /> men of his day. He brought his common-sense,<br /> love of mastering details, and loyal fidelity to the<br /> duties of his office to bear upon many abuses ; and<br /> he left the Navy, his chief care, in a much more<br /> efficient condition than that in which he found it.<br /> Any sympathetic student of his Diary, moreover,<br /> must feel the charm of his personality: his child-like<br /> delight in life ; his easy-going love of his wife and<br /> friends, and of those rough-notes of contemporary<br /> history that we call gossip and scandal, but which<br /> add a spice to the historic plum-pudding ; his<br /> eager curiosity about everything that came in his<br /> way, and divine lust after precise information on all<br /> possible subjects ; and withal his genuine religion.<br /> For Pepys, in spite of his sensuous temperament,<br /> and the not uncommon weaknesses, follies, and<br /> unchastened appetites, he has so frankly chronicled,<br /> was a religious man in that irreligious age; living<br /> his particoloured life with a feeling that the eye of<br /> God was upon him. It is no doubt true that the<br /> God he worshipped was not the stern and wrathful<br /> Deity of the Puritans, but more akin to that good-<br /> natured Creator of all flesh of whom Beranger<br /> sings :<br /> “Le verre en main, gaiement je me confie<br /> Au Dieu des bonnes gens !”<br /> <br /> But Pepys’s faith was not only more grave and<br /> decorous than that of Béranger seems to have been,<br /> but deeper and more abiding.<br /> <br /> After dinner there was a pleasant ‘ Concert of<br /> Musick,” under the direction of Sir Frederick<br /> Bridge. Pepys’s own favourite song, “ Beauty,<br /> Retire,” composed by himself, was the first vocal<br /> piece given, and it was followed by other songs,<br /> and a duet for a male and a female voice, by com-<br /> posers of the period; some of the songs either<br /> having been sung by Pepys or mentioned in his<br /> Diary. Of one of them, “The Larke,” he says:<br /> «Thence to Change, where Wife did a little busi-<br /> ness, while Mercer and I staid in the Coach ; and<br /> in a quarter of an hour I taught her the whole<br /> Larke’s Song perfectly.” This was creditable to<br /> both master and pupil, as the song, by Milton’s<br /> friend, Henry Lawes, is a difficult one.<br /> <br /> <br /> 110<br /> <br /> Besides the vocal music, the Rev. Mr. Galpin,<br /> a clever amateur musician who collects old instru-<br /> ments, gave the company a sample of that “ wind<br /> musique ” which so ravished Pepys’s soul that it<br /> “made him sick,” and, as he characteristically<br /> adds, “ makes me resolve to practise wind-musique,<br /> and to make my wife do the like.” This was<br /> represented by a couple of airs on the flageolet,<br /> one, I think, composed by Pepys; both of which<br /> the little pipe was made to warble very daintily.<br /> There were also two pieces for that “ Recorder ”<br /> mentioned by Hamlet—a long and stfaight wood-<br /> instrument, with a certain resemblance to a large<br /> bassoon, but blown from a mouthpiece at the<br /> upper end. It must be difficult to “govern the<br /> stops” perfectly, as it seems to have a trick of<br /> suddenly jumping from a lower octave to a higher<br /> in a rather whimsical manner ; yet the notes are<br /> mellov. A third instrument, the “Trumpet<br /> Marine,” which Pepys heard played by a French-<br /> man, and was, as usual, “ mightily pleased with,”<br /> is not a wind-instrument, as the name might<br /> suggest, but a kind of emaciated viol, with a pigmy<br /> body and enormously long neck for the key-board.<br /> It has what Pepys calls an “ echo,” produced, as<br /> he suspected, by concealed sympathetic strings,<br /> which respond to the notes played by the bow.<br /> <br /> Altogether the evening was a pleasant one, and<br /> the Samuel Pepys’Club may claim the right to<br /> take its place as a going concern.<br /> <br /> JoHN TODHUNTER.<br /> Or —_—<br /> <br /> THE FIRE DESCENDS!<br /> <br /> ———<br /> <br /> LEAVES FROM THE DIARY OF A CERTAIN SORT<br /> OF FOOL IN PARADISE.<br /> <br /> T has come straight down, from Heaven or<br /> nowhere, an original and glorious Idea!<br /> There is nothing in that. Ideas strike me<br /> <br /> very often, and they are always original and<br /> glorious—at first. They are all, too, equally un-<br /> expected and startling, hitting me between the<br /> eyes, hard as a cricket ball at point, and knocking<br /> all the common-sense out of me. Sometimes they<br /> seem to arise out of facts, a paragraph in a news-<br /> paper, a look of secret history on a face, a phrase<br /> in a letter; but frequently they spring from no<br /> source more definite than the churning of unrelated<br /> thoughts when I pretend to compose myself for<br /> sleep at night.<br /> <br /> This, my last Idea, has, however, come to me<br /> under somewhat unusual conditions. It seems to<br /> be connected with a forgotten dream, having no<br /> conscious antecedent, but taking possession of me<br /> as I awoke, at the time when we are least given to<br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> fantasy, most under sway of the senses. I have<br /> had to rise, to dress, to eat my breakfast with the<br /> others, to avoid showing any glimmer of inward<br /> fire. When addressed I have had to answer in a<br /> matter-of-fact and off-hand manner, as if I knew,<br /> or cared to know, anything about the weather, or<br /> the household, or the dull doings of men in Parlia-<br /> ment. These things smote upon my ears like the<br /> distant sound of drums, tuneless and void. They<br /> were unreal compared with my Idea.<br /> <br /> At last I was able to sneak away by myself, out<br /> of the house and into the garden, which has ever<br /> been my dearest friend and confidant. All my life<br /> I have wandered in waking dreams about its<br /> winding paths: as a little child, when I told myself<br /> stories of fairies and goblins; in my Scott days,<br /> when I revelled in knights and fair ladies ; and,<br /> later on, in throes of modern sentiment—chewing,<br /> as I went along, the fragrant buds of fruit bushes, or<br /> “bread and cheese” from the hedges. To-day I<br /> slipped first to the greenhouse, where no eye from<br /> the windows might see me, for I wanted to be out<br /> of sight with my Idea, to blend it with the scent of<br /> flowers, to exult over it, and shape it prayerfully,<br /> lest it turn into a thing without wings. An Idea,<br /> like a sunset, cannot be painted in a few strokes of<br /> the brush by a careless hand. Its beauty lies in<br /> its vague possibilities and suggestions of imeffable<br /> glories beyond; in the mystery that it makes<br /> about us. And to express this, even faintly, needs<br /> all the concentrated power of heart and brain, art<br /> and will. One must be prepared for weary travail<br /> and heart-breaking doubts; because these ever<br /> attend an act of creation—if we may dare to call<br /> our reproduction and imitations “creation.” So,<br /> before my Idea can be valued at all, it must be<br /> taken into the solitudes of thought and every in-<br /> fluence of what I call my soul must be brought to<br /> bear upon it.<br /> <br /> How am I to give it form? Rhymeand rhythm<br /> cramp me; in writing an essay I am always<br /> tempted to become didactic, if not garrulous.<br /> There seems to be only one way open—the way of<br /> the prose idyll ; in which a filmy veil of fiction is<br /> thrown over a dimly seen figure. For to have the<br /> nude shape of my Idea too definitely visible would<br /> be fatal to its suggestiveness and charm.<br /> <br /> I gathered in the greenhouse a spray of oak-<br /> leafed geranium and a long stalk bearing three<br /> little cups of the freesia, splashed with gold and<br /> filled with orange and honey, to keep a hold on my<br /> Idea in the rush of everyday things. Then I was<br /> summoned in from the garden, and all the hateful,<br /> stifling tangibilities of life fell upon me. There is<br /> always this to be finished, that to be looked<br /> through, while letters demanding acknowledgment<br /> gape at me, a herd of time-devourers. The<br /> <br /> morning flew away on bluebottle wings—nothing<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> t<br /> ia<br /> &amp;<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> faster into the world—and all the while my giorious<br /> Idea burned like a rosy flame before my dazzled<br /> eyes.<br /> <br /> * Visitors swallowed the afternoon with vapid talk<br /> of personalities ; and, when they had gone, I was<br /> more exhausted than if I had been studying<br /> logarithms for twelve hours! If there be any-<br /> thing more paralysing to the brain than the<br /> animated conversation of the average person on<br /> matters of local or general interest I have yet to<br /> discover it! Dead tired, I had to fasten upon a<br /> sleepy old gardening book and read the fog out of<br /> my mind.<br /> <br /> Then to bed; and at last I am alone with my<br /> glorious Idea! 1 grow warm, and thrill deliciously<br /> as I proceed to fashion it into a shape of my<br /> liking. This is worth living—worth dying for!<br /> ‘And it is mine, all mine, this exquisite thing, this<br /> flower of fire from the high heavens. No one can<br /> tuke it from me; no one even knows of its exist-<br /> ence. Yet it does exist, and it shall do so, not<br /> only in me but in the material world. It shall not<br /> be still-born. To-morrow I will give it form and<br /> life—to-morrow—I am falling asleep.<br /> <br /> Tuesday.—\ have not written a word to-day.<br /> There was a meet of the Woodland Pytchley this<br /> morning, and I could not resist the temptation to<br /> go. Then I was tired out with the exercise and<br /> fresh air. Have done nothing but yawn ever<br /> since. My Idea has haunted me through the<br /> music of horns and baying of hounds, the thud of<br /> hoofs on the spongy turf and all the shouting.<br /> The sprig of rosemary I wore in my buttonhole<br /> seemed to make the atmosphere about me aromatic<br /> and flip me with suggestions. There is certainly a<br /> relationship between rosemary and hunting; no<br /> morbid thought can exist with them. Night finds<br /> me, as usual, full of vague aspirations and creative<br /> optimism ; but I am too weary to write. J must<br /> sleep.<br /> <br /> Wednesday.—Having neglected everything to<br /> follow the hounds yesterday, I found a great deal<br /> to do this morning. ‘The end of it was a worried<br /> headache, such as women are wont to bring upon<br /> themselves by trying to do several things at once.<br /> I spent the afternoon in nursing it. The day is<br /> wet, warm and muggy. My mind is sluggish. I<br /> have physicked it with an exciting novel and have<br /> sat up late to finish it. My Idea has faded a little<br /> during the day; but now, at night, it revives to<br /> keep me awake.<br /> <br /> _ Lhursday.—How one dreads the first plunge<br /> into expression! I have gazed for hours at the<br /> white paper which seems to stare back at me<br /> fatuously. Even my pen, usually so sympathetic,<br /> gives no help. I feel as if I were engaged in an<br /> imbecile attempt to catch the sunshine and colour<br /> of a summer day in a butterfly net ! How did the<br /> <br /> iti<br /> <br /> monstrous Arabian genie get into the vase? And<br /> shall I ever be able to pour my luminous Idea into<br /> the mould of words? It seems impossible. It<br /> always does—when one begins. There is a shirk-<br /> ing, a skimming round, a coy shrinking from the<br /> brazen display and indelicacy of language. Then<br /> —the time has gone—no more to day.<br /> <br /> A week later.—At last the moment has arrived<br /> when I can attack my Idea and shape it out on<br /> paper ! There is a bright sunshine to help me, and<br /> the song of birds. The air is of such intoxicating<br /> clearness that I feel light of limb, and heart, and<br /> brain. How cold the paper looks before me ! How<br /> tame and utterly inept the words I put upon it ! If<br /> something does not happen, all the rapturous<br /> glory of my Idea will be quenched into mere<br /> prose, it will be like a soap bubble that has<br /> collapsed into suds! But something is happening.<br /> I feel a glow stealing through me. ‘The fire is<br /> here again, in the cold veins ; the thing starts to<br /> live. It is not so beautiful as it was—oh, of<br /> course not—but it may gain yet, it has the power<br /> to grow into a work of art. I have been sitting<br /> three hours over it now; I shall be with it again<br /> this afternoon, and at night. It holds me firmly<br /> and will not let me go. No more shirking, shrink-<br /> ing, dreaming, but work—work—work !<br /> <br /> ‘Next day.—I have re-written my Idea twice.<br /> It is half the length it was at first. I finish in an<br /> ecstasy! It is a wonderful, lovely thing. My feet<br /> do not touch the ground. Everybody remarks<br /> how curiously amiable I am to-day. I feel in love<br /> with all my fellow-creatures, including the worms<br /> and weeds! The very air is rose-colour! I laugh<br /> idiotically at nothing, and go to bed so excited<br /> that I do not expect to sleep till the first thrush<br /> cries, “I come to see you—I come to see you,”<br /> outside my window in the morning.<br /> <br /> Next day.—I have just re-written my Idea again<br /> and sent it to be typed.<br /> <br /> Three days later.—My manuscript has come back<br /> from the typist. I began to read it with despair,<br /> but ended in a mild, only a mild, very mild<br /> triumph. It is not the marvel I thought it, but L<br /> love it and am thankfal. After receiving the final<br /> touches, it will pass, I think, among those who can<br /> have no notion of its first inspired glory.<br /> <br /> A month later—I sent my Idea forth into the<br /> world, and the world, represented by one discern-<br /> ing editor, has welcomed it graciously. I ought<br /> to be happy. Many of my precious brain children<br /> have had to become wandering outcasts, turned<br /> from door to door, to die in the dust ; but this one<br /> is taken by the hand and kindly treated. Oh,<br /> yes, I ought to feel relieved, gratified, even<br /> delighted.<br /> <br /> But alas! alas! Is it my own fault, or the<br /> world’s fault, or the fault of that great horrible<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> 112<br /> <br /> Irony that seems to govern our life, that my beau-<br /> tiful, chaste, dainty Idea has grown suddenly<br /> vulgar and unworthy? It is no longer exquisite,<br /> no longer holy. Earthly fingers have smudged it ;<br /> the fragrance of orange-flower, and lemon geranium,<br /> and rosemary, have ceased to cling about it. Now<br /> it smells only of the mould—not the garden mould<br /> that is sweetened by summer rain, but the dust of<br /> ashes. Someone has come to me and said:<br /> ‘“‘ What a pretty little story you have in the Output<br /> this week”? and I have not yet left off inwardly<br /> writhing. My Idea, my glorious conception, kindled<br /> by a flame from heaven—“a pretty little story ”—<br /> ye gods, pity me ! :<br /> <br /> What did [ expect ? Ah, that’s the point. One<br /> does not expect ; one feels, and loves, and works,<br /> and hopes—all in a phrensy, without a definite<br /> desire. But passion seems destined to end this way,<br /> in art as in—other things.<br /> <br /> Well, in years to come, perhaps, I shall take<br /> out my poor shrivelled Idyll, look at it fondly,<br /> swell with mother pride again, and thank the<br /> Powers that be there is nobody by to tell me it is<br /> “a pretty little story!” No rapture then; only<br /> the tenderness of the creator will be left. With<br /> all its glamour gone, its faults laid bare to my<br /> critical eyes, its delicious colours faded, it will still<br /> be my own, my dearly-loved. And the old,<br /> sweet fragrance of orange and lemon, of freesia<br /> and oak-leafed geranium, will steal upward to me<br /> from its yellow pages, a faint incense of memory<br /> from the altar of a once adored Idea.<br /> <br /> By tHe AuTuHor or “Musk oF Rosss.”<br /> <br /> ee oe<br /> <br /> CORRESPONDENCE.<br /> <br /> Bee<br /> PUBLISHERS’ RIGHTS.<br /> <br /> Sr1r,—If a man with no legal training may claim<br /> some lenience in an honest endeavour to understand<br /> the copyright decision lately arrived at by the<br /> Lord Chancellor and his learned brothers, may<br /> J thus venture to interpret their generous apprecia-<br /> tion of the rights of publishers of encyclopedic<br /> literature ? The publisher may, having got out of<br /> them all the use he wants, sell the articles, indi-<br /> vidually or collectively, to newspaper syndicates.<br /> This would have two results. In the first place,<br /> the specialist, who may have spent years and money<br /> in acquiring his expert knowledge, would have the<br /> mortification of reading articles signed by himself in<br /> inferior provincial news-sheets to which he would<br /> never dream of contributing direct. In the second,<br /> his pocket would be hit as well as his vanity, for<br /> there can be no doubt that this cheapening of his<br /> name in country papers would prejudice his chances<br /> of placing new work in more respectable quarters.<br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> If this is really what Lord Halsbury—am I wrong<br /> in thinking that he occupies the post of President<br /> of the Royal Society of Literature ?—desires to see<br /> authors reduced to, then there is nothing more to<br /> be said, and the only remedy is to alter the law,<br /> and, pending that, for authors to defend themselves<br /> individually by special clauses setting this prece-<br /> dent aside. If, however, he is rather of opinion<br /> that such a position is as unreasonable in respect<br /> of encyclopsedic literature as in the case of articles<br /> contributed to periodicals, then, sir, I submit with<br /> respect that it is a pity he did not make this clear.<br /> I have not hypothecated such a case merely as a<br /> frivolous reductio ad absurdum, but in a wholly<br /> correct spirit of curiosity. May I take this oppor-<br /> tunity of stating that I never claimed any right to<br /> make separate use of the article in question. My<br /> contention was merely that, as it had been com-<br /> missioned for one work, of which I was both the<br /> originator and part-editor, the publishers had no<br /> right, without my permission, to use it in another<br /> work in which I had no direct or indirect interest.<br /> Lord Halsbury and his learned colleagues have<br /> thought otherwise, but I hope, given a reasonable<br /> term, to live to see the law, for which I have a<br /> great respect, brought in line with common sense,<br /> for which I have a reverence.<br /> Your obedient servant,<br /> F, G. AFLALO.<br /> Teignmouth, Devon.<br /> <br /> a<br /> <br /> Tue REMUNERATION OF TRANSLATIONS AND<br /> ORIGINAL WORK COMPARED.<br /> <br /> Dear Srr,—In a note that appeared in The<br /> Author, with reference to the remuneration received<br /> by translators for Messrs. Methuen’s Dumas series,<br /> you mention that the average remuneration per<br /> 1,000 words for translation of French work into<br /> English may be reckoned at about 7s. 6d.<br /> <br /> If I may venture to differ from you I should<br /> say that, at all events for fiction, few English<br /> publishers pay more than 5s. per 1,000.<br /> <br /> But in connection with Messrs. Methuen’s rates<br /> <br /> it is instructive to note that not long ago this firm<br /> offered an author for the writing of one of their<br /> well-known series of topographical monographs a<br /> sum which worked out at a little less than seven<br /> shillings a thousand words, and this was for original,<br /> not translation, work! Not only this, but the<br /> offer was made to an author who is a well-known<br /> authority on the special subject he was asked to<br /> write upon. Further, this princely offer was<br /> handicapped by the work having to be written on<br /> approval.<br /> <br /> Yours faithfully,<br /> Ursus Magor. =j, The Author
490 Author, Vol. 14 Issue 05 (February 1904)<a href="/items/browse?advanced%5B0%5D%5Belement_id%5D=49&advanced%5B0%5D%5Btype%5D=is+exactly&advanced%5B0%5D%5Bterms%5D=%3Cem%3EThe+Author%3C%2Fem%3E%2C+Vol.+14+Issue+05+%28February+1904%29"><em>The Author</em>, Vol. 14 Issue 05 (February 1904)</a><a href="/items/browse?advanced%5B0%5D%5Belement_id%5D=51&advanced%5B0%5D%5Btype%5D=is+exactly&advanced%5B0%5D%5Bterms%5D=Publication">Publication</a>1904-02-01-The-Author-14-5<a href="/items/browse?advanced%5B0%5D%5Belement_id%5D=76&advanced%5B0%5D%5Btype%5D=is+exactly&advanced%5B0%5D%5Bterms%5D=1904-02-01">1904-02-01</a><a href="/items/browse?advanced%5B0%5D%5Belement_id%5D=89&advanced%5B0%5D%5Btype%5D=is+exactly&advanced%5B0%5D%5Bterms%5D=14">14</a>5113–14019040201Che Hutbor.<br /> <br /> (The Organ of the Incorporated Sociely of Authors. Monthly.)<br /> <br /> FOUNDED BY SIR WALTER BESANT.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Vou. XIV.—No. 5d.<br /> <br /> TELEPHONE NUMBER :<br /> 374 VICTORIA.<br /> <br /> TELEGRAPHIC ADDRESS :<br /> AUTORIDAD, LONDON.<br /> <br /> oe -<br /> <br /> NOTICES.<br /> <br /> —1—~— +<br /> <br /> OR the opinions expressed in papers that are<br /> signed or initialled the authors alone are<br /> responsible. None of the papers or para-<br /> <br /> graphs must be taken as expressing the opinion<br /> of the Committee unless such is especially stated<br /> to be the case.<br /> <br /> Tue Editor begs to inform members of the<br /> Authors’ Society and other readers of The Author<br /> that the cases which are from time to time quoted<br /> in The Author are cases that have come before the<br /> notice or to the knowledge of the Secretary of the<br /> Society, and that those members of the Society<br /> who desire to have the names of the publishers<br /> concerned can obtain them on application.<br /> <br /> —+-—&gt;—»<br /> <br /> List of Members.<br /> <br /> THE List of Members of the Society of Authors<br /> published October, 1902, at the price of 6d., and<br /> the elections from October, 1902, to July, 1903, as<br /> a supplemental list, at the price of 2d., can now be<br /> obtained at the offices of the Society.<br /> <br /> They will be sold to members or associates of<br /> the Society only.<br /> <br /> ——<br /> <br /> The Pension Fund of the Society.<br /> <br /> THE investments of the Pension Fund at<br /> present standing in the names of the Trustees are<br /> as follows.<br /> <br /> This is a statement of the actual stock; the<br /> <br /> Vou, XIV,<br /> <br /> FEBRUARY Ist, 1904.<br /> <br /> [PrIcE SIXPENCE.<br /> <br /> money value can be easily worked out at the current<br /> price of the market :—<br /> <br /> @OnsOls 25 6 £1000 0 0<br /> WioGal OWNS 6.0. 500 0 0<br /> Victorian Government 8 % Consoli-<br /> dated Inscribed Stock ............... 291 19 11<br /> War Hoant 201-9 3<br /> Wotal 6. 2. £1,993. 9 2<br /> Subscriptions from October, 1903.<br /> LS. We<br /> Noy. 13, Longe, Miss Julia. : - 0 &amp; 6<br /> Dec. 16, Trevor, Capt. Philip. ~ 07) 0<br /> 1904.<br /> Jan. 6, Hills, Mrs. ©. H. . : 0. 5 0<br /> Jan. 6, Crommelin, Miss . ; 010 30<br /> Jan. 8, Stevenson, Mrs. M. E. . 20 55 26<br /> Jan. 16, Kilmarnock, The Lord . 0 107 6<br /> Donations from October, 1903.<br /> Oct. 27, Sturgis, Julian 50 0 O<br /> Nov. 2, Stanton, V. H. : 56 00<br /> Nov. 18, Benecke, Miss Ida. 120. 0<br /> Noy. 23, Harraden, Miss Beatrice oo 0-0<br /> Dec. Miniken, Miss Bertha M. M.. 0 5 0<br /> 1904.<br /> Jan. 4, Moncrieff, A. R. Hope . 25-0 0<br /> Jan. 4, Middlemas, Miss Jean . ~ 0 10.0<br /> Jan. 4, Witherby, The Rev. C. . 0 500<br /> Jan. 6, Key, The Rev. S. Whittell . 0 5 0<br /> Jan. 14, Bennett, Rev. W. K., D.D. 015 0<br /> <br /> There are in addition other subscribers who do<br /> not desire that either their names or the amount<br /> they are subscribing should be printed.<br /> <br /> a aioe<br /> <br /> FROM THE COMMITTEE.<br /> eS<br /> HE Committee of the Society met on Monday,<br /> January 11th, at 389, Old Queen Street,<br /> Storey’s Gate, 8.W.<br /> <br /> This was the first meeting of the New Year,<br /> which opens satisfactorily, as the Committee had the<br /> <br /> pleasure of electing 30 Members and Associates.<br /> <br /> <br /> 114<br /> <br /> Mr. Douglas Freshfield, Mr. Francis Storr, and<br /> Mr. Sydney Grundy were re-elected Members of the<br /> Committee.<br /> <br /> The other matters discussed were either of<br /> slight importance or were adjourned to the<br /> following meeting.<br /> <br /> —+—&lt;—+ —<br /> <br /> Cases.<br /> <br /> Since the last issue of Ze Author three cases<br /> <br /> have been taken in hand. From this it is evident<br /> that during the Christmas holidays the Members<br /> have given little thought to business. Of these<br /> one has been settled and the Secretary is negoti-<br /> ating for the settlement of the other two, on<br /> favourable terms.<br /> <br /> Of the cases quoted in the January number<br /> there are still six which have not been concluded.<br /> One deals with a demand in the United States, the<br /> other five with matters at home, and there is every<br /> hope that a satisfactory termination will be arrived<br /> at. One case has been taken into the County<br /> Court with the sanction of the Chairman, and will<br /> be most probably heard in February. Other cases<br /> in the hands of the Society’s Solicitors are pro-<br /> ceeding. In cases of bankruptcy or liquidation the<br /> progress is regrettably slow. This, however, is<br /> not the fault of the Society or its Solicitors but of<br /> the present system.<br /> <br /> ++<br /> <br /> January Elections.<br /> <br /> Bennett, The Rev. W. H. 18,<br /> D.D.<br /> Bernard, Henry<br /> <br /> Denning Road,<br /> Hampstead, N.W.<br /> The Bath Club, Dover<br /> <br /> Street, W.<br /> <br /> Brewer, John Francis . 83, St. Quintin’s<br /> Avenue, W.<br /> <br /> The Brooms, Baldersby,<br /> 8.0., Leeds.<br /> <br /> 20, Endsleigh Street,<br /> Gordon Square, W.C.<br /> <br /> 10, Dryden Street, Pil-<br /> ing, Edinburgh.<br /> <br /> 221, Underhill Road,<br /> Dulwich, 8.E.<br /> <br /> Clark, Miss Margery Stan- 6, Esplanade, Seaford,<br /> ley. Sussex.<br /> <br /> Dearmer, Mrs. Percy 11, Chalcot Gardens,<br /> England’s Lane, 8.<br /> Hampstead,<br /> <br /> Koniggratzer Strasse,<br /> Berlin.<br /> <br /> Ely,C. J... : . 26, Great Ormond<br /> <br /> Street, Russell 8q.,<br /> W.C.<br /> <br /> Buckton, Mrs. Robert<br /> Burgess, W. S.<br /> Bryde, Margaretta (Mrs.)<br /> <br /> Cassidy, James<br /> <br /> Dillon, Dr. E. J.<br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> Fabeck, Madame de Villa delle Grazie,<br /> <br /> Alassio, Liguria,<br /> <br /> Italy.<br /> Gosset, Major-General Deadham, Essex.<br /> Hamilion, Angus Authors’ Club, 3,<br /> Whitehall Court,<br /> S.W.<br /> Hassall, John, R.T. 88, Kensington Park<br /> Road, W.<br /> Heath, Dudley ; . 10, Fitzroy Street, W.C.<br /> Hicks, Rev. Edward, St. George’s Vicarage,<br /> D.D. Macclesfield.<br /> Kilmarnock, The Lord . 8, Rue du Taciturne,<br /> Brussels.<br /> <br /> Killaha, St. Albans.<br /> c/o Messrs. Bemrose<br /> &amp; Sons, 4, Snow<br /> <br /> Knight, Maude C. (Mrs.)<br /> Mendis, M. . : :<br /> <br /> Hill, E.C.<br /> Pretor, Alfred Wyke, Weymouth.<br /> Reynard, F. H. Camp Hill, Bedale,<br /> Yorkshire.<br /> Sackville, Lady Margaret Inchmery, Exbury,<br /> Southampton.<br /> Stidston, E. A. Dale View, Beech Alton,<br /> Hants.<br /> <br /> Trevor, Captain Philip<br /> (“ Dux”).<br /> Thackeray, Lance .<br /> <br /> 83, Mount Ararat Road,<br /> Richmond, Surrey.<br /> 42, Linden Gardens,<br /> <br /> W.<br /> 75, Clancarty Road,<br /> Fulham, 8.W.<br /> Workman, Mrs... . c/o Messrs. Brown,<br /> Shipley &amp; Co., 123,<br /> Pall Mall, S.W.<br /> Clarendon Road, Leeds,<br /> Yorkshire.<br /> <br /> Wood, Starr .<br /> <br /> “Margaret Wilton ”<br /> <br /> ————_——_o—&lt;——_e—___——_<br /> <br /> OUR BOOK AND PLAY TALK.<br /> <br /> —+——+ —<br /> <br /> R. ‘Thomas Hardy’s “The Dynasts ” (Part L,<br /> Macmillan) is just out.<br /> <br /> nineteen acts; one hundred and thirty scenes.<br /> <br /> “The Dynasts” is concerned, Mr. Hardy tells us, —<br /> with the Great Historical Calamity or Clash of —<br /> <br /> Peoples, artificially brought about some hundred<br /> years ago. This chronicle-piece, is a kind of<br /> panoramic show,<br /> performance, and not for the stage.<br /> <br /> dramas, other than that of contemporary OF<br /> frivolous life.<br /> <br /> some hundreds, exclusive of crowds and armies, —<br /> <br /> and Phantom Intelligences are introduced as —<br /> spectators of the terrestrial drama. .<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> It isa Drama of ©<br /> the Napoleonic Wars in three parts; —<br /> <br /> a play intended for mental :<br /> Mr. Hardy —<br /> raises the question whether mental performance —<br /> alone may not eventually be the fate of all —<br /> <br /> The dramatis persone number —<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> 3 ai<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> fl<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR. 115<br /> <br /> Mr. I. Zangwill, who will not return to England<br /> for some months, is at present busily engaged on<br /> acomedy in four acts, entitled ‘‘ The Serio-Comic<br /> Governess,” based on his story of the same name.<br /> <br /> Miss Norman Lorimer has just finished a novel<br /> dealing with the brigands of Etna. In it the<br /> scenery and life of the people are depicted, and<br /> much information about the brigands and the<br /> Mafia is interwoven. Between three and four<br /> thousand copies of Miss Lorimer’s novel ‘“ By the<br /> Waters of Sicily’ have been sold.<br /> <br /> A new poetic drama entitled “ Philip of Macedon ”<br /> by Frederick Winbolt, author of ‘“ Messalina,”<br /> “Frithrof the Bold” etc., will very shortly be<br /> issued by the De la More Press.<br /> <br /> Miss Rosaline Masson is writing the letter-press<br /> of “Edinburgh” for Messrs. A. &amp; C. Black. The<br /> illustrations are the work of Mr. Fullylove.<br /> <br /> Major F. C. Ormsby-Johnson has written a novel<br /> which is now in the hands of the publishers. He<br /> has also nearly completed a tale some eighty-five<br /> thousand words in length.<br /> <br /> “Christian Thal,” the latest published work of<br /> M. E. Francis (Mrs. Francis Blundell) deals<br /> entirely with musical life. The interest chiefly<br /> centres round the Leschetzki School of Music at<br /> Vienna, which city figures in the book under the<br /> name of Stattingen. Mrs. Blundell has recently<br /> finished a romance of the days of Queen Anne<br /> entitled “ Lychgate Hall,” which after running its<br /> serial course in the Weekly Edition of the Times,<br /> will be published in England and America by<br /> Messrs. Longman.<br /> <br /> A one act play from her pen in collaboration<br /> with Mr. Sydney Valentine entitled “The Widow<br /> Woos,” was successfully produced at the Hay-<br /> market Theatre on the afternoon of January 9th.<br /> Dramatic versions of two of Mrs. Blundell’s<br /> recent romances are in course of preparation.<br /> <br /> Mr. Charles Marriott has just completed a novel,<br /> “‘Genevra,” which will be published by Messrs.<br /> Methuen in the autumn of this year. The story is<br /> an attempt at a study of feminine temperament,<br /> and the scene is a farm in a valley in the Land’s<br /> End district of Cornwall. Mr. Marriott is now<br /> engaged upon two novels, one romantic, the other<br /> realistic ; both dealing with the present day.<br /> <br /> Mr. Robert Aitken has nearly completed a<br /> volume of sea sketches which he hopes to issue<br /> very shortly. That will be followed by a novel<br /> which is already half finished.<br /> <br /> Miss May Crommelin, whose novel “ Partners<br /> Three” (John Long) has sold well, is at present<br /> writing short stories for Zhe World. Having<br /> spent a considerable portion of last year in<br /> Palestine and Norway, Miss Crommelin is thinking<br /> of studying Sicily, and writing a serial there.<br /> <br /> Mr. Marmaduke W. Pickthall’s new novel,<br /> <br /> entitled “ Enid,” is to be published early this year<br /> by Messrs. Constable. The heroine, daughter of a<br /> rich parvenu, marries a poet, to her discomfort and<br /> his destruction. That is the main thread of the<br /> story-design ; but there are others all contributing<br /> to a view of the transition state of Society to-day.<br /> <br /> Mr. Pickthall is now at work on another piece<br /> of fiction, which will probably not see the light<br /> until the Spring of 1905. Messrs. Methuen &amp; Co.<br /> have bespoken it.<br /> <br /> Mr. M. H. Spielmann’s “Charles Keene:<br /> Etcher”’ is out. The price of the best edition is<br /> fifty guineas. The other edition can be bought for<br /> thirty guineas. Both editions are strictly limited.<br /> <br /> Mrs. M. H. Spielmann’s “ Littledown Castle ”<br /> has gone into a second edition, and is being<br /> translated into French.<br /> <br /> Mr. W. L. St. John Lucas has just published a<br /> book of short stories called “The Vintage of<br /> Dreams” (Elkin Matthews), and Messrs. Constable<br /> &amp; Co. are bringing out his book of poems in the<br /> early spring. Besides this Mr. St. John Lucas is<br /> writing a weekly literary causerie for Zhe World;<br /> he is about to begin a new novel.<br /> <br /> Owing to pressure on space, we omitted to<br /> mention that Mr. Clive Holland has a Japanese<br /> novel partly written ; also, a story dealing with art<br /> student life in the Quartier Jatin.<br /> <br /> Messrs. Jarrold &amp; Sons will issue this month<br /> the second edition of Dr. Panter’s “ Granuaile,<br /> a Queen of the West.”<br /> <br /> Mrs. J. K. M. Iliffe’s “Tales Told at Twilight”<br /> has been brought out in New York by Mr. H. W.<br /> Bell. The Tales are in verse, being founded on<br /> German and French folk-lore. It is appropriately<br /> illustrated by Mr. Percy Billinghurst.<br /> <br /> Mr. Laurence Binyon, whose new volume of poems,<br /> entitled “ ‘The Death of Adam and other Poems,”<br /> was issued quite recently by Messrs. Methuen at<br /> 3s. 6d. nett, has contributed an introductory note<br /> to the first number of Messrs. Macmillan &amp; Co.’s<br /> new Art periodical, “The Artist Engraver,” a<br /> periodical to be devoted entirely to original work.<br /> <br /> Miss Nellie K. Blissett’s novel, ‘‘ The Bindweed,”<br /> will be published shortly by Messrs. Constable &amp; Co.<br /> Her romance, “The Winning of Douce,” is running<br /> as a serial in Zhe Free Lance.<br /> <br /> Mr. Walter Del Mar has published through<br /> Messrs. A. &amp; C. Black a fully illustrated volume<br /> entitled “Around the World Through Japan.”<br /> Intending travellers will find his final chapter,<br /> “Suggestions to Tourists,” particularly useful.<br /> There is a good index.<br /> <br /> In connection with the revival of the Book-<br /> producing Trades of Ireland, Mr. ©. I. Jacobi<br /> has been delivering a lecture on the “Art and<br /> Craft of Printing” at Dublin, Cork, Limerick,<br /> and Belfast, under the auspices of the Department<br /> <br /> <br /> 116<br /> <br /> of Agriculture and Technical Instruction for<br /> Ireland. The lecture is illustrated by lantern<br /> slides, and by the exhibition of specimens. Mr.<br /> Jacobi is the author of various technical works on<br /> printing.<br /> <br /> Mr. Francis H. Gribble, author of “ Early Moun-<br /> taineers,” &amp;c., has written “The Story of Alpine<br /> Climbing” for the Library of Useful Stories,<br /> issued by Messrs. George Newnes, Ltd., at 1s.<br /> This little book is well illustrated, and is some-<br /> thing more than a mere Tourist’s Guide.<br /> <br /> Mr. A. R. Hope Moncrieff’s “ Around London”<br /> is a Guide to the environs for twenty miles round.<br /> Tt is issued in three parts, in paper covers, at 6d.<br /> each. The three parts, bound together in one<br /> yolume, can be had for 2s. 6d. (A. &amp; C. Black).<br /> Each section contains maps of the district dealt<br /> with ; there is a list of railways and stations ; a<br /> table of distances for cyclists, and an index of<br /> places.<br /> <br /> “Beyond the Northern Lights” is a tale of<br /> adventure in unknown seas, by Mr. Reginald Wray,<br /> author of “Tales of the Empire,” ‘ Adventures on<br /> Land and Sea,” &amp;c. This story for boys and girls<br /> is published by Mr. T. Burleigh, and is No. 1 of<br /> the Reginald Wray Adventure Series.<br /> <br /> A story of world travel, by the Hon. Mrs. E. A.<br /> Gordon, entitled “ Clear Round,” is now in a third<br /> edition, revised and enlarged, with illustrations,<br /> maps, and an introductory letter from the late<br /> Professor Max Miiller. Mrs. Gordon has dedicated<br /> this book to her children. Not long ago this<br /> authoress published, through Messrs. Kegan Paul,<br /> at 15s., “The Temples of the Orient and Their<br /> Message.”<br /> <br /> The first two volumes of Mr. Herbert Paul’s<br /> “History of Modern England” are to be published<br /> immediately by Messrs. Macmillan &amp; Co, The<br /> author takes as his starting point the fall of Sir<br /> Robert Peel’s Cabinet in 1846. Though the work<br /> will present a picture of England under Free<br /> Trade, the book is not a mere history of politics,<br /> but passes under review the whole life of the<br /> nation as manifested also in science, literature,<br /> and art.<br /> <br /> The first of the two volumes of “ Modern<br /> England” carries the story down to 1855; the<br /> second begins with the Treaty of Paris, signed<br /> after the Fall of Kars, and terminates with the<br /> close of the Palmerstonian era in 1865.<br /> <br /> Mr. W. M. Rossetti contributes a preface, a<br /> memoir of his sister, notes and appendices, to<br /> the new edition, in one volume, of “The Poetical<br /> Works of Christina Georgina Rossetti,” which<br /> Messrs. Macmillan will issue at once.<br /> <br /> Lord Avebury’s new volume of “Essays and<br /> Addresses, 1900—1903” (Macmillan), covers a<br /> wide field. Among others, there are papers on<br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> Our Fiscal Policy; Bank Holidays and Early<br /> Closing ; Richard Jefferies and Macaulay; and<br /> there is the first Memorial Lecture delivered at<br /> the Anthropological Institute on Huxley’s Life<br /> and Work.<br /> <br /> Mr. G. 8. Layard’s novel, “ Dolly’s Governess.”<br /> is to be published in April by Messrs. Isbister &amp;<br /> Co.<br /> <br /> The February issue of The Monthly Review will<br /> contain an article by Mr. Robert Machray on the<br /> Eastern Question.<br /> <br /> “Letty” reached its one hundredth perform-<br /> ance at the Duke of York’s Theatre on Thursday,<br /> January 14th. The next production at this theatre<br /> will be “ Captain Dieppe,” the three-act comedy by<br /> Anthony Hope and Harrison Rhoades.<br /> <br /> “A Chinese Honeymoon” celebrated its 932nd<br /> performance at the Strand Theatre on Wednesday,<br /> January 20th, thus breaking the record as regards<br /> musical plays.<br /> <br /> “A Country Girl” celebrated its second anni-<br /> versary at Daly’s Theatre on January 18th.<br /> <br /> Mr. Beerbohm Tree will start two companies on<br /> tour this month. One will play “The Darling<br /> of the Gods”; the other will play a series of<br /> Shakespearean dramas. In “The Darling of the<br /> Gods”? Mr. Robert Pateman will take Mr, Tree’s<br /> part of Zakkuri. In the Shakespearean plays,<br /> Miss Constance Collier, Mr. Oscar Asche, and Mr.<br /> Lionel Brough will appear.<br /> <br /> At the Haymarket Theatre, on the evening of<br /> January 19th, a brilliant comedy in three acts, by<br /> Mr. H. A. Jones, was presented with marked success.<br /> It is entitled “Joseph Entangled.” Mr. Cyril Maude,<br /> Mr. Sam Waring, Mr. Sam Sothern, Miss Ellis<br /> Jeffreys, Miss Winifred Arthur Jones, and Miss<br /> Beatrice Ferrar are in the cast. At the end<br /> of the play, Mr. H. A. Jones was called before<br /> the curtain and received an ovation from the<br /> appreciative audience.<br /> <br /> ———_—&lt;\_+—&lt;—__+____——<br /> <br /> PARIS NOTES.<br /> <br /> —+——<br /> <br /> &quot; E Pays natal,” by M. Henry Bordeaux, has<br /> <br /> recently been published in a new edition, —<br /> <br /> and, as this author is now in high favour,<br /> everyone is glad to have the opportunity of reading<br /> his first novel. There is nothing about it to suggest<br /> <br /> that it is a first novel, and one can only conclude<br /> that the author had very wisely waited until the<br /> right time before sending out any of his work into<br /> the world. -<br /> <br /> “Le Pays natal,” like all the later books by M. -<br /> Bordeaux, is remarkable for its simplicity and<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> od<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> ifs<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> absolute sincerity. There is no seeking for effect,<br /> neither are there any wild stretches of the imagina-<br /> tion. It is just a simple story simply told, but<br /> with a whole world of meaning for those who care<br /> to think.<br /> <br /> It touches on a subject that has been much dis-<br /> cussed of late years in France: decentralisation<br /> and the individual responsibility of landowners.<br /> <br /> The story opens with the return of Lucien<br /> Halande, at the age of thirty, to his pays natal,<br /> Savoy.<br /> <br /> Since the death of his parents he has been<br /> living in Paris, and his intention is to sell the<br /> estate he has inherited and return to the capital<br /> for the rest of his days.<br /> <br /> This is not as easy as he had imagined it would<br /> be. As he sets foot once more in the old home he<br /> finds that it is full of old memories, and he also<br /> wakes up to the fact that for the last ten years he<br /> has been selfishly shirking his duties as a land-<br /> owner. There is a romance, too, running through<br /> the story from this point. Lucien meets again his<br /> old playfellow, Annie Mérans, and if only he had<br /> come back a few years earlier would certainly<br /> have married her. He has returned too late, and<br /> is only in time now to be a witness to the good<br /> fortune of another man and a man who is quite<br /> unworthy of Annie. Lucien settles down in his<br /> old home and is tortured by all that he sees, and<br /> by the thought that things might have been so<br /> different had he not wasted ten years of his life.<br /> The chief interest of the story commences with<br /> Annie’s wedding, and never flags to the end of the<br /> book. M. Bordeaux is too true and conscientious a<br /> novelist to avoid all that is unpleasant when telling<br /> his story, but he never lingers over unpleasant<br /> things and does not drag in unnecessary details.<br /> There is a wholesomeness about his books which<br /> is as refreshing as that mountain air of his beloved<br /> Savoy which seems to pervade most of his volumes.<br /> <br /> “Terres de Soleil et de Brouillard,” by Brada,<br /> is a most delightful volume, consisting of sketches<br /> of Italian and English life. The description of<br /> Tuscany and its people is most interesting, and<br /> the explanation of many things connected with<br /> Rome very instructive. When the author touches<br /> on England and her people we are glad to see our-<br /> selves for a time as others see us, but though we<br /> agree with very much that is said about us, we<br /> certainly think that there is something else to add<br /> to these chapters on the “land of fog.”<br /> <br /> Five books by the Abbé Loisy are prohibited by<br /> the Catholic Church. The titles of these works are,<br /> “Autour d’un petit livre,” ‘“L’Hvangile et<br /> L’Eglise,” “ Etudes Evangeliques,” “ La Religion<br /> d’Israé#l,” and “L’Evangile de St. Jean.” The<br /> Abbé has distinctly advanced ideas.<br /> <br /> Among other books published recently here are ;<br /> <br /> 117<br /> <br /> “Les Etapes du socialisme”? by Paul Louis ;<br /> “Les Amitiés francaises,” by M. Maurice Barrés ;<br /> “‘ Mediterranée,” by Mlle. Lucie Felix Faure ;<br /> “Tes Epées de fer,’ by Maurice Montégut ; “La<br /> Jungle de Paris,’ by Jean Rameau ; “ Impres-<br /> sions Africaines,” by Bonnafos; “ L’dme et<br /> Lévolution de la littérature,” by Georges Dumes-<br /> nil; ‘ Les Fiaacailles d’ Yvonne,” by J. H. Rosny ;<br /> “Tes Arts et les Lettres,” by M. Leon Riotor ;<br /> “T’Aube du théitre romantique,”’ by Albert Je<br /> Roy.<br /> <br /> The Goncouré Academy prize was awarded to<br /> M. John Antoine Nau for his novel, ‘ Force<br /> ennemie.”<br /> <br /> Madame Arvéde Barine has just received the<br /> decoration of Chevalier de la Légion d’ Honneur<br /> for her literary work.<br /> <br /> Madame Barine and Madame Daniel Lesueur<br /> are the only two women writers in France who<br /> have been awarded this distinction. Madame<br /> Barine’s works are the following : ‘“ Portraits de<br /> Femmes,” ‘“ Essais et Fantaisies,” ‘* Princesses et<br /> Grandes Dames,” “ Bourgeois et Gens de Peu,”<br /> “ Névrosés,’ ‘* Bernardin de Saint Pierre,”<br /> “ Alfred de Musset,” “Francois d’Assise et la<br /> Légende des Trois Compagnons,” “ La Jeunesse de<br /> la Grande Mademoiselle.”<br /> <br /> At the Comédie-Frangaise, M. Hervieu’s piece<br /> “Te Dédale” is still being played, and at the<br /> Odéon “ L’Absent.” The French version of “The<br /> Second Mrs. Tanqueray” is soon to be given at<br /> this theatre. At the Sarah Bernhardt Theatre<br /> “ La Sorciére”’ still draws a full house.<br /> <br /> M. Antoine continues to give us a three-play<br /> bill and to put on new pieces with astonishing<br /> rapidity. At the Vaudeville, since the departure<br /> of Mme. Réjane, M. Porel appears to be trying an<br /> experiment, which certainly deserves reward. He<br /> has sent round a letter in which he states that since<br /> ‘Mme. Sans Gene” no piece has been given in his<br /> theatre to which parents could take their daughters,<br /> and he adds that the play he has now put ‘on,<br /> “Frere Jacques,” is at the same time “ultra<br /> Parisian ” and a “ piece de famille.”<br /> <br /> At the Gymnase, “ Le Retour de Jérusalem,” and<br /> at the Renaissance, “ L’Adversaire,” appear to be<br /> greatly appreciated, so that altogether Parisians<br /> cannot complain this season of any dearth of<br /> excellent plays.<br /> <br /> M. Bour has put on, at the Théatre Victor Hugo,<br /> a somewhat daring piece entitled “Le Droit des<br /> Vierges.” The author is M. Paul Hyacinthe<br /> Loyson, son of the celebrated Pere Hyacinthe, and<br /> the play is written with a distinct purpose. Inan<br /> unpublished version of it which M. Loyson gave<br /> me some time ago to read, there is a preface by<br /> Bjérnstjerne Bjornson and a short explanation by<br /> the author of “ Le Droit des Vierges,” in which he<br /> <br /> <br /> 118<br /> <br /> tells us that the idea of this piece is founded on an<br /> episode of which he was once a witness. M. Paul<br /> Loyson has taken up a delicate mission most<br /> courageously, just as his father did before him<br /> many years ago.<br /> <br /> M. Bour has staged this piece admirably, and<br /> <br /> lays his own part to perfection.<br /> <br /> The Weekly Critical Review published on the<br /> 92nd of January a double number in honour of<br /> its anniversary. A special article was written for<br /> it by the Viscount Melchior de Vogiié, whose book,<br /> “Te Maitre de la Mer,” has been such a success<br /> this season. The subject of this article is “ Joseph<br /> Chamberlain,” and it is published in French and<br /> English.<br /> <br /> Other articles of interest in this number are<br /> “Tes Décadents,” by M. Rémy de Gourmont ;<br /> “ Le Retour au Paysage Historique,” by M. Frantz;<br /> “Discovery of a Michel An gelo in Paris,” “ Bimini,”<br /> by John Gurdon; ‘‘Le Roman Contemporain ;”’<br /> “Moscow,” by Arthur Symons; and an exquisite<br /> poem entitled “ Hymn to Earth,” by Arthur Symons.<br /> This review has recently published several excellent<br /> poems, among others “ ‘The Great Idea,” by George<br /> Cabot Lodge, whose verses we have only seen,<br /> hitherto, in Seribner’s Magazine. In these days<br /> when poetry worthy of the name is so rare in<br /> England, one is glad to see exceptional work of<br /> this kind in the magazines.<br /> <br /> The death of George Gissing has not passed<br /> unnoticed here. By the deep regret expressed by<br /> all who knew his works or who had met him since<br /> his residence in France, one realises how thoroughly<br /> he was appreciated.<br /> <br /> That, in England, his success should have been<br /> so tardy seems absolutely incomprehensible. The<br /> first book of Gissing’s which was translated into<br /> French drew attention to him here. After the publi-<br /> cation of the second in serial form, in a daily paper,<br /> he was spoken of as “the English Balzac.” The<br /> French have undoubtedly the gift of discrimination<br /> in literature, and one can only regret now that a<br /> translation of each of Gissing’s books was not<br /> brought out here soon after the publication of the<br /> work in England.<br /> <br /> Both “New Grub Street” and “ Eve’s Ransom”<br /> have been used in French as serials and afterwards<br /> published in volume form, The translation of<br /> these two works is admirable. In some English<br /> paper it was stated that Gissing translated “ New<br /> Grub Street” himself, but this isa mistake. He<br /> certainly had a thorough knowledge of the French<br /> language, and another translator, who was then<br /> at work on “The Whirlpool,” expressed great<br /> surprise that Gissing did not write his books in<br /> French as well as in English. “In the Year of<br /> Jubilee” is to appear shortly in French as a serial<br /> in a daily paper. “The Odd Women,” too, is<br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> translated, and “The Paying Guest” and “The<br /> Town Traveller ” are arranged for.<br /> <br /> Personally, too, Gissing was highly esteemed<br /> here. Exclusive as the French are, they were<br /> more than willing to open their doors to him.<br /> Shortly after his death I received a letter contain-<br /> ing the following lines, bearing the signature of<br /> one of the best known names in France: “ On<br /> me dit que la mort de M. Gissing a été annoncée<br /> dans le journal Ze Temps. Pouvez-vous me dire<br /> si cette nouvelle est exacte, vous savez tout<br /> Vintérét que je portais &amp; cet homme de talent, de<br /> coeur et d’ un caractére adorable.” Everyone who<br /> had met him here speaks with genuine sorrow of<br /> his death.<br /> <br /> Auys HALLARD.<br /> <br /> i<br /> <br /> THE NOBEL PRIZE.<br /> <br /> ee<br /> MEETING of the Committee for the Nobel<br /> prize for literature was held on Thursday,<br /> January 14th, at the offices of the Incor-<br /> porated Society of Authors, 39, Old Queen Street,<br /> Storey’s Gate,S. W.,Mr. Rdmund Gosse in the chair.<br /> The purpose of the meeting was to receive the<br /> votes collected in answer to the circular sent out<br /> last November by the Committee, and to authorise<br /> their transmission to Stockholm. :<br /> These votes will now be sent to the Committee wid<br /> of the Swedish Academy, as an indication of the tee<br /> wishes of those in England qualified under the<br /> regulations of the Nobel Bequest, to express an<br /> opinion. The award will be made in the autumn ig<br /> of the present year, by the Committee of the Wa<br /> Swedish Academy constituted for that purpose, |<br /> with which Committee alone the power of decision<br /> rests. The votes from the English contingent this<br /> year are numerous, including in their list the names<br /> of most of the eminent writers of the day.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> ———_—_?—&lt;—_2—____-<br /> <br /> SWEDEN AND THE BERNE<br /> CONVENTION.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> INCE Denmark has joined the Berne Conven-<br /> tion the partisans of a similar step in Sweden<br /> have recovered courage and are now making<br /> <br /> new exertions to bring their country out of the isola-<br /> tion which begins to press doubly hard upon them.<br /> As early as the 12th October, 1894, the Swedish<br /> Society of Authors (Sveriges Forfatterforening)<br /> addressed to the king an address, strongly supported<br /> by documentary evidence (an analysis of which<br /> will be found in Le Droit d’ Auteur, 1896, p. 159,<br /> etc.), in favour of the extension of international<br /> protection of authors, and more particularly in<br /> favour of a more liberal solution of the question of<br /> <br /> <br /> if<br /> <br /> wo<br /> <br /> 8 LD: pera<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> the rights of translation.<br /> ber last the same Society presented a new petition<br /> to the Swedish Government praying that a pro-<br /> position for such a modification of the present<br /> legislation as may enable Sweden to follow the<br /> example of Denmark may be presented to the<br /> Riksday. This petition was signed by MM. Karl<br /> Warburg, Verner von Heidenstam, George Nor-<br /> densvam, Gustaf af Geyerstam, F. U. Wrangel,<br /> Axel Raphael, Knut Michaelson, Per Hallstrém,<br /> Hellen Lindgren.<br /> <br /> On the 19th of September M. Ossian Berger,<br /> Minister of Justice, forwarded this petition to the<br /> two societies of Swedish publishers, the Svenska<br /> Bokforliggare-Foreningen and the Nya Bokforldg-<br /> gare-Foreningen, as well as to the Society of Swedish<br /> Journalists, in order to obtain their opinions on<br /> the question. The first of the above-named<br /> Societies has already arrived at a decision entirely<br /> favourable to the desires of the authors. The<br /> society also goes further and formally unites its<br /> request with that presented in the petition ; and<br /> this is the more remarkable seeing that the same<br /> society in 1895 dissuaded the Swedish Govern-<br /> ment from joining the Berne Convention. The<br /> Swedish Parliament meets on the 15th of Janu-<br /> ary ; and the friends of the Union firmly hope<br /> that the Riksdag may be authorised to proceed to<br /> a revision of the Swedish internal law of copyright,<br /> and that so Sweden may in the course of the year<br /> become one of the countries of the Union.<br /> <br /> This hope has now been confirmed. The Society,<br /> which has for some time been endeavouring to<br /> obtain a special copyright agreement between<br /> Sweden and the United Kingdom, has heard from<br /> His Majesty’s Foreign Office that “ there will be<br /> no need to proceed further in the matter as His<br /> Majesty&#039;s Minister at Sweden reports that the<br /> Swedish Government intend shortly to submit to<br /> the Diet a proposal for the accession of Sweden to<br /> the Berne Convention.”<br /> <br /> or<br /> THE CONTRACT OF BAILMENT.<br /> Se<br /> “ H. T.,” in the December Author, and<br /> <br /> “An Editor” in The Author for<br /> <br /> January, have treated the question of<br /> the editor’s responsibility for the safety of<br /> unsolicited manuscripts from different points<br /> of view, and at first sight appear to hold<br /> different opinions as to the principles which should<br /> govern the question of his liability. Perhaps,<br /> however, in considering concrete instances they<br /> would frequently arrive at the same conclusions,<br /> although sometimes their “ findings of fact” would<br /> not be the same, and their deductions as to the<br /> legal position would differ in corresponding degree.<br /> <br /> 119<br /> <br /> On the 14th of Septem They would differ sometimes (and so would most<br /> <br /> people having interests at stake, and being, there-<br /> fore, to some extent, “ prejudiced”) as to what<br /> constitutes or implies an invitation to strangers<br /> to contribute to a periodical, and as to whether a<br /> certain state of facts exists “for the benefit” of<br /> both parties.<br /> <br /> Let me quote the notice to would-be contri-<br /> butors which appears in the Free Lance, a<br /> weekly penny periodical probably known to some<br /> if not to all of the readers of The Author :-—<br /> <br /> IMPORTANT NOTICE TO CONTRIBUTORS.<br /> <br /> While declining responsibility for the safety of MSS.<br /> submitted to us, every possible care will be taken.<br /> <br /> All MSS. must have the author&#039;s name and address<br /> written legibly on the title page. When payment is<br /> desired the price must also appear on the title page.<br /> Every manuscript must be accompanied by a stamped<br /> and addressed envelope for return in case of unsuitability.<br /> <br /> In future all rejected manuscripts not accompanied by<br /> stamped and addressed envelopes will be destroyed.<br /> <br /> What is the position of the editor of the Free<br /> Lance, assuming that his notice is brought under<br /> the observation of his contributor? It is true<br /> that he does not in terms invite anybody to write<br /> for him, and that he “declines responsibility ” for<br /> the MS. submitted to him at the commencement<br /> of his notice ; but does not the whole notice,<br /> including even the last two lines, constitute an invi-<br /> tation to the author to submit MSS. to the editor,<br /> and does it not thus establish a system of bailment<br /> for the mutual advantage of both? In such cir-<br /> cumstances is not the editor bound to take good<br /> care of and to return any MS. which he may not<br /> make use of ? I do not suggest that he is obliged<br /> to convey it or even to post it to the sender (except<br /> in those cases in which he gives a direct or implied<br /> undertaking to do so), but I do not see why he<br /> should not, at law, be responsible for it during a<br /> reasonable time and be bound to hand it back to<br /> the contributor who calls and asks for it. Has he<br /> any right to treat it more carelessly than those<br /> which he has accepted and will in due course make<br /> use of to his own profit ? Can he lose it if he is<br /> reasonably careful? In the notice quoted the<br /> editor lays down acondition with regard to sending<br /> stamped and addressed envelopes, which implies an<br /> undertaking to return all MSS. accompanied by<br /> these useful receptacles. The receptacle prepared<br /> by him for the MS. not so accompanied is,<br /> apparently, the waste-paper basket or the fire.<br /> The editor deliberately warns his correspondents<br /> of this, and the would-be contributor who reads<br /> the notice will probably comply with it. Let us<br /> suppose, however, that he does not do so either<br /> (1) deliberately or (2) through temporary forget-<br /> fulness. With regard to (1), would “ An Editor,”<br /> who evidently has the advantage of a legal training,<br /> venture to advise a client that he might invite the<br /> <br /> <br /> 120<br /> <br /> deposit of valuable property upon his premises for<br /> his inspection for the mutual good of the depositor<br /> and himself, that he might couple with this invita-<br /> tion a condition easily fulfilled, but at the same<br /> time easily omitted, and that upon a failure to<br /> comply with the condition he might safely destroy<br /> the property so deposited? ‘An Editor” will<br /> perhaps consider that I have overstated the case,<br /> and that the “notice to contributors” which I<br /> have quoted goes beyond anything which he con-<br /> templated. I am inclined to doubt, however,<br /> whether the editor of the Free Lance (except<br /> in the fact that his notice affords evidence of his<br /> position) is more liable to his contributors than<br /> any other editor who selects from MSS. sent to<br /> him unsolicited by strangers such as are suitable<br /> for his paper, publishes and pays for them. If the<br /> editor of a periodical never reads any unordered<br /> MSS., and still more if he also puts a notice in his<br /> paper to that effect, he occupies a very strong<br /> position with regard to any unsolicited MSS. which<br /> may find their way into his letter-box.<br /> <br /> { hazard the suggestion, however, that in fact<br /> no such MSS. would ever reach his office except<br /> through a mistaken idea on the part of the sender<br /> as to the attitude of the editor. I may hate alcohol<br /> with all the energy of the keenest prohibitionist,<br /> and someone may send me a consignment of old<br /> port of peculiar quality and rarity under the<br /> impression that I am a connoisseur who will<br /> jump at the chance of purchasing it. The mis-<br /> take may be due to the grossest carelessness, the<br /> most reckless want of inquiry, but I doubt if I<br /> should therefore be justified in throwing that old<br /> port into the sewer ; particularly if I knew the<br /> name of the consignor, and had every reason to<br /> believe that he would like to have it back and<br /> would some day apply for its return, should I not<br /> accept his offer. I have put the case (2) of tem-<br /> porary forgetfulness where such a notice as that<br /> of the editor of the Free Lance is concerned ; but<br /> T am not sure that on principle temporary forget-<br /> fulness on the part of the sender makes very much<br /> difference to the position of the recipient who wilfully<br /> destroys the thing sent. What is the position then<br /> of the person who receives avaluable article, whether<br /> a MS. article or a case of ’47 port or anything<br /> else, without having asked for it either in terms or<br /> by implication ? Would “G. H. T.” argue (to<br /> quote from his last paragraph) that the articles are in<br /> such a case “sent for the benefit of both parties,”<br /> and that “ under these circumstances” the recipient<br /> “ig more than a mere gratuitous bailee, and would<br /> be responsible accordingly ?”” I should hardly agree<br /> with him if he put his case so high as that. I<br /> should say that the receiver had no right to destroy<br /> the goods sent, or to refuse to give them up if<br /> within a reasonable time a proper request were<br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> made for them, but that beyond this the sender<br /> would have little, if any, claim upon him, even if<br /> he did not treat them as carefully as he would<br /> have treated his own property. I should also say,<br /> however, that a little want of tolerance and courtesy<br /> on the part of either or both might land them in<br /> litigation, of which the issue would be doubtful, and<br /> would depend upon the particular facts proved.<br /> This applies, no doubt, to many cases where<br /> publishers or editors, and authors are concerned.<br /> A little good sense and care on the part of the<br /> author, as “ An Editor” very ably explains in_his<br /> last paragraph but one, is of considerable aid in<br /> avoiding difficulties. He should gain some super-<br /> ficial acquaintance (say, by glancing at the cover<br /> or index) with the magazine to which he sends his<br /> work, or with the books of the publisher (say, by<br /> glancing at his advertisements). He might in the<br /> case of periodicals look for and read the “ notices<br /> to contributors,” although this might prevent him<br /> from some day denying on oath that he had seen<br /> them. He would get a general idea of what was<br /> in the editor&#039;s mind even from a notice such as<br /> that in the Free Lance, although he might not be<br /> able to grasp at once all the possible contingencies<br /> which might follow upon non-compliance with the<br /> conditions laid down. What, for example, is the<br /> position of the editor of the Free Lance where a<br /> contributor has written his name and address on<br /> the back of his MS. instead of on the “ title page,”<br /> or where he has given his address on the MS. and<br /> has enclosed stamps for its return (a common<br /> method with which many editors are quite satis-<br /> fied), but has not sent a stamped and addressed<br /> envelope? Surely*G. H. T.” and “ An Editor ”<br /> might meet and confer upon the possibilities<br /> suggested by the latter state of affairs.<br /> editor in the circumstances suggested burn the<br /> MS. and keep the stamps? If he may do this,<br /> may he use the stamps for his private corre-<br /> spondence ? If so, may he, should he prefer it,<br /> burn the stamps and keep the MS., also for his<br /> private use, such as to paper the walls of his office,<br /> or in order to write his own copy on the back of<br /> it? Or may he use for his own ends (other than<br /> those intended by the author) both MS. and stamps?<br /> All these questions suggest themselves and more<br /> <br /> also, and in any case the particular facts must be |<br /> <br /> known before an opinion can be worth much, and<br /> T am not aware thata good typical case of the loss<br /> or destruction of the unsolicited MS. has ever been<br /> <br /> fairly tested. Perhaps this is partly because editors /<br /> are not all quite as black sheep as some unlucky or:<br /> <br /> imprudent authors would have us believe. I have<br /> had MSS. lost myself. In one instance at least I<br /> have been compensated, but then as far as I<br /> <br /> remember, I had kept a copy and only asked<br /> for the price of retyping it, which was all the<br /> <br /> May the ~<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> THE<br /> <br /> damage I had suffered. I am not at all sure, how-<br /> ever, that I did not once receive the price of the<br /> story after it was lost and before I had found my<br /> copy, and forwarded it. In any case I have often<br /> (I regret it from my personal point of view only)<br /> received back unsolicited MSS. with which I had<br /> enclosed neither envelope nor stamps.<br /> HK, A. A,<br /> <br /> —_—___e— &gt; —____<br /> <br /> AN ESTIMATE OF THE COST OF<br /> PRODUCTION.<br /> <br /> —+-&gt;-+—_<br /> <br /> HEN the “Cost of Production” was first<br /> issued by the Society there was an outcry<br /> from some publishers and printers that it<br /> <br /> was impossible to print on the terms set forth in<br /> its pages.<br /> <br /> Nevertheless, frequent proofs came to the<br /> Society’s office that the figures were not only<br /> reasonable, but in many cases in excess of the<br /> estimates sent in by thoroughly responsible printing<br /> houses who had their works in the country. It<br /> was only in the case of some of the old established<br /> London houses that the estimates were in excess of<br /> those given in the “ Cost of Production,” and even<br /> in these cases the difference was only a small one—<br /> a matter of some 5 per cent.<br /> <br /> The “Cost of Production” is out of print ; but<br /> from time to time, as examples have come to the<br /> office, specimens of estimates for book production<br /> have been printed, and Sir Walter Besant in his<br /> work “The Pen and the Book” wrote a chapter<br /> under this heading.<br /> <br /> Since the time when the “ Cost of Production ”<br /> sold out, and since the date of the issue of<br /> “The Pen and the Book,” prices have altered con-<br /> siderably, and work is being done more cheaply.<br /> <br /> In order to show this by definite example, the<br /> cost of production, received through a publisher<br /> from a firm in the country, of 1,000 copies of a<br /> book, is printed for comparison with the cost of pro-<br /> duction of a similar book, taken from the Society’s<br /> former work.<br /> <br /> The book is one of nine sheets of thirty-two pages<br /> with about 250 words to a page, crown octavo.<br /> The estimate is for 1,000 copies.<br /> <br /> The estimate received this year is as follows :—<br /> <br /> 8.1.<br /> <br /> Composition, 9 sheets of 32 pages at<br /> 38s. : : ; : ; » 17 2.0<br /> Presswork, 9 sheets of 82 pagesat 16s. 7 4 0<br /> Paper, 11 reams at 15s. : 12880<br /> <br /> Binding, say in two colours on board<br /> at per copy 4d. 16 13-4<br /> £49 4 4<br /> <br /> AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> 121<br /> <br /> The figures for the same book, published in the<br /> Society’s “ Cost of Production ” :—<br /> <br /> &amp; 8, a.<br /> Composition, 9 sheets of 32 pages at<br /> £2 15s. . ; : : . 2415 0<br /> Presswork, 9 sheets of 32 pages at<br /> Sits, ; : ; : 090<br /> Paper, 9 sheets of 82 pages at £115s. 15 15 0<br /> Binding, say at 4d. : : » 16 18 4<br /> <br /> £66 12 4<br /> <br /> It will be seen from a comparison of the two<br /> sets of figures that the cost of composition is con-<br /> siderably less ; that the cost of printing is about<br /> the same, and the cost of paper enormously reduced,<br /> and that these figures huld generally may be taken<br /> as an accepted fact.<br /> <br /> As a proof of this statement another estimate is<br /> printed where the number of words on a page was<br /> fewer, and the type in which the book was set up<br /> was larger, the pages of the book being slightly<br /> smaller than those in the book referred to in the<br /> previous estimate.<br /> <br /> Printing 1,000 Copies. £ sa.<br /> Setting types, per 32 pages, say 9<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> sheets, 26s. . : : 1 14<br /> Printing, 1,000 copies per 32 pages,<br /> <br /> 9 sheets, at 15s. 6d. : 619° 6<br /> Paper (say)... ; : : - 1 100<br /> Binding, 1,000 copies at 43/7. = 181540<br /> <br /> £144 18 6<br /> <br /> ——————1——&gt;—o—__<br /> <br /> THE COPYRIGHT LAW OF THE UNITED<br /> STATES AND THE AUTHORS OF THE<br /> CONTINENT.<br /> <br /> —_—<br /> <br /> 1 the Senate of the United States, December<br /> 8th, 1903, Mr. Platt, of Connecticut, intro-<br /> duced the following Bill; which was read<br /> <br /> twice and referred to the Committee on Patents.<br /> <br /> A Birt To AMEND CHAPTER Forty-NINE HUNDRED<br /> AND Firty-T&#039;wo oF THE REVISED STATUTES.<br /> <br /> Be it enacted by the Senate and House of<br /> Representatives of the United States of America<br /> in Congress assembled, That section forty-nine<br /> hundred and fifty-two of the Revised Statutes be,<br /> and the same is hereby, amended so as to read as<br /> follows :<br /> <br /> “Sec. 4952. The author, inventor, designer, or<br /> proprietor of any book, map, chart, dramatic or<br /> musical composition, engraving, cut, print, or<br /> photograph or negative thereof, or of a painting,<br /> drawing, chromo, statue, statuary, and of models<br /> or designs intended to be perfected as works of the<br /> <br /> <br /> 122<br /> <br /> fine arts, and the executors, administrators, or<br /> assigns of any such persons shall, upon complying<br /> with the provisions of this chapter, have the sole<br /> liberty of printing, reprinting, publishing, com-<br /> pleting, copying, executing finishing, and vending<br /> the same, and in the case of a dramatic composi-<br /> tion of publicly performing or representing it or<br /> causing it to be performed or represented by others ;<br /> and authors or their assigns shall have exclusive<br /> right to dramatize and translate any of their works<br /> for which copyright shall have been obtained under<br /> the laws of the United States.”<br /> <br /> “ Whenever the author or proprietor of a book<br /> in a foreign language, which shall be published in<br /> a foreign country before the day of publication in<br /> this country, or his executors, administrators, or<br /> assigns, shall, within the twelve months after the<br /> first publication of such book in a foreign country,<br /> obtain a copyright for a translation of such book<br /> in the English language, which shall be the first<br /> copyright in this country for a translation of such<br /> book, he and they shall have, during the term of<br /> such copyright, the sole liberty of printing,<br /> reprinting, publishing, vending, translating, and<br /> dramatizing the said book, and in the case of a<br /> dramatic composition, of publicly performing the<br /> same, or of causing it to be performed or represented<br /> by others.”<br /> <br /> —&lt;_?<br /> <br /> In March, 1891, certain amendments were<br /> inserted as part of the Copyright statute which<br /> had for their purpose the bringing the United<br /> States into copyright relations with the other<br /> literature-producing nations of the world. The<br /> several European States had, from an early<br /> period in the century (1880—1834) entered into<br /> individual treaties with each other under which<br /> their authors (and artists) secured for their pro-<br /> ductions reciprocal protection ; and in 1887 these<br /> States came together, under the Berne Convention,<br /> jn an association the regulations of which secure<br /> copyright recognition throughout nearly the entire<br /> territory of Europe (Holland, Austria-Hungary,<br /> and Russia are still outside) and also in Tunis,<br /> Liberia, and Japan. :<br /> <br /> It had for many years been a ground for mortifi-<br /> cation to citizens who were jealous for the good<br /> name of their country, that the United States had<br /> refused, in regard to the recognition of property<br /> in literature, to enter into the comity of nations.<br /> As far back as 1837, an association had been<br /> organized (of which the late George P. Putnam<br /> was secretary) to bring about an international<br /> copyright, but a contest of more than half a<br /> century was required before it proved practicable<br /> to interest and to educate public opinion, and to<br /> secure from Congress favourable action for a bill<br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> securing property rights for foreign authors, and<br /> (under reciprocity arrangements) protection across<br /> the Atlantic for the productions of American<br /> authors. Before the Act of 1891, copyright could<br /> be secured in this country only for the productions<br /> of citizens of the United States or of those who<br /> could be classed as permanent residents. Under<br /> the new law, the protection of the statute is made<br /> to cover the works of authors whether resident or<br /> non-resident, with the condition that for the non-<br /> resident author the country of which he is a<br /> citizen shall concede to American authors copyright<br /> privileges substantially equal to those conceded by<br /> such foreign State to its own authors. It is also<br /> a condition (applying both to resident and non-<br /> resident authors) that the book securing American<br /> copyright shall be published in the United States<br /> not later than the date of its publication in any<br /> other country. It is a farther condition of such<br /> copyright for all authors, whether resident or non-<br /> resident, that all the editions of the work so copy-<br /> righted must be printed “ from type set within the<br /> limits of the United States or from plates made<br /> therefrom.” This provision was instituted in the<br /> new act at the instance of the Typographical<br /> Unions and was insisted upon by them as essential.<br /> The unions were under the apprehension that if<br /> international copyright should be established with-<br /> out such condition of American manufacture, a<br /> large portion of the book manufacturing now done<br /> in this country would be transferred across the<br /> Atlantic, to the injury of American type-setters<br /> and printers and of the other trades employed in<br /> the making of books.<br /> <br /> The provisions of the Act as finally passed were<br /> not a little confused by amendments inserted<br /> hastily during the last weeks of the session, amend-<br /> ments which had not been planned in connection<br /> with the original drafts of the bill and which pre-<br /> sented certain new conditions more or less incongru-<br /> ous with the general purpose of the bill and likely<br /> to produce difficulties in the consistent working of<br /> the law. These amendments were submitted for<br /> the most part on behalf of the various interests<br /> having to do with the manufacturing of books and<br /> of reproductions of works of art, and were accepted<br /> by Congress as in line with the general protective<br /> policy of the country. The changes in the text of<br /> the bill as originally drafted were accepted by those<br /> who had been for many years working for inter-<br /> national copyright, because if they had not been<br /> accepted it would have been impossible to bring into<br /> enactment any international copyright measure<br /> whatsoever. It seemed better, for the cause of the<br /> <br /> recognition of literary property irrespective of<br /> political boundaries, to place upon the statute book<br /> a law more or less imperfect and incongruous than<br /> to leave the United States for a<br /> <br /> further indefinite<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> term alone among civilized nations in its failure<br /> to recognize the just claims of foreign authors and<br /> artists. It was also increasingly important to<br /> secure a recognition on the other side of the<br /> Atlantic for the property rights of American<br /> literary producers whose productions were securing<br /> from year to year increasing attention from English<br /> and continental readers.<br /> <br /> It is proper to state that the law has, in many<br /> respects, worked more smoothly than was antici-<br /> pated. Attention has, however, been called by<br /> more than one Attorney-General and also by the<br /> present Librarian of Congress and by his assistant,<br /> the Registrar in charge of the Bureau of Copy-<br /> rights, to the material defects in the wording of the<br /> statute. Fear has been expressed that these<br /> defects would sooner or later stand in the way of<br /> securing consistent action in the courts for the<br /> adequate protection of the rights of literary pro-<br /> ducers. It isthe case, however, that comparatively<br /> few issues have as yet arisen in the courts under<br /> which these unsatisfactory provisions of the law<br /> could be tested.<br /> <br /> The law has had the effect of securing from<br /> year to year for an increasing number of British<br /> authors very satisfactory returns from the sales in<br /> the United States of their copyrighted property ;<br /> and under the reciprocity arrangement, which came<br /> into effect with Great Britain in July, 1891,<br /> American authors are each year securing larger<br /> returns from their readers in the British Empire,<br /> returns which are bound to increase proportionately<br /> with the development of American literature.<br /> English authors have found some inconvenience<br /> in connection with the requirement for simultaneous<br /> publication (a requirement which also obtains<br /> under the British law) and the further require-<br /> ment for the manufacturing of the copyrighted<br /> book within the territory of the United States,<br /> but there has been no substantial difficulty, under<br /> the arrangements that have come into force between<br /> the publishers on either side of the Atlantic and<br /> their respective circles of authors, in meeting these<br /> two requirements for books originating in the<br /> English language.<br /> <br /> It is the case, however, that very serious and<br /> well-founded criticisms of the law have come from<br /> the authors of France, Germany, and Italy, who<br /> find that, under the requirements of American<br /> manufacture and simultaneous publication, the<br /> difficulties are almost insuperable in the way of<br /> securing American copyright for books which have<br /> to be translated before they are available for the<br /> use of American readers. In Germany, the dis-<br /> appointment and annoyance at what are held to be<br /> the inequitable restrictions of the American statute<br /> have been so considerable that steps have been<br /> taken on the part of authors and publishers to<br /> <br /> 123<br /> <br /> secure the abrogation of the Convention entered<br /> into in 1893 between Germany and the United<br /> States. ‘he defenders of the Convention have<br /> thus far succeeded in preventing it from being set<br /> aside, but it is their report that they will not be<br /> able to maintain this Convention for many years to<br /> come unless the grievances complained of by German<br /> authors shall receive satisfactory consideration.<br /> The disappointment and the criticism on the part<br /> of the authors of France are no less bitter. It is<br /> only the fact that certain substantial advantages<br /> have been secured under the law to continental<br /> artists, and the expectation that the American<br /> people will not long remain satisfied with granting<br /> international copyright in form while refusing it<br /> in fact, that prevent organised attacks not only in<br /> Paris and Berlin, but also in Rome, upon the<br /> present international arrangements.<br /> <br /> I myself had occasion while attending, in June,<br /> 1901, the convention held at Leipsic of the Inter-<br /> national Association of Publishers, to listen to a<br /> memorial which had been prepared by the Associa-<br /> tion of German Authors, and which was submitted<br /> for the approval of the assembly of German pub-<br /> lishers, which memorial had for its purpose the<br /> abrogation of the Convention between Germany<br /> and the United States. I succeeded at that time<br /> in securing a decision on the part of the publishers<br /> to lay upon the table a resolution approving this<br /> memorial of the authors, and the authors them-<br /> selves later also agreed to defer action. I reported<br /> to the representatives of the continental publishers<br /> and authors that, at the instance of the American<br /> Publishers’ Copyright League, an amendment to<br /> our statute had been drafted which had for its pur-<br /> pose the remedying asfaras might now be practicable<br /> these grievances of the authors of the continent.<br /> I promised that nothing should be neglected on<br /> the part of the American publishers, American<br /> authors, and others interested in international<br /> copyright and in maintaining the copyright rela-<br /> tions of the United States with Europe, to secure<br /> favourable attention from Congress for the amend-<br /> ment in question. It has, however, proved more<br /> difficult than was anticipated two years back to<br /> secure such attention on the part of the legislators<br /> in Washington. Other matters have intervened<br /> in each session which seemed both to Representa-<br /> tives and Senators of much more importance than<br /> the question of copyright. Apart from the usual<br /> delays on the ground of lack of interest in Con-<br /> gressional committees in such a subject, the<br /> representatives of the Publishers’ Copyright League<br /> found that they had again to give consideration<br /> to objections on the part of the typographical<br /> unions. :<br /> <br /> The amendment as first drafted provided that<br /> the European author of a book originating in a<br /> <br /> <br /> 124<br /> <br /> language other than English should be allowed a<br /> term of twelve months (or, as later suggested, of<br /> not less than six months), within which to secure<br /> arrangements for an American edition of his book<br /> and to have completed the required translation.<br /> The American edition which was to have the pro-<br /> tection of copyright was of course to be “printed<br /> from type set within the limits of the United<br /> States.” During this interregnum term of six<br /> months, importation into the United States of<br /> copies of the work as issued in the original text<br /> could be made and the owner of the copyright was<br /> rotected against any unauthorised appropriation<br /> of his production. This provision was worded<br /> with the purpose of avoiding the expense that<br /> under present conditions must be incurred of<br /> putting into type in this country an edition of<br /> the work printed in the language of origin. There<br /> is, as a rule, not sufficient demand from American<br /> buyers, even in the case of an author of repute, for<br /> a book originating in French or in German, to<br /> make the American publication of such work,<br /> printed in the original language, a satisfactory<br /> business undertaking. It is, on the other hand,<br /> as a rule, not practicable to have a translation<br /> produced in time to enable the American edition<br /> as translated to be issued in the United States<br /> “not later than the date of publication” in the<br /> country of origin. The French or German pub-<br /> lisher is generally not willing to agree with his<br /> author to lose a season’s sale of his edition of the<br /> book for the chance of securing for such author<br /> the advantage of an American edition.<br /> <br /> The typographers objected to the amendment as<br /> worded on the ground that it gave copyright pro-<br /> tection for a term of, say, six months to a book in<br /> an edition which had not been printed in the<br /> United States. It was pointed out by the pub-<br /> lishers (many of them themselves printers and all<br /> of them interested in the production of American<br /> editions) that no book could, under such amend-<br /> ment, secure the final protection of the law unless<br /> an American edition was produced. It was<br /> emphasized further that, under the present con-<br /> ditions, the publishers were not willing to make<br /> investments in American editions of continental<br /> works which were well suited for the requirements<br /> of American readers, but that if the publishers<br /> could, as would be possible under this amendment,<br /> secure the copyright control of such editions, a<br /> number of books would be put into print in the<br /> United States which would not otherwise have been<br /> taken up, and from the manufacturing of which the<br /> printing and allied trades would secure business<br /> advantage.<br /> <br /> It did not prove practicable, however, to con-<br /> vince the typographers that there might not be<br /> some risk of disadvantage to their trade in the<br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> proposition, The amendment was therefore re-<br /> shaped so as to meet their objections. Under<br /> the amendment as now worded, a work originating<br /> in language other than English is left open to<br /> “ appropriation” unless an authorised American<br /> edition shall have been produced within the term<br /> of twelve months after the first publication of the<br /> book in the country of origin and unless such<br /> edition shall have been produced and duly pro-<br /> tected by copyright in advance of any unauthorised<br /> edition. In case, however, within such term of<br /> twelve months, the book shall be brought into<br /> print in the United States in an edition which<br /> shall comply with the other requirements of the —<br /> law, the author of such book, or his assign, shall<br /> enjoy for the term of copyright the full protection<br /> of the law, not merely for such English version,<br /> but for the entire text in any version. Under the<br /> working of the present statute, the producer of an<br /> English version (whether authorised or unautho-<br /> rised) of a continental work secures the protection<br /> of the law only for his own version. In case this<br /> first version secures a success, there is always the<br /> risk that other versions may be produced by<br /> unauthorised reprinters desiring to take advantage<br /> of the literary judgment and of the advertising of<br /> the publishers producing the unauthorised version,<br /> Such appropriation of the text of the original will<br /> be impracticable when the pending amendment has<br /> become a part of the statute.<br /> <br /> The typographers have given their approval to<br /> the amendment as now worded, realising that it<br /> ought to have the effect of increasing the pro-<br /> auction of American editions of continental works.<br /> While it is an advantage that the continental book<br /> should be open to “ appropriation” for a term of<br /> twelve months (or less) and that should unautho-<br /> rised editions have once been issued no copyright<br /> control can be secured for the work through the<br /> publication of an unauthorised edition, it is<br /> believed that under actual business conditions<br /> this advantage may not prove serious. It is the<br /> fact that the unauthorised reprinters prefer, as a<br /> rule, to follow the literary judgment of the pub- —<br /> lishers who act us the representatives of the authors.<br /> The “ piracy” firms find it “better business” in<br /> the selection of works by continental authors to<br /> appropriate a work which has secured the approval<br /> of a leading publishing house than to risk ventures<br /> based upon their individual judgments. :<br /> <br /> The amendment in question has been introduced<br /> into the Senate by Senator O. H. Platt, of Con- —<br /> necticut, who is an old-time friend of international —<br /> copyright, and whose service in connection with —<br /> the Act of 1891 was of the greatest importance. —<br /> The bill (which bears the number “ Senate 849 &quot;oe<br /> has been referred to the Committee on Patents, —<br /> and its supporters hope to be able to secure —<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> THE<br /> <br /> favourable action on it early in the regular session.<br /> The amendment has also been introduced into the<br /> House (House No. 2229) by Mr. Currier. It is of<br /> essential importance, if the copyright relations of<br /> the United States with France, Germany, and Italy<br /> are to be preserved, that no further delay should<br /> be incurred in remedying the very serious injustice<br /> to which the authors of the continent are now<br /> exposed. It would also be a serious mortification<br /> for Americans who have at heart the good name<br /> of their country to have these international copy-<br /> right conventions cancelled on the ground that<br /> the American Government had failed to carry out<br /> in good faith the reciprocity conditions of the Act<br /> of 1891 on the strength of which conditions the<br /> States of Europe have extended to American<br /> authors the full protection of their own copyright<br /> laws.<br /> TEORGE HavEN PUTNAM.<br /> <br /> ——_____—_—_e———__e—___—_<br /> <br /> THE UNITED STATES PUBLISHING<br /> CONTRACT.<br /> _—~&gt;—+ —_<br /> <br /> HE contract of publication in the United<br /> States is one that must with increasing<br /> frequency be placed before writers in Eng-<br /> <br /> land. Perhaps therefore a few notes on a form of<br /> contract put forward by a United States publisher<br /> may be of service to Members.<br /> <br /> The difficulty of making alterations in such a<br /> contract on account of the length of time that<br /> must elapse between one mail and the answer to<br /> that mail, is evident.<br /> <br /> There are very few United States publishers<br /> who have agents in London whose authority will<br /> permit them to settle contracts on behalf of their<br /> principals. Many authors, therefore, enter into<br /> bad contracts in order that their books may be<br /> produced simultaneously ; and others, wearying of a<br /> lengthened and desultory correspondence, embrace<br /> the same fault. The two remedies for this position<br /> are that, firstly, the author should deal in full<br /> time with the United States rights, and secondly,<br /> should be careful to deal with the best United<br /> States publishers. Then what they may lose on<br /> some of the minor points in the contract, which<br /> they have been unable for one reason or another to<br /> settle satisfactorily, they may gain from the reputa-<br /> tion and position of the publishing house with<br /> which they are dealing.<br /> <br /> As a rule the contracts from United States<br /> publishers are voluminous, verbose, and even then<br /> incomplete. They demand too much from the<br /> author, and give insufficient security that the work<br /> willbe carried out on the best lines. If, of course,<br /> the author deals with a first-class house, the latter<br /> mistake corrects itself.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> 125<br /> <br /> It should be added that some of the latercontracts<br /> received from the other side of the water, like some<br /> of the later contracts received from English<br /> publishers, contain considerably better terms, and<br /> are drafted on a much more satisfactory basis for<br /> the author, than those which were in existence five<br /> <br /> or ten yearsago, An example of the United States<br /> contract is printed here :—<br /> <br /> MEMORANDUM OF AGREEMENT<br /> between and<br /> laws of the State of<br /> <br /> Said being the author and proprietor of a work<br /> entitled “ ” in consideration of the covenant and<br /> stipulations hereinafter contained, agreed to be performed<br /> by the said publishers, grants and guarantees to the<br /> publishers the exclusive right to publish said work during<br /> terms of copyright and renewals thereof, hereby covenant-<br /> ing with said publishers that he is the sole author and<br /> proprietor of said work.<br /> <br /> Said author further guarantees to said publishers that<br /> the said work is in no way whatever a violation of any<br /> copyright belonging to any other party, and that it con-<br /> tains nothing of a scandalous or libellous character and<br /> that he and his legal representatives will hold harmless the<br /> said publishers from all suits and all manner of claims and<br /> proceedings which may be taken on the ground that said<br /> work is such violation, or contains anything scandalous or<br /> libellous ; and he further hereby authorises said publishers<br /> to defend at law any and all suits and proceedings which<br /> may be taken or had against publishers for infringement of<br /> any other copyright, or for libel, scandal, or any other<br /> injurious or hurtful matter or thing contained in or alleged<br /> or claimed to be contained in or caused by said work, and<br /> to pay to said publishers such reasonable costs, disburse-<br /> ments, expenses and counsel fees as they may incur in<br /> such defences.<br /> <br /> Said publishers in consideration of the right herein<br /> granted, and of the guarantees aforesaid, agree to publish<br /> said work at their own expense, in such style and manner<br /> as they may deem expedient, and to pay said author or his<br /> legal representatives a royalty of per cent. on the retail<br /> price of the first five thousand copies sold, and per cent.<br /> thereafter.<br /> <br /> Provided, nevertheless, that no percentage whatever<br /> shall be paid on any copies destroyed by fire or water, or<br /> sold at or below cost, or given away for the purpose of<br /> aiding thesale of said work ; and provided further, that on<br /> all copies of said work sold for export, whether sold in<br /> sheets or bound, the amount of royalty to be paid on such<br /> copies shall not exceed per cent. of the net price<br /> received for such sales :—and in case the said publishers<br /> are able to dispose of duplicate plates for export, there<br /> shall be paid to the author a sum not to exceed per<br /> cent. of the amount received for such sale.<br /> <br /> Any expense incurred for alterations or additions made<br /> by author after manuscript has been put into type,<br /> exceeding ten per cent, of cost of composition and stereo-<br /> typing or electrotyping said work, is to be charged to the<br /> author’s account.<br /> <br /> Statements to be rendered annually in the month of<br /> February, and settlements to be made in cash within two<br /> months after date of statement. The first statement shall<br /> not be rendered until six months after date of publication.<br /> <br /> If, on the expiration of five years from date of publica-<br /> tion, or at any time thereafter, the demand for such work<br /> should not, in the opinion of the said publishers be sufficient.<br /> to render its publication profitable, then this contract shall<br /> cease and terminate, and thereupon said author shall have<br /> the right, at his option, to take from said publishers at not<br /> <br /> made this day of<br /> a corporation chartered under the<br /> <br /> <br /> 126<br /> <br /> exceeding actual cost of manufacture the stereotype or<br /> electrotype plates and engravings (if any) of said work,<br /> and whatever copies, bound or in sheets, they may then<br /> have on hand, or failing to take said plates and copies at<br /> cost, then said publishers shall have the right to dispose of<br /> the copies on hand as they may deem fit, free of any per-<br /> centage or royalty, to melt up the plates, and to cancel this<br /> contract.<br /> <br /> In consideration of the mutuality of this contract, the<br /> aforesaid parties agree to all its provisions for themselves,<br /> their heirs, assigns, or legal representatives, and in testimony<br /> thereof affix their signatures and seals.<br /> <br /> Twelve complimentary copies to author.<br /> <br /> Additional copies at best trade rates.<br /> <br /> This document, although drawn in more concise<br /> language than most agreements, yet contains many<br /> faults which may, as suggested, be rectified by<br /> dealing with a satisfactory house. For instance,<br /> the style, manner, and date of publication appear<br /> to be left in the hands of the publisher. It may<br /> be a serious matter to omit any definite arrange-<br /> ment on these points if the author does not happen<br /> to be of the same opinion as the firm with which<br /> he is contracting. The clause referring to libel and<br /> infringement of copyright gives too wide a scope<br /> to the publisher, although his power is somewhat<br /> limited by the word ‘‘ reasonable ” at the end of the<br /> clause, though “ reasonable costs, disbursements,<br /> expenses and counsel fees” is a very indefinite<br /> phrase. The main object of a contract is finality.<br /> <br /> The proviso at the end of the second clause is<br /> also unsatisfactory; and the account clause is bad.<br /> There is no doubt that statements of account<br /> should be rendered semi-annually, and this is<br /> the arrangement which, by degrees, is becoming<br /> universal in publishing houses. Annual accounts<br /> may often leave the author’s money for an incon-<br /> veniently long time in the publisher’s possession.<br /> The clause dealing with the termination of the<br /> contract is, on the whole, sound, the author having<br /> the option of taking over the stock. In many of<br /> the contracts with English publishers this clause is<br /> very unsatisfactory. This is especially so in the<br /> agreements drafted by the Publishers’ Association.<br /> The worst point of the whole contract is that there<br /> is no mention whatever of an arrangement to<br /> secure copyright in Great Britain, her Colonies,<br /> and Dependencies. There is no clause which binds<br /> the publisher to produce by a certain date in order<br /> to meet the requirements of the Act. It may, of<br /> course, be argued that this is a United States con-<br /> tract, but in answer to this, it should be stated<br /> that this special contract was for the procuration<br /> of the copyright in the United States of a book<br /> that was to be published in England. Therefore,<br /> such a clause should have been inserted.<br /> <br /> In another United States contract, which is a<br /> typical example of draftsmanship—who does under-<br /> take to draw these contracts? Can the United<br /> <br /> States Publishers’ Association explain ?—there is<br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> an interesting clause with regard to simultaneous<br /> publication. It runs as follows :—<br /> <br /> “In order to fulfil the requirements of the revised<br /> Statutes of the United States for securing copyright the<br /> Author shall place in the hands of the Publishers, the<br /> manuscript or fair typewritten copy, or advanced printed<br /> sheets, of said work in ample time to allow the Publishers<br /> to do the typesetting, electrotyping, presswork, and<br /> binding, so that they may be able to publish their edition<br /> simultaneously with any other edition of the said work, or<br /> of any translation thereof, published in Great Britain or<br /> elsewhere. The publication of any edition of the said<br /> work, or of any translation thereof, other than that<br /> published by the Publishers shall be made at such time<br /> only as will enable them to make the publication of their<br /> edition simultaneous therewith. They, on their part, agree<br /> not to anticipate the authorised foreign publication of the<br /> said work, and not to publish their edition until the day<br /> mutually agreed upon by them and the Author. It is<br /> further understood and agreed that if, by any act or<br /> omission in the publication or edition of the said work<br /> in any foreign country or in any way or manner without<br /> the fault of the Publishers the copyright in and to the said<br /> work within and for the United States of America shall be<br /> lost or rendered nugatory, then the Author shall be respon-<br /> sible to the Publishers for any loss or damage which they<br /> may suffer thereby, and the Publishers may then, at their<br /> option, terminate this Agreement, and in that event they<br /> shall not thereafter be obliged to perform any of the acts<br /> herein provided for.”<br /> <br /> This clause in its verbosity is an example of the<br /> rest of this agreement and needs no comment.<br /> <br /> Should any members of the Society, from time<br /> to time, have interesting forms of copyright agree-<br /> ments with publishers in the United States, the<br /> Secretary would be glad to see them. As a rule<br /> the agreements run to fourteen or fifteen clauses.<br /> The difficulty of dealing satisfactorily with them,<br /> in a correspondence which may last for three or<br /> four months, is considerably increased.<br /> <br /> —_+-——_e_—__<br /> <br /> RESUME OF THE NUMBER OF BOOKS<br /> PUBLISHED IN THE PAST YEAR.<br /> jo<br /> REPRINTED FROM THE Publishers’ Circular BY<br /> Krinp PERMISSION OF THE EDITOR.<br /> <br /> HE total number of books recorded in 1903<br /> <br /> is about a hundred below 1889 and 1898,<br /> <br /> four hundred below 1897, and a thousand<br /> above 1902; but there is an increase recorded in<br /> Miscellaneous of about five hundred, and most of<br /> these are pamphlets at a few pence each ; while<br /> there were about three hundred sixpenny novels<br /> during the year, most of them, of course, ‘new<br /> editions,” not new books. The total of Fiction is<br /> about a hundred more than in the previous year.<br /> Theology, Educational, Politics, and Commerce are<br /> up in number; Arts and Sciences and Law are<br /> down ; History and Biography, Voyages and<br /> Travels, about the same; Medicine, Year-Books,<br /> Belles-Lettres, and Poetry and the Drama slightly<br /> <br /> up.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> THER AUTHOR. 127<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> | |<br /> | | B 8 EB<br /> Bo 2 eS SS<br /> Subjects. e a S - : : 2 z 3 a l=<br /> 2 &amp; |= &lt; = 5 5 4 R Se | 2 A<br /> So ae |<br /> REG CRA Toe eee, \ { |<br /> a (|a36| 42| 49] 63] 55] 51| 25] 431 42] 70| 86] 87 | 639<br /> 1. Theology, Sermons, Biblical ... 1|o 3 9 8 4 2 5 5 7) 3 2 &lt;1 ie<br /> | | | = 702<br /> D Mincensl «Classical, and {| 2 61| 66| 70 | 86 | 65| 62| 83) 47| 51] 51| 65) 53 | 650<br /> est—st—i | et} | 6] 4] 7) 9} 18| i6| 10] 98<br /> 748<br /> 3. Juvenile Works and Tales,|| ~ 97 | 98 | 150| 87/135] 98] 94] 155 | 169 | 296 | 347 | 133 1859<br /> Novels, Tales, and other ;| 4, 98| 50| 67| 94] 85| 64] 50| 44| 52] 102] 108] 57/ 801<br /> Fiction ) 2650<br /> {la 7 5 8 3 4 6 3 3 i 1 5 ii 57<br /> 4. Law, Jurisprudence, &amp;c. ib 2 3 8 5 5 ees 1 7 uf 6 30<br /> 87<br /> 5. Political and Social Economy, )| @ 42 43 |} 50) 34 51 37 82 | 46 | 29) 41 54 50 | 509<br /> ee it 4] | o5| 12] 8] 7] wt] | 12] 2} 100<br /> , —- 609<br /> BF oad Wists 1 2 27 |) 26 | 82] 26) 88] 50] 17| 24) 85] 21) 46 | 71 | 413<br /> ee ee Boel s | Ge 1) t| 2 1) 2) 8 kb 32<br /> ee o us<br /> Be be, ed Geo | 1 | | 9] 16] 18) 10) 15] 12) 6) 7) BF) 17<br /> graphical Research ... fe 2 2 1 3 2 2 4 5 9; —| 34 ace<br /> : (| @ 40 42 31 27 8 35 33 38 18 42 60 98 | 482<br /> 8. History, Biography, &amp;c. wb 7) 18 8 5 9 4 4 4 6 5 6] 20] 91<br /> — 573<br /> (| @ 28 12 36 30 21 24 10 16 26 30 37 33 | 303<br /> 9. Poetry and the Drama 118 6 7 6 5 2 3 3 4 3 161 18 15 | 88<br /> | 391<br /> 10, Year-Books and Serials in}|786| 35| 20| 23| 24) 24| 15) 15) 31 | 44| 55| 85 | 457<br /> Volumes &lt;... ee Re ee ee | ae me ae Fo ee<br /> | | —— 457<br /> as (ois) 91 te) ig) ib | 20 | 16) 28) 6. 18) 18 | 25 | 187<br /> 11. Medicine, Surgery, &amp;c. sale 8 7 9 7 1 D Ge alt 13 | 14 1 95<br /> | | 282<br /> cs Mone || 2 10 | 81 28) 9 | oT) BL] AL] 19) 20) 39| 46) 33} 284<br /> graphs, om : eee 1 2 7 2 | 2 : . Le 8 2 : 2) 31<br /> : | 315<br /> 13. Miscellaneous, includin a@58| 66) 46) 65 3 o£) 67) 62) 71 48 | 50 | 32 | 687<br /> Pamphlets, not Sermons Z b 6 8 | 26} 30 22 28 14) 29 16 10 | 18 12 | 219<br /> | | oe<br /> 591 | 585 | 708 | 583 | 708 | 645 | 466 | 622 | 638 | 887 | 1089} 859 | 8381<br /> a New Books; b New Editions.<br /> The Analytical Table is divided into 13 Classes; also New Books and New Editions.<br /> a | 1902. 1903. e<br /> Divisions. | New Books. New Editions. New Books. New Editions.<br /> Theology, Sermons, Biblical, &amp;e. : oP ae eo 567 8] 639 63<br /> Educational, Classical, and Philological | 504 68 650 98<br /> Novels, Tales, and Juvenile Works | 1,743 lO 1,859 801<br /> Law, Jurisprudence, &amp;e. 88 46 57 30<br /> Political and Social Economy, Trade and Commerce 463 130 509 100<br /> Arts, Science, and Illustrated Works 420 44 413 32<br /> Voyages, Travels, and Geographical Resear ch. 162 38 172 34<br /> History, Biography, &amp;c. . ie 480 57 482 91<br /> Poetry and the Drama . 272 76 303 88<br /> Year-Books and Serials in Volumes os see a 408 ao 457 —_<br /> Medicine, Surgery, &amp;c. . a oe bes 153 84 187 95<br /> Belles-Lettres, Essays, Monographs, ee. ah 227 44 284 31<br /> Miscellaneous, including Pamphlets, not Ser mons ... 352 Q 17 GSt | 219<br /> 1 | 5,839 1,542 | 6,699 1,682<br /> 5888 | 6,699<br /> Z | 7,381 _ | 8,381<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> MAGAZINE CONTENTS.<br /> <br /> —&gt;—+—<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> BLACKWOOD’s MAGAZINE,<br /> <br /> John Chilcote, M.P. By Katherine Cecil Thurston.<br /> <br /> Three Gambits.<br /> <br /> Scolopaxiana: Dogs. By Scolopax.<br /> <br /> One Night’s Experiences in Thibet. By C. H. Lepper.<br /> <br /> Old Galway Life: Random Recollections.<br /> <br /> “Sally”: A Study. By Hugh Clifford, C.M.G.<br /> <br /> The Siege of Arrah : An Incident of the Indian Mutiny.<br /> By E. John Salano.<br /> <br /> The Birds of Hawaii. By J. A Owen.<br /> <br /> ‘A Statesman-Adventurer of the Pacific.<br /> <br /> Musings Without Method.—The Lost Influence and<br /> Dignity of the Daily Press—The Speeches of an Emperor—<br /> The Psalms of David in Daily Life.<br /> <br /> ‘A Fiscal Solution : For Commonplace Minds. By Selim.<br /> <br /> Zussia and Japan : The Naval Outlook. By Active List.<br /> <br /> Foreign Trade Fallacies.<br /> <br /> THE CORNHILL MAGAZINE.<br /> <br /> The Truants (Chapters iv.—vi.). 3y A. E. W. Mason.<br /> <br /> Some Empty Chairs. By Henry W. Lucy.<br /> <br /> Macedonia—And After?<br /> <br /> ‘A Grandmother&#039;s Budget. By Mrs. Frederic Harrison.<br /> <br /> Historical Mysteries. I, The Campden Mystery. By<br /> Andrew Lang.<br /> <br /> Among Japanese Hills. By Ernest Foxwell.<br /> <br /> The Welsh in London. By J. HK. Vincent.<br /> <br /> Han and Kawan, By Laurence Housman.<br /> <br /> The Motion of the Solar System through Space. By<br /> Frank Watson Dyson, F.R.S.<br /> <br /> The Improvement of Westminster. By Thomas Fairman<br /> Ordish, F.S.A.<br /> <br /> Theodor Mommsen. By Professor Tout.<br /> <br /> Provincial Letters. XIV. From Beaconsfield. By<br /> Urbanus Sylvan.<br /> <br /> The Visits of an Editor. By Leonard Husley,<br /> <br /> THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW,<br /> <br /> What can be done to Help the British Stage? An<br /> Appeal. With a List of Signatures.<br /> <br /> First Principles in the Far East. By “ Calchas.”<br /> <br /> The Financial and Economic Situation in Japan. By<br /> W. Petrie Watson.<br /> <br /> English History in Napoleon’s Notebooks. By Henry<br /> Foljambe Hall, F.R.Hist.s.<br /> <br /> George Gissing. By Arthur Waugh.<br /> <br /> On Some French Novels of To-day. By Le Comte de<br /> Ségur.<br /> <br /> The State Discouragement of Literature, By William<br /> Watson.<br /> <br /> The Problem of High Asia. By Demetrius C. Boulger.<br /> <br /> The Life of a Song. By Stephen Gwynn.<br /> <br /> President Roosevelt. By Sydney Brooks.<br /> <br /> The Protectionist Ideal of Foreign Trade. By W. M.<br /> Lightbody.<br /> <br /> The Royalist Movement in France. By Normannus.<br /> <br /> Leonaine: An Unpublished Poem by H. A. Poe. By<br /> Alfred R. Wallace.<br /> <br /> Eugene Sue. By Francis Gribble.<br /> <br /> Theophano. Chaps. x.and xi. By Frederic Harrison.<br /> <br /> Correspondence :—The Known and the Unknown in Mr.<br /> Chamberlain’s Policy.—A Correction. By A, C. Pigou.<br /> <br /> LONGMAN’S MAGAZINE.<br /> <br /> Nature’s Comedian (Chapters xv., xvi), By w. E.<br /> Norris.<br /> <br /> Sikhim, The Land where the Rhododendrons Grow. By<br /> M. C. Paget.<br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> Astrida’s Lover. By F. Whishaw.<br /> <br /> The Swimming Powers of Animals. By Paul Fountain.<br /> Miss Fenella. By May Kendall.<br /> <br /> A Gateway of Empire. By Esther Hallam Moorhouse.<br /> At the Sign of the Ship. By Andrew Lang.<br /> <br /> MACMILLAN’S MAGAZINE.<br /> <br /> The Court of Sacharissa. By Hugh Sheringham and<br /> Nevill Meakin. Chapters vii.—ix.<br /> <br /> The Training of Teachers. By Miss Hodgson.<br /> <br /> Ten Years in a Prohibition Town. By John Davidson.<br /> <br /> La Rata Encoronada. By W. Spotswood Green,<br /> <br /> The Football Fever. By H. F. Abell.<br /> <br /> The President of Mexico. By Andrew Marshall.<br /> <br /> Studies in Shakespeare&#039;s History. By J. L, Etty.<br /> VII. Antony and Cleopatra. :<br /> <br /> Imperial Purposes and their Cost. By T. B. Browning.<br /> <br /> THE PALL MALL MAGAZINE.<br /> <br /> The Duke and Duchess of Devonshire at Devonshire<br /> House.<br /> <br /> Dr. Sven Hedin at Home. By Georg Brochner.<br /> <br /> Master Worker: George Frederick Watts, O.M. By<br /> Harold Begbie.<br /> <br /> Pictures and the Public. By E. Rimbault Dibdin.<br /> <br /> How and Why Animals are Coloured. By R. J. Pocock.<br /> <br /> Literary Geography : Thackeray. By William Sharp.<br /> <br /> Stories by Maurice Hewlett, Mrs. Craigie ( John Oliver<br /> Hobbes”), H. Fielding Hall, W. H. Pollock, U. L. Silberrad,<br /> Charles Marriott.<br /> <br /> THE WORLD’s WoRK.<br /> <br /> The March of Events—An Illustrated Editorial Record<br /> and Comment :<br /> A New Political Era.<br /> The Far East.<br /> The Future of Medical Science in London.<br /> Our Commercial Advantage in France.<br /> The Sale of Artificial Pearls.<br /> India and Free Trade. By Sir Edgar Vincent, K.C.M.G<br /> MP,<br /> Crossing the Channel by Railway. By George Cerbelaud<br /> The Pope&#039;s Secretary of State: Cardinal Merry Del Val.<br /> The Conflict in the Far East. By Alfred Stead.<br /> The Walking Wheel.<br /> The St. Louis Exposition.<br /> Colombia and the New Republic of Panama, By<br /> Theodore 8. Alexander.<br /> The Mosely Education Commission. By Alfred Mosely,<br /> C.M.G.<br /> The New Discovery Concerning Cancer. By E. 8. Grew.<br /> The Potato Harvest and the Boom. By Toye Vise.<br /> The British Tradesman Abroad. By U. P. R.<br /> A Modern Hot-air Balloon. By Edward J. Forster.<br /> Food-Frauds in France. By Frederic Lees.<br /> The Girl Gardener: Is she Going to be a Success ?<br /> «“ Home Counties.”<br /> A New View of the Home. By Lady Mclaren.<br /> How to Adopt the Metric System. By Thomas Parker.<br /> ‘A Revolution in Milk-Supply. By C. W. Saleeby.<br /> Chair-Leg Turners at Work. By W. Bovill.<br /> The Work of the Book World.<br /> Among the World’s Workers—A Record of Industry :<br /> «A British Industry Really Ruined.”<br /> How Fast can a Horse go in Harness ?<br /> Young Men as Irrigation Engineers.<br /> A Floating Theatre.<br /> A New Air Condenser.<br /> Foreign Beer in the United Kingdom.<br /> An Electrical Canal-‘owage System.<br /> How London’s Tube Railways are made.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Geary<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> WARNINGS TO THE PRODUCERS<br /> OF BOOKS.<br /> <br /> oe<br /> ERE are a few standing rules to be observed in an<br /> agreement. There are four methods of dealing<br /> with literary property :—<br /> <br /> I. Selling it Outright.<br /> <br /> This is sometimes satisfactory, if a proper price can be<br /> obtained. But the transaction should be managed by a<br /> competent agent, or with the advice of the Secretary of<br /> the Society.<br /> <br /> II. A Profit-Sharing Agreement (a bad form of<br /> agreement).<br /> <br /> In this case the following rules should be attended to:<br /> <br /> (1.) Not to sign any agreement in which the cost of pro-<br /> duction forms a part without the strictest investigation.<br /> <br /> (2.) Not to give the publisher the power of putting the<br /> profits into his own pocket by charging for advertisements<br /> in his own organs, or by charging exchange advertise-<br /> ments. Therefore keep control of the advertisements.<br /> <br /> (8.) Not to allow a special charge for “ office expenses,”<br /> unless the same allowance is made to the author.<br /> <br /> (4.) Not to give up American, Colonial, or Continental<br /> rights.<br /> <br /> (.) Not to give up serial or translation rights.<br /> <br /> (6.) Not to bind yourself for future work to any publisher.<br /> As well bind yourself for the future to any one solicitor or<br /> doctor !<br /> <br /> III. The Royalty System.<br /> <br /> This is perhaps, with certain limitations, the best form<br /> of agreement. It is above all things necessary to know<br /> what the proposed royalty means to both sides. It is now<br /> possible for an author to ascertain approximately the<br /> truth. From time to time very important figures connected<br /> with royalties are published in The Author.<br /> <br /> 1Y. A Commission Agreement.<br /> <br /> The main points are :—<br /> <br /> (1.) Be careful to obtain a fair cost of production.<br /> (2.) Keep control of the advertisements.<br /> <br /> (3.) Keep control of the sale price of the book.<br /> <br /> General.<br /> <br /> All other forms of agreement are combinations of the four<br /> above mentioned.<br /> <br /> Such combinations are generally disastrous to the author,<br /> <br /> Never sign any agreement without competent advice from<br /> the Secretary of the Society.<br /> <br /> Stamp all agreements with the Inland Revenue stamp.<br /> <br /> Avoid agreements by letter if possible.<br /> <br /> The main points which the Society has always demanded<br /> from the outset are :—<br /> <br /> C1.) That both sides shall know what an agreement<br /> means.<br /> <br /> (2.) The inspection of those account books which belong<br /> to the author. We are advised that this is a right, in the<br /> nature of a common law right, which cannot be denied or<br /> withheld.<br /> <br /> (3.) Always avoid a transfer of copyright.<br /> <br /> eg ees<br /> <br /> WARNINGS TO DRAMATIC AUTHORS.<br /> <br /> Lo.<br /> <br /> EVER sign an agreement without submitting it to the<br /> <br /> Secretary of the Society of Authors or some com-<br /> petent legal authority.<br /> <br /> 2. [t is well to be extremely careful in negotiating for<br /> <br /> the production of a play with anyone except an established<br /> manager.<br /> <br /> 129<br /> <br /> 3. There are three forms of dramatic contract for plays<br /> in three or more acts :—<br /> <br /> (a.) Sale outright of the performing right. This<br /> is unsatisfactory. An author who enters into<br /> such a contract should stipulate in the contract<br /> for production of the piece by a certain date<br /> and for proper publication of his name on the<br /> play-bills.<br /> <br /> (%.) Sale of performing right or of a licence to<br /> perform on the basis of percentages on<br /> gross receipts. Percentages vary between 5<br /> and 15 per cent. An author should obtain a<br /> percentage on the sliding scale of gross receipts<br /> in preference to the American system. Should<br /> obtain a sum in advance of percentages. A fixed<br /> date on or before which the play should be<br /> performed.<br /> <br /> (¢c.) Sale of performing right or of a licence to<br /> perform on the basis of royalties (i.c.. fixed<br /> nightly fees). This method should be always<br /> avoided except in cases where the fees are<br /> likely to be small or difficult to collect. The<br /> other safeguards set out under heading (0.) apply<br /> also in this case.<br /> <br /> 4. Plays in one act are often sold outright, but it is<br /> better to obtain a small nightly fee if possible, and a sum<br /> paid in advance of such fees in any event. It is extremely<br /> important that the amateur rights of one-act plays should<br /> be reserved.<br /> <br /> 5. Authors should remember that performing rights can<br /> be limited, and are usually limited, by town, country, and<br /> time. This is most important.<br /> <br /> 6. Authors should not assign performing rights, but<br /> should grant a licence to perform. The legal distinction is<br /> of great importance.<br /> <br /> 7, Authors should remember that performing rights in a<br /> play are distinct from literary copyright. A manager<br /> holding the performing right or licence to perform cannot<br /> print the book of the words.<br /> <br /> 8. Never forget that United States rights may be exceed-<br /> ingly valuable. ‘hey should never be included in English<br /> agreements without the author obtaining a substantial<br /> consideration.<br /> <br /> 9. Agreements for collaboration should be carefully<br /> drawn and executed before collaboration is commenced.<br /> <br /> 10, An author should remember that production of a play<br /> is highly speculative: that he runs a very great risk of<br /> delay and a breakdown in the fulfilment of his contract.<br /> He should therefore guard himself all the more carefully in<br /> the beginning.<br /> <br /> 11. An author must remember that the dramatic market<br /> is exceedingly limited, and that for a novice the first object<br /> is to obtain adequate publication.<br /> <br /> As these warnings must necessarily be incomplete, on<br /> account of the wide range of the subject of dramatic con-<br /> tracts, those authors desirous of further information<br /> are referred to the Secretary of the Society.®<br /> <br /> —_—_———<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> WARNINGS TO MUSICAL COMPOSERS.<br /> <br /> ——&gt;+<br /> <br /> ITTLE can be added to the warnings given for the<br /> assistance of producers of books and dramatic<br /> authors. It must, however, be pointed out that, as<br /> <br /> a rule, the musical publisher demands from the musical<br /> composer a transfer of fuller rights and less liberal finan-<br /> cial terms than those obtained for literary and dramatic<br /> property. The musical composer has very often the two<br /> rights to deal with—performing right and copyright. He<br /> <br /> <br /> 130<br /> <br /> should be especially careful therefore when entering into<br /> an agreement, and should take into particular consideration<br /> the warnings stated above.<br /> <br /> fo a<br /> <br /> HOW TO USE THE SOCIETY.<br /> <br /> ——<br /> <br /> 1. VERY member has a right to ask for and to receive<br /> advice upon his agreements, his choice of a pub-<br /> lisher, or any dispute arising in the conduct of his<br /> <br /> business or the administration of his property. The<br /> <br /> Secretary of the Society is a solicitor, but if there is any<br /> <br /> special reason the Secretary will refer the case to the<br /> <br /> Solicitors of the Society. Further, the Committee, if they<br /> <br /> deem it desirable, will obtain counsel’s opinion. All this<br /> <br /> without any cost to the member.<br /> <br /> 2. Remember that questions connected with copyright<br /> and publishers’ agreements do not fall within the experi-<br /> ence of ordinary solicitors. Therefore, do not scruple to use<br /> the Society.<br /> <br /> 3. Send to the Office copies of past agreements and past<br /> accounts, with a copy of the book represented. The<br /> Secretary will always be glad to have any agreements, new<br /> or old, for inspection and note. The information thus<br /> obtained may prove invaluable.<br /> <br /> 4, Before signing any agreement whatever, send<br /> the document to the Society for examination.<br /> <br /> 5. Remember always that in belonging to the Society<br /> you are fighting the battles of other writers, even if you<br /> are reaping no benefit to yourself, and that you are<br /> advancing the best interests of your calling in promoting<br /> the independence of the writer, the dramatist, the composer.<br /> <br /> 6. The Committee have now arranged for the reception<br /> of members’ agreements and their preservation in a fire-<br /> proof safe. The agreements will, of course, be regarded as<br /> confidential documents to be read only by the Secretary,<br /> who will keep the key of the safe. The Society now offers :<br /> —(1) To read and advise upon agreements and to give<br /> advice concerning publishers. (2) To stamp agreements<br /> in readiness for a possible action upon them. (3) To keep<br /> agreements. (4) To enforce payments due according to<br /> agreements. Fuller particulars of the Society’s work<br /> can be obtained in the Prospectus.<br /> <br /> 7. No contract should be entered into with a literary<br /> agent without the advice of the Secretary of the Society.<br /> Members are strongly advised not to accept without careful<br /> consideration the contracts with publishers submitted to<br /> them by literary agents, and are recommended to submit<br /> them for interpretation and explanation to the Secretary<br /> of the Society.<br /> <br /> 8. Many agents neglect to stamp agreements This<br /> must be done within fourteen days of first execution. The<br /> Secretary will undertake it on behalf of members.<br /> <br /> 9. Some agents endeayour to prevent authors from<br /> referring matters to the Secretary of the Society; so<br /> do some publishers. Members can make their own<br /> deductions and act accordingly.<br /> <br /> 10. The subscription to the Society is £4 ds. per<br /> annum, or £10 10s for life membership.<br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> THE READING BRANCH.<br /> <br /> — +<br /> <br /> EMBERS will greatly assist the Society in this<br /> branch of its work by informing young writers<br /> of its existence. Their MSS. can be read and<br /> <br /> treated as a composition is treated by a coach. The term<br /> MSS. includes not only works of fiction, but poetry<br /> and dramatic works, and when it is possible, under<br /> special arrangement, technical and scientific works. The<br /> Readers are writers of competence and experience. The<br /> fee is one guinea.<br /> <br /> _____¢——e —___—_<br /> <br /> NOTICES.<br /> <br /> —_+-—&lt;—+-_—_<br /> <br /> HE Editor of Zhe Author begs to remind members of<br /> <br /> the Society that, although the paper is sent to them<br /> <br /> free of charge, the cost of producing it would be a<br /> <br /> very heavy charge on the resources of the Society if a great<br /> <br /> many members did not forward to the Secretary the modest<br /> 5s. 6d. subscription for the year.<br /> <br /> Communications for Zhe Author should be addressed to<br /> the Offices of the Society, 39, Old Queen Street, Storey’s<br /> Gate, §.W., and should reach the Editor not later than<br /> the 24st of each month.<br /> <br /> All persons engaged in literary work of any kind,<br /> whether members of the Society or not, are invited to<br /> communicate to the Editor any points connected with their<br /> work which it would be advisable in the general interest to<br /> publish.<br /> <br /> a<br /> <br /> Communications and letters are invited by the<br /> Editor on all subjects connected with literature, but on<br /> no other subjects whatever. Every effort will be made to<br /> return articles which cannot be accepted.<br /> <br /> ——<br /> <br /> The Secretary of the Society begs to give notice<br /> that all remittances are acknowledged by return of post,<br /> and he requests members who do not receive an<br /> answer to important communications within two days to<br /> write to him without delay. All remittances should be<br /> crossed Union Bank of London, Chancery Lane, or be sent<br /> by registered letter only.<br /> <br /> —_—__——_e —&gt;—_+___—_<br /> <br /> THE LEGAL AND GENERAL LIFE<br /> ASSURANCE SOCIETY.<br /> <br /> ——<br /> <br /> N offer has been made of a special scheme of<br /> Endowment and Whole Life Assurance,<br /> admitting of a material reduction off the<br /> <br /> ordinary premiums to members of the Society.<br /> Full information can be obtained from J. P. Blake,<br /> Legal and General Insurance Society (City Branch),<br /> 158, Leadenhall Street, E.C.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> én<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> AUTHORITIES.<br /> <br /> ~+—&lt;— —<br /> <br /> N pursuance of the intention expressed in our<br /> I January number, we print under Corre-<br /> spondence the letters on “ Should Well-known<br /> Writers ‘Farm-out’ Fiction,” held over from the<br /> last issue by order of the Committee. The writers<br /> have had, and have in several cases availed them-<br /> selves of, the opportunity of revising their com-<br /> munications after perusal of the Committee’s note<br /> on “ Proxy’s”’ letter.<br /> <br /> THERE is no need to add anything to the appre-<br /> ciation of Mr. George Gissing, from the pen of<br /> Mr. E. W. Hornung, except to state that Mr.<br /> Gissing had been a member of the Society since<br /> 1894, and, with Mr. Justin McCarthy, was elected<br /> a member of the Council in March of last year.<br /> It is with great regret that we must add one more<br /> to the distinguished list of members of the Society<br /> who have died during the past six months.<br /> <br /> We print elsewhere a copy of a proposed Bill<br /> brought forward for the purpose of amending the<br /> existing United States Copyright Law, followed<br /> by an article from the pen of Mr. George Haven<br /> Putnam, which appeared in the New York Critic.<br /> <br /> In the “ English Bookman” there was a short<br /> reference to this Bill, stating that it upset the<br /> copyright as existing between the United States<br /> and Great Britain, and calling the Society’s atten-<br /> tion to the point. We thank the editor for his<br /> courtesy, but fear he must have been misinformed,<br /> as the present Bill does not alter the effect of the<br /> section as far as Great Britain is concerned.<br /> <br /> GEORGE GISSING.<br /> <br /> —1+—&lt;——<br /> <br /> HE death of George Gissing came as a<br /> complete shock to most of us who mourn<br /> him. Delicate he had been for years, but<br /> <br /> in no such degree as to alarm his friends, who<br /> were under the impression that he had derived<br /> great benefit from his protracted sojourn at St.<br /> Jean de Luz. Only a few days before Christmas<br /> one heard with delight that there was just a chance<br /> of his coming back to live in England. He must<br /> have been upon his death-bed at the time. He<br /> had been working very hard. Hard work with<br /> <br /> 131<br /> <br /> Gissing meant as much writing in a day and a<br /> half as most men accomplish in a week. His book<br /> was his life while it lasted; often it had almost<br /> been his death, for he scorned to spare himself till<br /> the last page was written. His last book was<br /> never finished. It was one that he had carried<br /> in his mind for many years ; it is said that he was<br /> within sight of the end; the irony might have<br /> have been his own. Pneumonia struck him down ;<br /> in three weeks he was dead.<br /> <br /> It is hard to write of a dead man and his living<br /> <br /> -work, especially when one knew the man better<br /> <br /> than the work, and cared for him infinitely more.<br /> There are many who speak of Gissing and his<br /> work as though the two were warp and weft.<br /> Those who knew him best will be the last to<br /> accept that view. The man was one of the most<br /> lovable ; the work was hardly that. The man had<br /> abundant humour ; there is little humour in the<br /> bulk of his books. He had a glorious laugh—a<br /> laugh inconceivable to those who have only read<br /> him. There was an appreciative sympathy, a<br /> cordial humanity, which it would be difficult to<br /> deduce from his writings. His serious view of<br /> life may have been acrid and even savage, but he<br /> was certainly not in the habit of obtruding his<br /> serious view of life. This, of course, is only to<br /> speak of the man as one had the privilege of<br /> knowing him ; it is not to pretend to have known<br /> the whole man, or to have plumbed his depths, but<br /> only to have found him all unlike his books,<br /> humorous, human, and humane.<br /> <br /> On the other hand, there can be no denying that<br /> much of his own personality and many of his<br /> own experiences found or forced their way into<br /> his fiction. Too fine a nature to sit down<br /> deliberately to “make copy” of his joys and<br /> sorrows, he was too true an artist not to dip his<br /> <br /> en into his own cup as his inspiration urged.<br /> At first sight it would appear that his knowledge<br /> of life was entirely first-hand, his poverty of mere<br /> imagination only compensated by the depth and<br /> truth of his extraordinary insight into the secrets<br /> of the heart. Yet there is more imagination in<br /> “ New Grub Street” alone than is ever likely to<br /> meet the ordinary eye. It was written in the days<br /> when George Gissing frequented the Reading Room<br /> at the British Museum. He made that the chief<br /> scene of his story, likened the Readers in the wheel<br /> of radiating desks to the flies in a spider’s web, and<br /> drew their imaginary lives. There was, I believe,<br /> in the author’s mind at least, a flesh-and-blood<br /> original of every literary person in the book; and<br /> some of them are Readers to this day. Written<br /> as the book was, on Gissing’s own showing, in six<br /> weeks to pay the rent, one of the characters,<br /> Reardon, is depicted in that self-same plight ;<br /> and when, in a candid criticism of Reardon’s<br /> <br /> <br /> 132<br /> <br /> work, it is claimed for him that his best pages<br /> were instinct with a certain “ intellectual glow,”<br /> the self-portrait seems complete. There could be<br /> no fitter phrase for the peculiar literary quality<br /> which distinguishes the characteristic pages of<br /> George Gissing. But the contrasting type, the<br /> cynically successful young man of letters, is at<br /> least as justly realised, as strongly drawn. And it<br /> is difficult to believe that Gissing ever fraternised<br /> with such a one in all his literary life.<br /> <br /> During the last few years he had made a second<br /> reputation for himself as a sane and illuminating<br /> critic of Charles Dickens.<br /> were discussed with equal sympathy and acumen<br /> in a monograph and in the introductions to the<br /> Rochester edition in course of publication by<br /> Messrs. Methuen. It is greatly to be hoped that<br /> all the introductions, so honest alike in. their<br /> strictures and their enthusiasm, have long been in<br /> the publishers’ hands. “I don’t relish this critical<br /> writing,” he wrote with the task in hand; but it<br /> is to be doubted if he ever did anything very much<br /> better; for that beautiful veiled autobiography,<br /> “The Private Papers of Henry Ryecroft,” brilliantly<br /> written as it is, and touchingly eloquent of the<br /> man, is in many places marred for his friends<br /> by an alien misanthropy and an almost morose<br /> <br /> erversity of view.<br /> <br /> Notable novelist as he was, with a vogue among<br /> his peers indubitably dearer to his fine soul than<br /> the plaudits of the crowd, there are those who<br /> knew George Gissing through and through, and<br /> who hold that novel-writing was not his true<br /> vocation. ‘They say he was a greater scholar than<br /> could possibly be gathered from his books, and that<br /> he would have been truly great as a scholar pure<br /> and simple. He had indeed a passion for the<br /> classics, and the very temperament to have taken<br /> kindly to a cloistered life; but it is futile to<br /> pursue the thought. He spent his life in writing<br /> the most modern novels imaginable, in a miscro-<br /> scopic hand (a thousand words to the sheet of<br /> sermon paper) in keeping with his microscopi¢<br /> observation; and he has left behind him more<br /> than one that may well survive as uncompromising<br /> transcripts of their time. And a vivid memory of<br /> the man, of his fine face, his noble head, his winning<br /> kindness, will endure as long as the last of those<br /> who knew him. That he retained his great personal<br /> charm through all the storms of his inner life, is not<br /> more extraordinary than the fact that he remained<br /> to the last the most acutely sensitive of men. Into<br /> the secret of those storms, as into the entire peace<br /> cof his last years abroad, he admitted only his chosen<br /> few ; for the rest of us it is enough to know that<br /> the storms had long abated, and that the last years<br /> swere the happiest of his life.<br /> <br /> E. W. Hornune.<br /> <br /> 2 THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> ‘he immortal works ©<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> HENRY SETON MERRIMAN.<br /> <br /> —1——+<br /> <br /> HE many lovers of high-class fiction begin<br /> this year with an irreparable loss. Two of<br /> our leading novelists have fallen out of the<br /> ranks, both in the prime of life and at the height<br /> of their powers. Mr. G. Gissing is spoken of<br /> elsewhere. He wrote under his own name. Mr.<br /> Hl. S. Merriman did not. His name, no doubt<br /> familiar to all readers of “ The Author,” was Hugh<br /> Stowell Scott. He was a north-countryman, a<br /> Tynesider, whose father, a successful self-made<br /> man, wished his sons to adopt business as a<br /> career. Though he knew the leaning of one<br /> of his sons towards literature he did not desire to<br /> encourage it. :<br /> <br /> One day taking up a book that had interested<br /> him, called “ Young Mistley,’ he said, “If you<br /> could write like this I should not object to your<br /> following a literary career.” As a matter of fact<br /> Hugh Stowell Scott “could write like that,” for he<br /> was its author. But he did not divulge the fact<br /> at the time.<br /> <br /> The writing both of Mr. Gissing and Mr. Merri-<br /> man was close and intimate, charged with refine-<br /> ment. But the advantage in subject was probably<br /> Merriman’s. Merriman was so early a traveller as<br /> to lay the story of “ Young Mistley” in India.<br /> His characters were people of position. He was<br /> able to write with as much realistic accuracy of<br /> Paris and of peasant and noble in Russia in “‘ The<br /> Sowers,” as he had done of India and of life on a<br /> P. and O. boat in “ The Grey Lady,” and was to do<br /> of Dantzic in “ Barlasch.” This last work was<br /> perhaps the finest effort of his genius, and the<br /> investment of his subject with local colour showed<br /> the work of a great writer. He possessed at the<br /> same time a marvellous faculty for creating character<br /> to accord withit. All is bitten in with the clearness<br /> of an etching, and one feels his thorough command<br /> of idea and pen. The book is permeated with<br /> historical atmosphere ; and while he presents an<br /> immense background dominated by Napoleon, he<br /> achieves the vital success of projecting into the<br /> foreground all sorts and degrees of men with per-<br /> sonalities equally strong. Here as ever he wrote<br /> with convincing assimilation of, the incidents<br /> moulding the lives he created. Alas! never again<br /> can we say “A new novel by Merriman!” In<br /> bidding adieu to Barlasch we bade adieu to his<br /> maker. The one is as real to us as the other.<br /> And each must have passed with the same supreme<br /> satisfaction in good work accomplished.<br /> <br /> , Mary Enz. Stevenson,<br /> Author of “ A Maid of the Moor,” ete.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> MEDICAL LITERATURE IN PUBLIC<br /> LIBRARIES.<br /> <br /> —_— eS<br /> By A MepicaL AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> HAVE just had placed in my hands the first<br /> of a series of “ Special Bulletins” which has<br /> been ordered by the Public Libraries Com-<br /> <br /> mittee of Birkenhead to be printed and circulated<br /> for the information of those interested. It is my<br /> idea that all members of a society like the Society<br /> of Authors should be interested in Public Libraries,<br /> for every day, I think, brings us nearer to the time<br /> when libraries, whether municipally conducted, or<br /> founded by private munificence, or run on business<br /> lines, will be the chief customers of the author.<br /> These “Special Bulletins” form a sort of sub-<br /> catalogues to the general catalogue of the six<br /> Public Libraries at Birkenhead, and are issued to<br /> show how the libraries provide for different sections<br /> of the ratepayers of the town. The first of the<br /> series is a classified list of books on medicine and<br /> kindred subjects, contained either in the Central<br /> Library or the Reference Library, and when I had<br /> read it I was certain that a good many books got<br /> into public libraries that are not in themselves of<br /> much use and the perusal of which might do<br /> considerable harm. I will take the sense of<br /> readers of 7’he Author on these points.<br /> <br /> The classified list is arranged alphabetically, and<br /> under the head of “‘ Anatomy and Physiology ” we<br /> have thirty-two works. Of these several are com-<br /> pletely obsolete, while others owe their interest<br /> more to their historical position than to their<br /> actual advancement of modern learning. Under<br /> the head of “ Bacteriology” we have nine works,<br /> of which one at least is a completely worthless<br /> book, while three are shown by their dates to be<br /> more or jess obsolete. Under the head of “The<br /> Brain” we have seventeen books which are fairly<br /> well selected ; two of them, however, are distinctly<br /> not standard works, and one—exactly the one that<br /> I can imagine the lay public being most anxious<br /> to obtain—is a distinctly unsound work. Under<br /> the head of “ Diseases of Children” there are<br /> sixteen books, largely of the advice-to-mother<br /> order. Of these books two are never heard of<br /> among medical men, and two were published<br /> twenty years ago and have not, as far as I know,<br /> been republished. They were, however, at their<br /> date of issue good text-books, and if editions have<br /> been issued since 1885 it might be worth while<br /> for a public library to obtain them. Of the seven<br /> books intended to form medico-domestic guides to<br /> young mothers this much may be said—such<br /> books are useful if they are intelligently used, and<br /> mischievous if they are not. ‘I&#039;he twelve books on<br /> “The Eye” are on the whole well chosen, though<br /> <br /> 133<br /> <br /> the teaching of two must be obsolete. ‘Twenty-six<br /> books are arranged under the heading of “ Food,”<br /> and they form a curious medley, for four are<br /> obsolete ; one seems to be a cookery-book; two<br /> are completely unknown to scientific students of<br /> dietetics ; and several others cover identical ground.<br /> Then follow seven books on ‘The Hand,” four<br /> books on chiromancy being catalogued in company<br /> with such genuinely scientific works as that of<br /> Galton on Finger-Prints, that of the late Professor<br /> Humphry on the Human Foot and Hand, and<br /> Sir David Wilson’s disquisition on Right and<br /> Left-handedness. Next come five books on<br /> Hydrophobia, of which three are obsolete.<br /> Then we have eighty-four books on Hygiene<br /> and Public Health, which are on the whole well<br /> chosen. Of: these thirty-two are made up by<br /> the Transactions of the International Congress of<br /> Hygiene and Demography of 1891 and of the<br /> International Health Exhibition of 1884. Such<br /> transactions have a proper place in a reference<br /> library. Several of the other books are obsolete,<br /> and of one or two I have no knowledge even by<br /> hearsay. The remainder are thoroughly well-<br /> chosen works. ‘The next eight volumes deal with<br /> Hypnotism and Mesmerism, the best known book<br /> on the subject not being included among them,<br /> while the Transactions of the Psychical Society and<br /> the works of the leaders of that Society are also<br /> absent. Then come seventy-one books headed<br /> *‘ Medicine and Health.” This is a heterogeneous<br /> collection ranging from well-known manuals and<br /> text-books, through household medicines and<br /> popular guides, to such works as a dissertation on<br /> a particular mineral-water, an indictment of vac-<br /> cination, a seventeenth-century epitome of The<br /> Secrets of Surgery, an eighteenth-century Her-<br /> barium, an essay on Dress in its Relation to<br /> Health, a Student’s Guide to the Medical Pro-<br /> fession dated before the passage of the Acts of<br /> Parliament by which the medical profession is now<br /> regulated, and a Girls’ Book of Health and Beauty.<br /> Then we have twenty-two books upon “ Nursing,”<br /> among which are some of the more valuable treatises.<br /> Under the head of “Physical Culture” we have<br /> seventeen works of varying value and scope. On<br /> the whole the works in this section are good, but<br /> Sir Frederick Treves, Mr. Eugene Sandow, and<br /> the late R. A. Proctor can hardly before have ,<br /> found themselves in the same special class of a<br /> library catalogue. Under the head of “Surgery ”<br /> are included works on surgical anatomy and ambu-<br /> lance lectures. The two best manuals of surgery<br /> are in this list—a comparatively short one, consist-<br /> ing of twenty-four works only. Works on Throat<br /> and Voice and on Vivisection are followed by a<br /> heading called “Miscellaneous ””—and miscella-<br /> neous it is—for under it fall a work on scientific<br /> <br /> <br /> 134<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> dressmaking, a herbalists’ manual, a work on<br /> artificial limbs dated fifty years ago, a note on<br /> hydropathy, a highly scientific work by the late<br /> Professor Tyndall, and a note on scent by a<br /> well-known perfumer.<br /> <br /> It will be seen from this rough and ready<br /> analysis that the ratepayers of Birkenhead are in<br /> possession of a fairly good medical library, not<br /> sufficiently modern or comprehensive to be of any<br /> use to medical men engaged in research work or<br /> scientific literary pursuits, but including more<br /> standard works than anyone not a medical man is<br /> likely to want to consult, or to be benefited by<br /> reading. I am not sure what purpose Free<br /> Libraries are meant to serve, but it seems to me<br /> that the collection of works in the Special Bulletin<br /> No. 1 of the Birkenhead Public Libraries caters<br /> for no one. It is not a scientific collection and it<br /> is not a popular collection. As far as scientific<br /> workers are concerned, Free Libraries can never be<br /> of much good in the more progressive branches of<br /> science, for the ratepayers cannot be expected to<br /> provide new and expensive works on bacteriology<br /> or physiology every year, yeb every year brings<br /> some new discovery which ought to be recorded.<br /> As regards the needs of the general public such<br /> works are not of much use, unless the practical<br /> application of their teaching to the needs of every-<br /> day life is well brought out. This is the case in<br /> only a small proportion of the books in the Special<br /> Bulletin ; but just where the public are mostly in<br /> want of instruction—that is to say, in matters<br /> relating to food and general hygiene—it is gratify-<br /> ing to point out that the Birkenhead Free Libraries<br /> supply sound literature.<br /> <br /> I wonder if members of the Society of Authors,<br /> whose special knowledge lies in different directions<br /> to my own, have any experience of the contents of<br /> the large Free Libraries as far as their own<br /> pursuits are concerned. Is law, is theology, is<br /> engineering similarly served? Are the works<br /> dealing with these branches of learning, supplied to<br /> the public out of the ratepayers’ money, either not<br /> scientific enough or modern enough for the<br /> purposes of the serious student, or too abstruse for<br /> the general reader? Because if so, Free Libraries<br /> would seem somewhat to fail in their aims. As far<br /> as medical books are concerned, I am quite sure<br /> that the Committees that manage Free Libraries<br /> ought to pursue one policy. They should save the<br /> ratepayers’ money by buying only a few standard<br /> medical works, renewing these when their advisers<br /> in the matter warn them that new editions are<br /> necessary. Special care should be taken that the<br /> medical works put into general circulation are<br /> sound and authoritative, while works on palmistry,<br /> cookery, and district nursing should not be<br /> catalogued as medical. Preference also should be<br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> given to books of general instruction, books<br /> containing general principles, dictionaries and<br /> works of reference. Manuals for students should<br /> not be bought. There is never any particular<br /> reason for purchasing one special treatise more<br /> than another, while the premises of Free Libraries<br /> are not intended to shelter genuine medical<br /> students for whom other provision is always made.<br /> With regard to amateur medical students, it is<br /> important that medical books should be inspected<br /> from the point of view of the wholesomeness of<br /> their contents before they are put into circulation.<br /> Some medical books make dangerous public reading.<br /> <br /> The composition of our Free Libraries is a<br /> matter of national importance. Too many people<br /> think that when they have voted for a library-rate<br /> they have done their duty, and that a well-chosen<br /> collection of books will immediately occur. This<br /> need not be the case, at any rate if general con-<br /> clusions may be drawn from the special cireum-<br /> stances to which I have alluded.<br /> <br /> gee 9<br /> <br /> A PLEA FOR PEDANTRY.<br /> <br /> —1 &gt;<br /> <br /> “ (P\HAT ain’t sense!” a well-known member<br /> [ of the House of Commons is reported to<br /> have remarked after the reading of an<br /> amendment; and the ejaculation, both in its<br /> matter and its manner, is characteristic of the<br /> age. How often the dignity of sense suffers in<br /> the expression of it! “There is a good deal of<br /> sense in that article,” remarks pater familias,<br /> buttoning his overcoat before starting for the<br /> City; and his eldest son, “fresh from the<br /> beauty and the bliss” of Balliol, takes up the<br /> paper and reads, “The Liberals are clamouring<br /> and Mr. Balfour obdurately silent ’—and all he<br /> notices is that the writer is ungrammatical,<br /> because, great man though the Prime Minister<br /> be, he can claim only the singular verb like any<br /> ordinary mortal. Sense may be the dish; but<br /> style is the cookery: and the palate of the purist<br /> receives many a rude shock. In these modern<br /> days of newspapers full of paragraphs “ written<br /> up” by a jaded journalist overnight, and hastily<br /> scanned by an equally jaded reader in the stifling<br /> “Tube” next morning ; of letters spoken into a<br /> phonograph and typed off in duplicate ;—yea, of<br /> novels produced in the same fashion at the rate of<br /> three or four a year; of political pamphlets and<br /> books of biography and of travel hastily put<br /> together and rushed through the printing press<br /> in order to catch an ephemeral market ;—in these<br /> modern days, what chance has our stately and<br /> beautiful language, with all its history behind it ?<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> Then let us welcome the pedant and the purist, for<br /> _ they have their uses.<br /> <br /> The lack of leisure, in literature as elsewhere, is<br /> accountable for much, since many errors are due to<br /> the habit of condensing. ‘You must try to love<br /> me as you have your parents ” is ungrammatical,<br /> yet harmless ; but how about the assertion that<br /> “He loathed sausages as much as his wife” ?<br /> What a picture is given of domestic disquietude !<br /> __whereas the reality, fatally obscured by the omis-<br /> sion of the little word “did,” was a distinctly<br /> harmonious breakfast-table. It is painful to read<br /> that “when the chemical students had given in<br /> the results of their researches, they were sealed up<br /> in test-tubes and set aside to be analysed by the<br /> professor.” What a fiscal problem is presented by<br /> this sentence: ‘He spent two guineas a week on<br /> cigars which he might have given to the poor ”!<br /> <br /> Many errors are due, not to condensing, but to<br /> bad arrangement :—“ Tennyson’s ‘ May Queen ’ is<br /> a poem about a girl divided into three parts.”<br /> And, “opposite stretch the long lines of blanched<br /> walls, where now live the King of United Italy<br /> and his fair Queen Margherita of Savoy, some-<br /> what plain-faced and bald, and descending whole<br /> streets in their enormous length and breadth of<br /> circuit.’ The words only, merely, and not are<br /> pitfalls in this respect, and the Post Office authori-<br /> ties fell headlong into one of them when they<br /> informed the public “The address only. to be<br /> written on this side.” ‘To the purist, this conveys<br /> that the address is only to be written, not, for<br /> example, typed.<br /> <br /> When once the habit of noting errors becomes a<br /> hobby, they seem to crop up everywhere—in news-<br /> papers, sermons, speeches, books, letters, advertise-<br /> ments. How often we hear of “a house on the<br /> left side going down the street,” or “a cab-stand<br /> coming up the road.” “Each of us have” and<br /> “neither of them were’’ are sadly familiar, even<br /> within bookcovers. When there are two brothers,<br /> is not the elder invariably the eldest ? And of<br /> two apples, is not the bigger always the biggest ?<br /> “This is one of the commonest errors that has<br /> crept into the language,” one is told. “Has<br /> they?” the pedant answers mildly. “ Strictly<br /> speaking, there was no necessity ”__noor participle,<br /> without a relation to support it !<br /> <br /> Often pronouns are the cause of woe. What<br /> can be made of this: “He told me his brother<br /> had a friend and he wished him to emigrate ; but<br /> he had said he ought to wait till he saw if his<br /> uncle would help him, as he told him he would if<br /> he approved of him.” Then there is the fatal<br /> impersonal pronoun “one,” that no Briton can<br /> handle with safety. The British are less successful<br /> than the French with verbs also. How often the<br /> novelist, in the midst of a narrative, leaps from<br /> <br /> 135<br /> <br /> the past tense to the present and back again !<br /> And how hopelessly muddled the reporter becomes<br /> during three columns of indirect quotation ! And,<br /> most familiar of all, “ Mr. Jones will have much<br /> pleasure in accepting Mrs. Smith’s kind invitation.”<br /> “ What ought you to say instead of ‘I shall have<br /> much pleasure in accepting’ ?” a teacher asked his<br /> class. “I will have much pleasure!” cried an<br /> eager Scot. Folk north of the Tweed have to<br /> submit to much quizzing for their use of shall<br /> and will and for other Scotticisms ; but there are<br /> not a few colloquialisms peculiar to the dwellers<br /> south of that river. It strikes the Scottish ear at<br /> once when someone says “ different to” instead of<br /> “ different from,” or “differ with” instead of<br /> “differ from.” It was perhaps a rash and<br /> carping pedantry that prompted someone to<br /> demand of a renowned barrister that he should<br /> say “disagree from.” He listened to the logic<br /> and courteously announced himself convinced ; but<br /> presently he was heard to mutter below his breath,<br /> “] disagree from you, my lord,—my lord, i<br /> disagree from you. No,no! Couldn’t! Couldn’t<br /> possibly!” The English seem prone to the use of<br /> “lay” instead of “lie”—Byron and Shelley are<br /> both defaulters—“ There let it lay” : and to the<br /> substitution of “like” for “as”—‘ Like I did.”<br /> But perhaps the Englishism most noticeable to<br /> the stranger is to be heard in the addition of<br /> the letter 7 after the vowel a—‘ the sofar is,”<br /> _“the idear of it!’”—“ Mariar ought.” This is<br /> now as prevalent as the inserted 4, and among a<br /> more cultured class. As with the h, the r is not<br /> only inserted where it ought not to be, but is left<br /> out where it owght to occur, and hence that horror,<br /> the “ Cockney rhyme ”—“ palm—harm,” and “ Oh<br /> Mamma, See the star!”<br /> <br /> It is pleasant to find the Chronicle entering the<br /> lists as a purist. A few days ago it called atten-<br /> tion to “a common error,” and cited examples<br /> culled from its own pages :—“‘ Mr. A. B. Walkeley<br /> writes to Mr. Bourchier: “I could not go to a<br /> theatre from which I had been excluded without<br /> that exclusion being publicly apologised for 47<br /> “Pardon me saying” and “ Forgive me coming y<br /> are simpler forms of the same.<br /> <br /> “ Fyom May to December, inclusive,” or ‘‘ From<br /> G. to N., inclusive,” is universal ; but is it sense ?<br /> “To and from Regent Street and City, 37.” meets the<br /> eye of many literary people on their way befween<br /> fashion and Grub Street : does it vex their souls ?<br /> As to “Bespoke Bootmaker” and “ Practical<br /> Chimneysweep,” they are beneath notice.<br /> <br /> Once we enter the realms of pure pedantry, there<br /> is much to engage our attention. The dainty<br /> disused subjunctive meets us reproachfully. The<br /> rival claims of the pronouns that and which wait,<br /> as they have waited since the Elizabethan age, to<br /> <br /> <br /> 136<br /> <br /> be settled. The doubtful grammar of “these<br /> kind” and “those sort” has to be seriously con-<br /> sidered. The poor word demean demands a<br /> knight-errant to rescue her from the clutches of<br /> mean, to whom she owes no allegiance, and<br /> restore her to her proper relation demeanour.<br /> And in the train of demean come many mis-<br /> used words—mutual and aggravate, replace and<br /> appreciate, the debased awful, fallen from her<br /> high estate, and all the rest. There is also the<br /> phrase “and which ”—a phrase that, it is alleged,<br /> a certain weekly in its palmy days used to keep a<br /> special proof-reader to delete. There is “fine<br /> day” when the day is only fair; and there is<br /> “infinitely less,” when the comparison is between<br /> things necessarily finite. ‘A sentence should<br /> never have a preposition to end up with” was the<br /> remark of someone who taught better by precept<br /> than by example. But purists go further, and, not<br /> content with objecting to “quite perfect” and<br /> “quite better,” even question the propriety of<br /> “more true.” But this last contention seems to<br /> step beyond the realms of literary criticism alto-<br /> gether, and to land one in the hazy atmosphere of<br /> philosophy.<br /> <br /> The errors that have been enumerated are only<br /> a few of the most common, but will help to recall<br /> many others to the mind, and may perhaps<br /> persuade some readers to own that, though the<br /> pedant be a fractious and annoying member of<br /> any society—most of all of the Society of Authors<br /> —he is not altogether without his uses, nor yet<br /> altogether without his excuses.<br /> <br /> ROSALINE Masson.<br /> <br /> Oa<br /> <br /> THE ARTIST AS CRITIC.*<br /> <br /> +<br /> <br /> HE Editor’s note to this, the twelfth,<br /> volume of Messrs. Macmillan’s edition of<br /> Thackeray’s Works explains that for the<br /> <br /> first time the “Critical Papers in Literature ” are<br /> brought together in one volume and arranged in<br /> chronological order instead of being scattered<br /> throughout the various volumes of the editions.<br /> The advantages of such a plan are obvious, but it<br /> does not appear from this preface what was the<br /> compelling cause to make any exceptions; the<br /> exceptions, however, are carefully noted, and<br /> reference is given to the other volumes in which the<br /> papers severally appear. Thus the first review<br /> known to have been written by Thackeray, on<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> * “Critical Papers in Literature,’ by William Makepeace<br /> Thackeray. London: Macmillan &amp; Co., Limited, 1904.<br /> Crown 8yo., 3s. 6d,<br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> Robert Montgomery’s poem, ‘ Woman : The Angel<br /> of Life,” was published in 7&#039;e National Standard<br /> dated the 15th of June, 1833, and is now reprinted<br /> in vol. ix. of this edition; in the same volume<br /> appears his review of Victor Hugo’s “ Etude sur<br /> Mirabeau ” ; other literary papers entitled respec-<br /> tively, “Madame Sand and the New Apocalypse,”<br /> “Qn some French Fashionable Novels: With a<br /> Plea for Romances in General,” and “ French<br /> Dramas and Melodramas” are reprinted in vol.<br /> vii. of this edition; finally a note of importance<br /> will be found in vol. xi., covering the question of<br /> other reviews supposed to have been contributed by<br /> Thackeray to Fraser’s Magazine, some of which<br /> have been positively identified and are reprinted in<br /> that volume.<br /> <br /> Of the twenty-nine papers included in the present<br /> volume, six are reprinted for the first time, four are<br /> reprinted for the first time in England, and twenty-<br /> one are for the first time included in an edition of<br /> Thackeray’s Works. The most important “find ”’<br /> from the bibliographer’s point of view is an invoice<br /> sent by Thackeray to 7%e Times for contributions<br /> during November, 1838; this “ find” was made by<br /> Mr. Moberly Bell, who sent a copy of the letter<br /> and invoice to Messrs. Macmillan; reference to a<br /> file of The Times disclosed articles entitled “The<br /> Annuals,” Tyler’s “Life of Henry V.,” Fraser’s<br /> “Winter Journey to Persia,’ Count Valerian<br /> Krasinski’s “History of the Reformation in Poland,”<br /> all of which are now reprinted for the first time,<br /> and a couple of paragraphs entitled “ Steam Navi-<br /> gation in the Pacific,’ which are omitted as not<br /> coming within the scope of the volume. The two<br /> other articles now first reprinted are a review of<br /> the “Memoirs of Joseph Holt, General of the Irish<br /> Rebels in 1798,” which appeared in Zhe Times for<br /> the 31st of January, 1838, and Thackeray’s sole<br /> contribution to The Edinburgh Review, which was<br /> published in October, 1845, ridiculing N, P. F.<br /> Willis’s “ Dashes at Life with a Free Pencil.”<br /> <br /> Of the other fifteen papers now first included in<br /> an edition of Thackeray’s Works the most interest-<br /> ing, regarded as Critical Papers, are the ‘ Duchess<br /> of Marlborough’s Private Correspondence,” “ Eros<br /> and Anteros, or ‘Love’,” “A Diary Relative to<br /> George IV. and Queen Caroline,” “The Poetical<br /> Works of Dr. Southey,” “ Fielding’s Works,” “ Mr.<br /> Macaulay’s Essays,” and “Coningsby, or the New<br /> Generation.” These, with the more familiar papers<br /> on Carlyle’s “French Revolution,” “Grant in<br /> Paris,” ‘Dickens in France,” and ‘Jerome<br /> Paturot,” enable one to arrive at a definite opinion<br /> of Thackeray’s claim to consideration as judge of<br /> other people’s work, and to assess the worth of the<br /> artist in his other réle of critic.<br /> <br /> His own opinion of the function of the critic is<br /> recorded in this volume. An eminent artist had<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> as<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> suggested that it was the writer&#039;s duty only to speak<br /> of pictures particularly when one could speak in<br /> terms of praise ; not, of course, to praise unjustly,<br /> but to be discreetly silent when there was no<br /> opportunity. “Itis a fine maxim,” says Thackeray<br /> in his genial way, ‘“‘and should be universally<br /> adopted—across a table. Why should not Medi-<br /> ocrity be content, and fancy itself Genius? Why<br /> should not Vanity go home, and be a little more<br /> vain? If you tell the truth, ten to one that<br /> Dulness only grows angry, and is not a whit<br /> less dull than before—such being itsnature. But<br /> when I becomes we—sitting in judgment, and<br /> delivering solemn opinions—ie must tell the truth,<br /> the whole truth, and nothing but the truth ;<br /> for then there is a third party concerned—the<br /> public—between whom andthe writer, or painter, the<br /> critic has to arbitrate, and he is bound to show no<br /> favour. What is kindness to the one, is injustice to<br /> the other, who looks for an honest judgment, and<br /> is by far the most important party of the three ;<br /> the two others being, the one the public’s servant,<br /> the other the public’s appraiser, sworn to value, to<br /> the best of his power, the article that is for sale.<br /> The critic does not value rightly, it is true, once in<br /> a thousand times ; but if he do not deal honestly,<br /> wo be to him! The hulks are too pleasant for<br /> him, transportation too light. For ourselves, our<br /> honesty is known ; every man of the band of critics<br /> (that awful, unknown Vehmgericht, that sits in<br /> judgment in the halls of ReGrna) is gentle, though<br /> miserable, loving, though stern, just above all. As<br /> fathers, we have for our dutiful children the most<br /> tender yearning and love; but we are, everyone of<br /> us, Brutuses, and at the sad intelligence of our<br /> children’s treason we weep—the father will ; dwt<br /> we chop their heads off.”<br /> <br /> Indeed they do. And where decapitation of the<br /> culprit seems to be the proper end, Thackeray sees<br /> to it that the capital penalty is preceded by<br /> scourging more or less severe. Sometimes his<br /> whip has but a single thong. In “ Eros and<br /> Anteros, or ‘Love,’” for instance, he deprecates<br /> any claim to being regarded as omniscient with a<br /> parenthesis that disarms hostility. Lady Charlotte<br /> Bury wrote a novel in which all the figures are<br /> exclusives, fashionables, or lords; the silly things<br /> they severally do are best left in the oblivion to<br /> which they have sunk, but the critic challenges<br /> the accuracy of the picture. “Thank Heaven,”<br /> he says, “the world (unless in the most exclusive<br /> circles) does not do this.” In that admission of<br /> the possibility of his own ignorance there is brine<br /> in which the thong is soaked. Sometimes his<br /> whip has double thongs: Lady Charlotte Bury<br /> felt it, owing to her responsibility for the “ Diary<br /> Relative to George LV. and Queen Caroline.” “ We<br /> never met with a book more pernicious or mean.”<br /> <br /> 137<br /> <br /> Phrase after phrase of bitterly scornful denuncia-<br /> tion falls from the curling lip of the judge to<br /> culminate in an almost savage peroration. ‘There<br /> is no need now to be loyal to your prince or tender<br /> to his memory. Take his bounty while living,<br /> share his purse and his table, gain his confidence,<br /> and learn his secrets, flatter him, cringe to him,<br /> vow to him an unbounded fidelity—and when he<br /> is dead, write a diary and betray him!”<br /> <br /> Jules Janin felt it, too, and it is noteworthy<br /> that it was on behalf of Dickens that Thackeray<br /> seized his double thonged whip and laid about the<br /> shoulders of the French critic. ‘“ Dickens in<br /> France” the article is called, and it will repay<br /> study as an example of culminative scorn: as an<br /> example, too, of the justice on which he prided<br /> himself, for it is by textual quotation of the<br /> culprit’s own words and of passages from his own<br /> paper that he establishes his case.<br /> <br /> Naturally, several of the longer essays are<br /> expository rather than critical, but they are admir-<br /> ably written: the article on Tyler’s “ Life of<br /> Henry V.” is Thackeray’s own precis of the story<br /> as told by the old chroniclers; that on Count<br /> Valerian Krasinski’s “ History of the Reformation<br /> in Poland” is little more than one long quotation<br /> from the book itself; those on Holt’s “ Memoirs,”<br /> Fraser’s “ Winter Journey to Persia,” and Willis’s<br /> « Dashes at Life” are little more than summaries<br /> enlivened by comment characteristic of Thackeray,<br /> and, especially in the case of the last book, relieved<br /> by not unkindly banter. Willis, indeed, seems to<br /> have been treated too leniently.<br /> <br /> It is in the estimates formed of Carlyle’s “ History<br /> of the French Revolution,” of Macaulay’s * Essays,”<br /> of “Coningsby,” of Fielding’s Works and of<br /> Southey’s collected poems that Thackeray’s right to<br /> be deemed a sound critic may most fairly be tested,<br /> and for our own part we think it has been estab-<br /> lished by general consent. Carlyle’s opinion of<br /> Thackeray’s opinion of him is recorded in the<br /> preface : “ His article is rather like him, and, I<br /> suppose; calculated to do the book good’’: rather<br /> grudging perhaps, but surely the best possible<br /> tribute to the quality of the criticism, which ought<br /> to be as much the expression of the critic’s indi-<br /> vidual self as the book should be of the author’s.<br /> It is pleasant to recognise the man’s alacrity to<br /> recognise merit in his contemporaries ;_ the<br /> courteous, almost deferential, respect he has for<br /> Macaulay’s attainments, the singular aptness of<br /> the epithets he applies to Disraeli’s ‘« Coningsby,”<br /> and the acumen and sanity of his judgment of<br /> Southey’s Poems. The whole-hearted, generous<br /> enthusiasm he cherishes for Fielding, communi-<br /> cates a glow, and we welcome an edition of<br /> Thackeray containing this essay. Altogether, this<br /> book has given us a great deal of pleasure already,<br /> 138<br /> <br /> and we are glad to record, in addition to our love<br /> for Thackeray the artist, our respect for Thackeray<br /> the critic. V. E. M.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> _—-—_»<br /> <br /> CORRESPONDENCE.<br /> <br /> —1~&gt;—-<br /> <br /> / SHOULD WELL-KNOWN WRITERS<br /> “FARM-OUT” FICTION ?<br /> <br /> AN,<br /> <br /> Sir,—In your December number appears a<br /> contribution from “ Proxy,” entitled, ‘Should well-<br /> known writers ‘farm-out’ fiction ?” in which he<br /> attempts to justify popular authors in palming off,<br /> as their own original work, novels and tales written<br /> by “ghosts” in their employ. - “ Proxy ” supports<br /> his theory that such an act is perfectly justifiable<br /> by the argument “ whether Blank himself actually<br /> writes the books or whether he employs someone<br /> to write them for him is really of no great con-<br /> sequence as far as the reader is concerned.”<br /> <br /> To the grocer who takes half-a-crown across<br /> the counter, it is of no great consequence whether<br /> the coin has been stolen or honestly earned, but<br /> pocket- picking is a felony nevertheless.<br /> <br /> By the way, I find in this article an allusion to<br /> “poor Gilbert’s inimitable humour.” J am much<br /> obliged to the writer for his sympathetic reference<br /> to me, but why “poor?” If he means that I am<br /> in embarrassed circumstances, I have much pleasure<br /> in assuring him that I still contrive to keep my<br /> head above water. If he is under the impression<br /> that I am a helpless invalid, it gratifies me to<br /> inform him that I am in robust health. If he<br /> supposes me to be disembodied, I am pleased to<br /> say that I am not even an author’s ghost.<br /> <br /> Yours faithfully,<br /> <br /> W.S. GILBERT. -<br /> <br /> ah ae ae a<br /> <br /> Il.<br /> <br /> Srr,—After reading the article with the above<br /> title, signed ‘“‘ Proxy,” in the December issue of<br /> The Author, one has to ask oneself whether it is<br /> intended to be taken seriously or as a joke. It<br /> seems hardly possible to believe that it is serious,<br /> or else the writer must be one who can see no<br /> wrong in defrauding nor in being defrauded.<br /> <br /> It makes no difference to the case whether the<br /> author is well-known or not, although, of course,<br /> the circumstances could not apply to an obscure<br /> one. The writer of this article compares an author<br /> who employs a proxy with a person carrying on<br /> <br /> THER AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> the business of a manufacturer or storekeeper<br /> under some other name than his or her own, and<br /> seems to think that there is no difference. In<br /> buying at a certain store, whether a piece of<br /> furniture, a gun, a watch, a garment or any other<br /> thing, no one supposes that the head of the firm<br /> makes every article sold there, neither does he put<br /> them forward as his individual handicraft ; it is<br /> work made or sold under his auspices and for<br /> which he takes the responsibility. It is the<br /> publisher who should be compared with such a<br /> person, not the writer of a work. The publisher isa<br /> dealer in books (which he may get written or pro-<br /> duced to order), and each work is put before the<br /> public as his publication, but not as his composition.<br /> One does not buy a book for the sake of the<br /> publisher, but for the sake of the matter or of the<br /> writer ; the composition is set forth as being by<br /> such and such a person, as being that person’s<br /> original work, for which reason that person takes<br /> the name of author ; and, if the supposed author’s<br /> name is on the title-page and the work is not his or<br /> her composition, then is fraud being committed.<br /> If an “author” employs a proxy, then it should be<br /> stated that the work is produced for or under the<br /> auspices of that “well-known writer,” otherwise<br /> the publisher is put in the same position as a<br /> picture-dealer who sells the work of one artist as<br /> that of another.<br /> <br /> This practice in favour of which “ Proxy ”<br /> writes is causing money to be obtained under faise —<br /> pretences, and is deliberate fraud by the supposed<br /> author and the proxy on the publisher and the<br /> public, and also by the proxy on him or herself.<br /> <br /> Doubtless some member of the Society of<br /> Authors is acquainted with a work written by a<br /> proxy or “ ghost ’? and put forward as that of some<br /> well-known writer ; if so, I should very much like<br /> to see the Society instigate, on behalf of a member<br /> purchasing a copy of such a work, a prosecution for<br /> fraud of the supposed author whore name appears<br /> on the title-page, or else see a publisher undertake<br /> the prosecution of such a supposed author.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> HvuBert HAEs.<br /> <br /> &lt;&gt;<br /> <br /> III.<br /> <br /> Sir,—A writer calling himself “ Proxy” has<br /> detailed to us, in the December number of The<br /> Author, the sophistries with which he, and, of<br /> course, his principal before him, have succeeded in<br /> drugging conscience. He offers those arguments<br /> to us as an excellent prescription, as if we too<br /> must be anxious to get rid of that tiresome voice<br /> which urges probity !<br /> <br /> ‘To begin with, his claim to authority on the<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> subject of “ ghosting,” as being himself a “ ghost,”<br /> is hardly valid. It could not logically be allowed<br /> without conceding the same high standpoint to all<br /> who profit by malpractices, wherever found. The<br /> law of the land, judge and jury, would then count<br /> for nothing. We should appeal to the receiver of<br /> stolen goods for an anonymous verdict.<br /> <br /> But why does “ Proxy” stand forth at all?<br /> We have no personal quarrel with him or his tribe.<br /> What we wish to see stopped is the practice, said<br /> to be widespread, of flourishing authors choking<br /> the market, filling space valuable to others, with<br /> work not their own. ‘The selfishness is only made<br /> possible by a downright, fraudulent lie ; for, I take<br /> it, most authors regard their name or pseudonym<br /> appended to work as nearer to an affidavit than “a<br /> sort of trade-mark.” “Proxy” may be simply an<br /> honest man in reduced circumstances. “ Blank,”<br /> his employer, is, frankly, a scoundrel.<br /> <br /> The reference to modern business methods as<br /> the standard of honesty is downright funny.<br /> Indeed, ‘“ Proxy’s” whole article has the ring of<br /> fine satire, making one scent a hoax.<br /> <br /> “T may say, to begin with, that the writers for<br /> whom I act as proxy know me sufficiently well to<br /> be aware that I am not likely ever to blackmail<br /> them, and in selecting a proxy this is of course an<br /> extremely important consideration.”<br /> <br /> Shade of Mistress Quickly! ... Is not this<br /> pure satire? Or can “ Proxy,” after writing that,<br /> still really wonder at members of the Authors’<br /> Society agreeing “ that the practice is reprehensible<br /> in the extreme”?<br /> <br /> Just one more quotation. This is one of the dire<br /> alternatives presented to “the writer of popular<br /> fiction”? who receives applications for work in<br /> excess of his output:— He must decline to<br /> undertake to get through more than a compara-<br /> tively small amount of work, and thus, in the<br /> language of the box-office, ‘turn good money<br /> away.’” In other words, he must decline to get<br /> money by dishonest means, degrading to himself,<br /> defrauding to others, and unfair even to the<br /> “ghost” who is robbed of personality. Isn’t it<br /> hard on the poor devil ?<br /> <br /> That there are among “ghosts” men keenly<br /> alive to a debasement into which real want has<br /> fcrced them, we are fain to believe. Mr. Leonard<br /> Merrick’s “ Cynthia” contains a convincing picture<br /> of such an one. [If all were as cynically content in<br /> their background as “ Proxy ” pretends to be, pity<br /> would be wasted on them. But contempt is by<br /> no means wasted on their employers. Like other<br /> cheats they deserve nothing but the cold shoulder,<br /> and will get it, sure enough, when discovered.<br /> But the job is to catch them.<br /> <br /> MARMADUKE PICKTHALL.<br /> <br /> 139<br /> <br /> IV.<br /> <br /> Str,—You have now published in The Author<br /> three letters and one article dealing with the inte-<br /> resting process which the writers thereof describe,<br /> according to their differing opinions upon the<br /> subject, either by the airy name of “ ghosting,”<br /> or the more solid and uncompromising term,<br /> “ fraud.”<br /> <br /> One has heard before, generally in fiction, of the<br /> literary vampire who sucks the brains of the un-<br /> <br /> fortunate hack; and I do not think that one has<br /> <br /> felt much inclined to believe in his existence out-<br /> side the pages of romance. The recent corres-<br /> pondence in Zhe Author, however, seems to prove<br /> that the vampire is a very actual personage indeed<br /> —on the testimony of no less a person than the<br /> hack himself, who certainly ought to know, and<br /> who appears quite willing to take us into his<br /> (strictly anonymous) confidence, in spite of the<br /> vows of silence and secrecy which he has sworn to<br /> the vampire whom he serves.<br /> <br /> Of course, if the hack chooses, or is forced by<br /> circumstances, to earn his living by writing for the<br /> vampire, that is nobody’s business but his own.<br /> Of the two parties concerned in a dirty business,<br /> the hack should have the clearer conscience. But<br /> it certainly has struck me as singular that three<br /> out of the four communications published have<br /> unblushingly tried to whitewash this ghosting<br /> affair. Indeed, *‘ Proxy,” in his article, reaches a<br /> point beyond even the whitewash pot. He boldly<br /> sets himself to prove that the ghosting system is<br /> perfectly fair and honest, and tells us that he looks<br /> upon the vampire as “a Heaven-sent being, and<br /> not, as some appear (!) to consider him, a species<br /> of imposter.” “ Proxy’s” idea of a “ Heaven-sent<br /> being” seems rather dangerously original, to say the<br /> least of it—but let that pass. He goes on to make<br /> a statement which one cannot let pass so easily.<br /> “ Whether Blank himself actually writes the books,<br /> or whether he employs someone to write them for<br /> him,” he declares, “is really of no great conse-<br /> quence so far as the general reader is concerned.<br /> The general reader looks upon Blank’s name as @<br /> sort of trade mark—nothing more.”<br /> <br /> Now, in the name of the general reader, I protest<br /> against this statement of * Proxy’s.” I, for one,<br /> do not look upon Blank’s name upon the novel<br /> which he offers to the public as his own as “a sort<br /> of trade mark.” When I order a book purporting<br /> to be written by Blauk, I do not expect to geb a<br /> novel which “Proxy ” has written for Blank to sign<br /> —-andsell. I want Blank, I order Blank, I expect to<br /> get Blank ; and if [ get “ Proxy ” instead of Blank<br /> I maintain that I have as good a right to consider<br /> myself cheated as though I had asked for—and<br /> paid for—butter, and received margarine. I am<br /> <br /> <br /> 140<br /> <br /> not depreciating ‘‘ Proxy’s”’ work—it may be as good<br /> as, or even better than Blank’s; but that argument<br /> has nothing to do with the case.<br /> <br /> I cannot help thinking that this is the view the<br /> general reader will take, in spite of ‘‘ Proxy’s” com-<br /> fortable conscience—salving sophistries to the con-<br /> trary. The public undoubtedly buys Blank’s book,<br /> and orders it at the libraries, on the strength of<br /> the position Blank has already achieved in fiction ;<br /> if it finds out that such a system as “ Proxy” reveals,<br /> and upholds, is in vogue, it is not difficult to foresee<br /> that, however unsatisfactory the sale of novels<br /> may be at present, it will soon become infinitely<br /> worse.<br /> <br /> We have heard a good deal about the iniquities<br /> of the publisher, but if the state of things described<br /> by “Proxy” and others really exists, then it seems to<br /> me that the virtuous, long-suffering author stands<br /> in a glass house in which he will find it exceed-<br /> ingly difficult to throw stones at his natural enemy.<br /> <br /> Meanwhile, as a consequence of these interesting<br /> revelations by “ Proxy” &amp; Co., the literary profes-<br /> sion stands practically under the imputation of com-<br /> mitting a wholesale and comprehensive fraud upon<br /> an unsuspecting public. Three successive numbers<br /> of your periodical have reiterated the accusation ;<br /> and so far not one novelist of prominence has come<br /> forward to deny, in his own name at least, this<br /> shameful charge. “ Proxy” and his fellows have<br /> flung down the gauntlet—is there no writer who<br /> dare lift it, for the honour of the art he serves ?<br /> Or is it indeed true that we are all a set of dis-<br /> honest hucksters, cheating the public and lying<br /> amongst ourselves, thinking only of our price per<br /> thousand, and not caring by what fraudulent methods<br /> it is obtained ?<br /> <br /> CHALLENGER.<br /> <br /> P.S.—Since the above was written, the Com-<br /> mittee has issued a note in The Author, very<br /> properly recording its opinion of the practice<br /> which “ Proxy” defends as “a gross fraud both<br /> on the publisher and the public.” So far, so<br /> good ; but is it not possible to go a little further<br /> —to take steps to discover and publish the names<br /> of the culprits? In Mr. Ascher’s letter on the<br /> subject in the October number he speaks of<br /> instances of “ ghosting” which have fallen under<br /> his own notice. Surely if he or any member of<br /> the Society possesses proof of a case of this kind,<br /> he owes it to the whole literary profession to make<br /> it public. It may be very difficult, for many<br /> reasons, to stop “ghosting” altogether; but<br /> exposure seems to me to be the first and most<br /> powerful weapon against it. No condemnation<br /> <br /> of the system, as a system, will effect much good<br /> unless the actual individual concerned can be<br /> shown up. It is almost impossible to believe that<br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> popular and well-paid writers can carry on this<br /> fraud for any great length of time with impunity,<br /> and one can only hope that the first proven case of<br /> the kind which comes to the knowledge of the<br /> Society will mect with the public disgrace which it<br /> so richly deserves.<br /> <br /> ig<br /> <br /> V.<br /> <br /> DEAR Srr,—The defence in your December<br /> number of farming out literary work, whether<br /> real or fictitious, certainly shows that for a poor<br /> “ohost”” half a loaf is better than no bread, and<br /> it also illustrates the increasing difficulty of getting<br /> good work accepted on its merits. A great many<br /> modern magazine editors and publishers are quite<br /> incapable of judging for themselves as to the<br /> quality of work submitted to them. Tell a story is<br /> by some well-known writer, and at once they read<br /> merit into it. This is what gives the farmer his<br /> chance. He depends upon their lack of critical<br /> faculty, and power of distinguishing between one<br /> man’s style and another’s. They want names, and<br /> names only. Very often, too, in the lower walks<br /> of fiction the difference between the work of one<br /> man’s and another&#039;s is that between Tweedledum<br /> and Tweedledee, but the fact that one of the two<br /> has succeeded by a fluke gives him a certain market<br /> value. Farming out work and taking pay from<br /> publishers at rates that would not be given if the<br /> publishers knew the truth, is simply a form of<br /> swindling, and the authors who do such things<br /> may justly fear blackmail, and wish to be quite<br /> sure of their partner. For the poor accomplice,<br /> unknown to fame, despairing of ever attaining it,<br /> and driven by necessity, one can have little save<br /> pity. At any rate he honestly does the work for<br /> which he takes pay, and if he does not object<br /> to letting another get the credit, no third party<br /> need revile him; but what are we to say of the<br /> man who employs him? An instance has recently<br /> come to my knowledge of a poor gentleman, fallen<br /> on evil days, a scholar and a linguist, who for about<br /> £30 did the translation of a long and highly<br /> technical work that bears on its cover the name of<br /> a popular author as the translator. ‘The “ ghost”<br /> did not complain. It was not from him, or with<br /> his knowledge, I heard of this flagrant case. I<br /> believe he had hopes the popular author would<br /> recommend him to publishers to undertake other<br /> translations. How likely! When I read the<br /> favourable comments of the Press on the book in<br /> question, of the skill shown by Mr. So-and-so in<br /> turning it into English, it “makes me tired,” if<br /> you will pardon the Americanism.<br /> <br /> Yours faithfully,<br /> <br /> INCOGNITO., The Author
491 Author, Vol. 14 Issue 06 (March 1904)<a href="/items/browse?advanced%5B0%5D%5Belement_id%5D=49&advanced%5B0%5D%5Btype%5D=is+exactly&advanced%5B0%5D%5Bterms%5D=%3Cem%3EThe+Author%3C%2Fem%3E%2C+Vol.+14+Issue+06+%28March+1904%29"><em>The Author</em>, Vol. 14 Issue 06 (March 1904)</a><a href="/items/browse?advanced%5B0%5D%5Belement_id%5D=51&advanced%5B0%5D%5Btype%5D=is+exactly&advanced%5B0%5D%5Bterms%5D=Publication">Publication</a>1904-03-01-The-Author-14-6<a href="/items/browse?advanced%5B0%5D%5Belement_id%5D=76&advanced%5B0%5D%5Btype%5D=is+exactly&advanced%5B0%5D%5Bterms%5D=1904-03-01">1904-03-01</a><a href="/items/browse?advanced%5B0%5D%5Belement_id%5D=89&advanced%5B0%5D%5Btype%5D=is+exactly&advanced%5B0%5D%5Bterms%5D=14">14</a>6141–16819040301Che Hutbor.<br /> <br /> (The Organ of the Incorporated Society of Authors.<br /> <br /> FOUNDED BY SIR<br /> <br /> Monthly.)<br /> <br /> WALTER BESANT.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Vou. XIV.—No. 6.<br /> <br /> TELEPHONE NUMBER :<br /> 374 VICTORIA.<br /> <br /> TELEGRAPHIC ADDRESS :<br /> AUTORIDAD, LONDON.<br /> <br /> ———_—____¢—~&lt;&gt;_-4-<br /> <br /> NOTICES.<br /> <br /> —_1——+—_-<br /> <br /> OR the opinions expressed in papers that are<br /> signed or initialled the authors alone are<br /> responsible. None of the papers or para-<br /> <br /> graphs must be taken as expressing the opinion<br /> of the Committee unless such is especially stated<br /> to be the case.<br /> <br /> Tue Editor begs to inform members of the<br /> Authors’ Society and other readers of The Author<br /> that the cases which are from time to time quoted<br /> in The Author are cases that have come before the<br /> notice or to the knowledge of the Secretary of the<br /> Society, and that those members of the Society<br /> who desire to have the names of the publishers<br /> concerned can obtain them on application.<br /> <br /> — 9<br /> <br /> List of Members.<br /> <br /> Tue List of Members of the Society of Authors<br /> published October, 1902, at the price of 6d., and<br /> the elections from October, 1902, to July, 1903, as<br /> a supplemental list, at the price of 2d., can now be<br /> obtained at the offices of the Society.<br /> <br /> They will be sold to members or associates of<br /> the Society only.<br /> <br /> 4 —_——+——<br /> <br /> The Pension Fund of the Society.<br /> <br /> THE investments of the Pension Fund at<br /> present standing in the names of the Trustees are<br /> as follows.<br /> <br /> Vou. XIV.<br /> <br /> Marcu ist, 1904.<br /> <br /> [PRICE SIXPENCE.<br /> <br /> This is a statement of the actual stock; the<br /> money value can be easily worked out at the current<br /> price of the market :—<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> COMBOS OR 8 ieee £1000 0 0<br /> Wbocal Loans: 30.0... 500 0 0<br /> Victorian Government 8 % Consoli-<br /> dated Inscribed Stock ............... 291 19 11<br /> War log... ck. 201 9 8<br /> Mota a. £1,995. 9° 2<br /> Subscriptions from October, 1903.<br /> &amp; s. d.<br /> Nov. 13, Longe, Miss Julia . : : 0 5 0<br /> Dec. 16, Trevor, Capt. Philip 5 0<br /> 1904.<br /> Jan. 6, Hills, Mrs. C. H. . : ~ 0-50<br /> Jan. 6, Crommelin, Miss . : . 010 0<br /> Jan. 8, Stevenson, Mrs. M. E. . 2600 50<br /> Jan. 16, Kilmarnock, The Lord . - 0 10 0<br /> Feb. 5, Portman, Lionel . : ~ 120 0<br /> Feb. 11, Shipley, Miss Mary : 7005 0<br /> Donations from October, 1903.<br /> Oct. 27, Sturgis, Julian 4 : . 50 0.0<br /> Nov. 2, Stanton, V.H. . ; — 5°08 0<br /> Novy. 18, Benecke, Miss Ida. 1 0 0<br /> Noy. 23, Harraden, Miss Beatrice ~ 5 0.0<br /> Dec. Miniken, Miss Bertha M. M.. 0 5 0<br /> 1904.<br /> Jan. 4, Moncrieff, A. R. Hope . = 5 0 0<br /> Jan, 4, Middlemas, Miss Jean . . 010 0<br /> Jan. 4, Witherby, The Rev. C. . &lt;0) D0<br /> Jan. 6, Key, The Rev. S. Whittell . 0 5 0O<br /> Jan. 14, Bennett, Rev. W. K.,D.D. . 015 0<br /> Jan. 2, Roe, Mrs. Harcourt : . 010 0<br /> Feb. 11, Delaire, Miss Jeanne . « 010 0<br /> <br /> There are in addition other subscribers who do<br /> not desire that either their names or the amount<br /> they are subscribing should be printed.<br /> <br /> <br /> FROM THE COMMITTEE.<br /> <br /> oo<br /> <br /> HE second meeting of the Committee in 1904<br /> was held on Monday, February Ist, at the<br /> offices of the Society, 39, Old Queen Street,<br /> <br /> Storey’s Gate.<br /> <br /> Mr. Douglas Freshfield was re-elected Chairman<br /> of the Managing Committee, and Mr. A. W. a<br /> Beckett was re-elected Vice-chairman.<br /> <br /> The next business was the election of members<br /> of the Society, and, as in January, the number of<br /> applications was well . maintained—twenty-two<br /> members and associates being elected. The list, as<br /> usual, is printed below.<br /> <br /> It was decided to offer the London County<br /> Council a replica of the Besant Memorial, as the<br /> subscriptions received justified the Committee in<br /> taking this step. The funds in hand do not, how-<br /> ever, cover the whole expense, and the Committee<br /> would be glad to receive further contributions.<br /> <br /> The date of the General Meeting of the Council<br /> (the shareholders of the Society) and of the<br /> members, has been fixed for Wednesday, March<br /> 16th. Notice of the meeting, together with the<br /> report and balance-sheet, will be sent to all<br /> inembers in due course. The place of the meeting<br /> will be the large rooms of the Royal Medical and<br /> Chirurgical Society, 20, Hanover Square, W., and<br /> the time 4 p.m., precisely.<br /> <br /> Mr. Percy White and Mr. E. W. Hornung were<br /> elected members of the Council of the Society of<br /> Authors, and subsequently members of the Com-<br /> mittee, to fill the places left vacant by the resigna-<br /> tion of Sir Gilbert Parker and Sir Arthur Conan<br /> Doyle.<br /> <br /> ‘There is no need to set forth the literary claims<br /> of the two new members of the Council. Both<br /> have, for many years, taken great interest in the<br /> Society’s work, and the fact that they live in<br /> London will enable them to attend the meetings of<br /> the Committee. This is a qualification which<br /> limits the Committee’s choice. Many writers, well<br /> known in the literary world, and most eligible<br /> otherwise as members of the Committee, are pre-<br /> vented from serving owing to the fact that, living<br /> in the country, they would be unable to attend its<br /> frequent meetings.<br /> <br /> V&#039;he date of the Annual Dinner of the Society<br /> has also been settled. It will take place on<br /> Wednesday, April 20th, at the Hotel Cecil. Ac-<br /> <br /> cording to the rule in force, the Chairman of the<br /> Committee, Mr. Douglas Freshfield, will again take<br /> the chair on that occasion.<br /> <br /> The question of the sale by street hawkers of Mr.<br /> Rudyard Kipling’s “ Barrack Room Ballads” at<br /> 1d. and 2d. a copy, was brought before the Com-<br /> mittee, and they decided to take such steps as they<br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> might be advised were possible and expedient, in<br /> order to stop piracy of this kind.<br /> <br /> A case against an American publisher was con-<br /> sidered. The Secretary, on the Committee’s in-<br /> structions, has written to the Society’s agents in<br /> the United States to obtain a legal opinion on the<br /> exact position.<br /> <br /> The Committee desire to record the fact that<br /> one of the plaintiffs in the action that was taken<br /> to the House of Lords, has contributed a sub-<br /> stantial sum towards the costs incurred by the<br /> Society.<br /> <br /> a<br /> <br /> Cases.<br /> <br /> During the past month thirteen cases have been<br /> taken in hand by the Secretary.<br /> <br /> Of these seven have been settled satisfactorily,<br /> the remainder are still incomplete.<br /> <br /> The nature of the cases was as follows :—<br /> <br /> One, infringement of copyright ; one, infringe-<br /> ment of title ; three, lost MSS. ; three, accounts ;<br /> three, money and accounts; two, money.<br /> <br /> Of the cases left open from last month there is<br /> only one still unsettled. This will be completed<br /> in the course of a few days.<br /> <br /> +<br /> <br /> February Elections,<br /> <br /> The Hon. 9, Little College Street,<br /> S.W.<br /> <br /> 49, Ashworth Mansions,<br /> Elgin Avenue, W.<br /> Trusley Manor, Trusley,<br /> <br /> Derby.<br /> <br /> Kingsley Hotel, Hart<br /> Street, Bloomsbury,<br /> W.C.<br /> <br /> Putford Rectory, North<br /> Devon.<br /> <br /> Rosenhein, Guernsey.<br /> <br /> Moor Garth, Lkley.<br /> <br /> 79, Truro Road, Wood<br /> <br /> Anstruther,<br /> Mrs.<br /> <br /> Burroughes, Miss R.<br /> <br /> Coke, Desmond F. T.<br /> <br /> Geil, W. E.<br /> <br /> Gratrex, J. J.<br /> <br /> Henderson, Miss M.<br /> Hering, Henry A. .<br /> Hinson, Mrs. Mary<br /> <br /> Green.<br /> <br /> Hodgson, W. Hope Park Mount, Revidge,<br /> Blackburn.<br /> <br /> Jones, Miss E. H. . Hotel D’Itali, Mont<br /> <br /> Estoril, Portugal.<br /> <br /> Lacey, The Rev. T. A. 8, Park House Road,<br /> <br /> Highgate.<br /> Malcolm, Ian, M.P. Kentford lodge,<br /> Wadham Gardens,<br /> S. Hampstead.<br /> Malcolm, Mrs. Ian, Kentford Lodge,<br /> <br /> “ Jeanne Malcolm.” S. Hampstead, N.W.<br /> <br /> Power, A. D.. ‘ ‘<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> THE AUTHOR.<br /> <br /> 6, Onslow Studios, 183,<br /> King’s Road, Chelsea.<br /> <br /> Avon Cottage, Dews-<br /> bury, Yorks.<br /> <br /> Shiel, M. P. . 2 . 7, Medina Mansions,<br /> Gt. Titchfield Street,<br /> Wo<br /> <br /> South Wold, Suffolk.<br /> <br /> Kenilworth House, St.<br /> <br /> &quot; Andrews, N.B.<br /> <br /> 47, St. Leonards Road,<br /> Hove, Sussex.<br /> <br /> Langdale House, Park<br /> Town, Oxford.<br /> <br /> Reynolds, Frank<br /> Saintsbury, H. A. .<br /> <br /> Shipley, Miss Mary E.<br /> Watson, Gilbert<br /> <br /> Wooton, BE. L.<br /> Wright, Joseph, Ph.D.<br /> <br /> —_____+—» + —___<br /> <br /> OUR BOOK AND PLAY TALK.<br /> ——+<br /> <br /> R. J. Beattie Crozier is at present engaged<br /> on Vol. IV. of his “ History of Intellectual<br /> Development.” He hopes to have it ready<br /> <br /> for publication some time this year. Mr. Crozier<br /> has in hand an article for the Fortnightly Review<br /> entitled “Some Unused Political Assets.”<br /> <br /> Mr. Sidney Lee’s “Life of Queen Victoria” is<br /> now issued by Messrs. Smith, Elder &amp; Co. in a<br /> cheap edition. Its price is 6s.<br /> <br /> Madame Sarah Grand is at work upon a short<br /> novel, a play, and a new lecture.<br /> <br /> His Majesty the King has graciously accepted<br /> a copy of Mr. F. Stroud’s book for the royal<br /> library at Windsor Castle. The title of the book<br /> is “The Judicial Dictionary or Interpreter of<br /> Words and Phrases by the British Judges and<br /> Parliament.”<br /> <br /> Messrs. F. V. White will shortly publish a new<br /> novel by Miss Gertrude Warden. It isa study of<br /> the temperaments of two cousins. The opening<br /> scenes are laid in Venice.<br /> <br /> We understand that Dr. H. Bellsyse Baildon,<br /> of University College, Dundee (author of “ Robert<br /> Louis Stevenson: a Life-Study in Criticism,”<br /> and other works), has been working during last<br /> summer on an edition of “ Titus Andronicus”<br /> for the “ Arden Shakespeare ” of Messrs. Methuen<br /> &amp; Co. In his introduction Dr. Baildon goes<br /> thoroughly into the much-disputed question of<br /> authorship of this tragedy, and comes to the<br /> conclusion that the play is, to all intents and<br /> purposes, Shakespeare’s. This conclusion, if correct,<br /> has an important bearing, not only on the author-<br /> ship of the earlier plays attributed to Shakespeare,<br /> but on the Baconian and other anti-Shakesperian<br /> theories in general.<br /> <br /> Miss A. Maynard Butler’s book “The First Year<br /> of Responsibility,” which was published last<br /> <br /> 143<br /> <br /> September, to which the Master of Trinity College,<br /> Cambridge, contributed an introduction, is now<br /> going into a third edition.<br /> <br /> “he Cardinal’s Pawn,” K. L. Montgomery’s<br /> novel, was issued the other day by Messrs. F,<br /> Fisher Unwin-in their First Novel Series. The<br /> action of the story moves principally in Venice,<br /> and centres round Capelli and Medici intrigues<br /> concerning Bianca Capelli and her struggle for the<br /> crown of a Grand-Duchess of Florence.<br /> <br /> “Rita’s” articles on the “Sin and Sunday of<br /> the Smart Set”? have now been published in book-<br /> form. A special copy has been accepted by H. M.<br /> the Queen.<br /> <br /> “The Trackless Way,” just published by Mr.<br /> Brimley Johnson, is the third of the four books<br /> in which Mrs. Rentoul Esler continues to treat of<br /> the pivot on which individual history turns.<br /> “The Way of Transgressors” dealt with love of<br /> the lover, “The Wardlaws” with love of the<br /> family, ‘The Trackless Way ” deals with love of<br /> the race. When the fourth volume is ready for<br /> publication the set will be issued in uniform<br /> binding. The sub-title of “The Trackless Way”<br /> is “The Story of a Man’s Quest of God.”<br /> <br /> Mr. John Long will publish shortly Mrs. Aylmer<br /> Gowing’s new novel, “A King’s Desire,” which<br /> describes how Prince Conrad, born and bred an<br /> Englishman, owing to a separation between his<br /> parents, succeeds to a throne in Germany. ‘The<br /> young King has left behind him Elfrida Fountaine,<br /> a county heiress, whom he is bent on marrying.<br /> Etiquette and precedent, as represented by an all-<br /> powerful Minister, combine to cross “A King’s<br /> Desire,” together with a revengeful woman, an<br /> accomplice of the Anarchists, by whose aid her<br /> designs are all but carried through.<br /> <br /> The S.P.C.K. is bringing out a book for children<br /> called “ Peterkin and His Brother.” It is written<br /> by Miss E. M. Green, authoress of “ The Child of<br /> the Caravan,” “The Cape Cousins,” etc., etc.<br /> <br /> In his book, “ Omnibuses and Cabs: Their<br /> Origin and History,” Mr. Henry Charles Moore<br /> urged the local authorities to remove the name<br /> “ Regent Circus” from Oxford Circus—the circus<br /> at the intersection of Oxford Street and Regent<br /> Strect. He gave strong reasons for its removal,<br /> and the London County Council has now called&l